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7- Many Peoples: Adena Mound Builders

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From the Paradigm Project hosted by AAPS (Ancient Artifact Preservation Society) at their conferences, is this cutting edge educational material...free for the taking and sharing! This is part SEVENof …

From the Paradigm Project hosted by AAPS (Ancient Artifact Preservation Society) at their conferences, is this cutting edge educational material...free for the taking and sharing! This is part SEVENof a series of educational presentations on ancient travels of people, of cultures, of adventurers, traders, businessmen and fortune hunters. People traversed the globe in ancient days..this is the beginning of some of the evidence, featuring the reaearch of author Ida Jane Gallagher.

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  • AMERICA’S ADENA MOUNDBUILDERS And Their Burial Tablets By Ida Jane Gallagher. Author, Contact with Ancient America Epigrapher since 1982 and colleague of many advocates of ancient America for over a quarter century.
  • Imagine the amazement of early Colonial explorers when they crossed the Appalachian Mountains and discovered hundreds of conical mounds and geometric earthworks in the upper Ohio River and Kanawha River valleys. Who built these mounds? Why?
  • The Grave Creek Mound is on a plateau above the Ohio River. Early explorers said that earthen circles, squares, octagons, and walls accompanied the mounds. Mounds and earthworks extended 10-12 miles along the Ohio River in the Grave Creek Mound vicinity. Their construction was an enormous project, and workers carried dirt one bucket at a time to build them. What motivated them to do this? This so called “Mammoth Mound” was located on the Tomlinson farm. In 1838 owner Jesse Tomlinson permitted the mound excavation. His nephew, Abelard Tomlinson, assisted by Abelard’s brother-in-law, Thomas Biggs, was in charge of the excavation. Local residents helped.
  • The men abandoned digging down from the top of the mound fearful that the shaft would collapse. They probed upward from the lower tomb until they struck stone and guessed it was an upper tomb. This proved to be true when they dug a second tunnel 34 feet above ground level and struck an 18 x 8 foot log tomb filled with rotten wood, stones, earth, one large and badly decayed skeleton, and many artifacts.
  • The Grave Creek Tablet is a 1 ½ x 2 inch grayish sandstone tablet. (Plaster replica.) It was the source of a great debate due to the alphabetic characters. A hieroglyphic sign beneath the letters resembles a cross with elongated arms and the profile of a bird’s head on the end of the right arm and a dot under the left arm. The Grave Creek Tablet was considered to be an authentic artifact by the men participating in the mound excavation. The mysterious letters were puzzling, so the Smithsonian Institution made copies of the tablet and sent them abroad to foreign translators. Some of the characters were not copied accurately, so decipherments and translations varied. Distinguished ethnologist, Henry R. Schoolcraft personally examined the tablet, which he believed was authentic. He found that characters on the tablet resembled similar characters in numerous foreign writing systems. The disparity of early decipherments and translations in different foreign languages caused some people to question the tablet’s authenticity. It was translated satisfactorily in 1972.
  • The Grave Creek Tablet was excavated from an Adena mound in Moundsville, WV. The 1 ½ by 2 ¼ inch grayish sandstone tablet (plaster replica shown) was the source of much controversy because of the inscription's attempted decipherment and whether the tablet was “planted.” The script on the tablet (100 B.C.) is more than 2,100 years old. The hieroglyphic sign beneath the letters resembles a cross with elongated arms and the profile of a bird’s head on the end of the right arm and a dot under the left arm.
  • The Grave Creek Tablet was considered to be an authentic artifact by the men participating in the mound excavation. The mysterious letters were puzzling, so the Smithsonian Institution made copies of the tablet and sent them abroad to foreign translators. Some of the characters were not copied accurately, so decipherments and translations varied. Distinguished ethnologist, Henry R. Schoolcraft personally examined the tablet, which he believed was authentic. He found that characters on the tablet resembled similar characters in numerous foreign writing systems. The disparity of early decipherments and translations in different foreign languages caused some people to question the tablet’s authenticity. It was translated satisfactorily in 1972. Eyewitness Accounts of the Grave Creek Tablet Excavation Dr. James W. Clemens, a respected physician, wrote the earliest known account of the discovery of the Grave Creek Tablet. He was present at the excavation as he had agreed to write a report on skulls found in the mound for Dr. S. G. Morton, who was compiling a book about ancient skulls. Clemens reported, “In this vault a large skeleton was found, with a necklace of perforated shells, two copper bracelets, and a curiously inscribed or hieroglyphic stone, the characters of which are distinctly traced in parallel lines…The stone is now in my possession and I have had an exact facsimile of it taken.” Morton’s book made no reference to the inscribed tablet as his work was devoted to skulls, and this omission bred serious controversy. (See Ephriam Squier controversy on following page.) Abelard Tomlinson, who was in charge of the excavation, was accused of fraudulently producing the Grave Creek Tablet. This was impossible due to the sequence of events leading to its correct decipherment. Tomlinson recalled, “I was carefully removing the dirt, which was mostly of decayed timber, when I uncovered the inscribed stone. The inscription being up, it took my attention. I examined it; found it to be the work of the ancients; I then placed it with the other relics. Peter B. Catlett helped with the excavation. He said, “I am the one that found it first. It was not in its original bed when first found, it was taken out of the stone arch in a wheelbarrow and emptied outside…As for anyone placing the inscribed stone there, (planting it) it could not have been done.” Catlett must have seen the Grave Creek Tablet in the wheelbarrow after Tomlinson removed it from the debris in the upper vault. James E. Wharton, Wheeling newspaper editor, stated, “In the forenoon they struck the center of the vault…Among the dirt was brought out the inscribed stone and picked up by one of us from the loose dirt. (Catlett?) A fraud was impossible.”
  • The text of the Blaine Wilson Tablet parallels and shares some of the vocabulary of the Grave Creek Tablet. Its characters are cursive. Dr. Barry Fell translated the Southwest Iberic funerary inscription to read: “ The memorial of Teth. This tile (His) brother caused to be made.” Consider what these inscriptions imply. Did Iberian scribes reach West Virginia by 100 B.C.? Did they inscribe the tablets or teach Adena scribes their alphabet and language? School children Blaine Wilson and his sister found the Blaine Wilson Tablet beside the stump of a tree near Triplett Creek in Braxton County, West Virginia, in 1931. They took the inscribed tablet to their school teacher, who brought it to the attention of Mrs. Innis C. Davis, director of the West Virginia Department of Archives where it was stored. The 4 1/ 8 x 3 3/16 inch tablet is micaceous sandstone. Its three rows of Southwest Iberic script are curvilinear rather than rectilinear like the Grave Creek Tablet. A similar elongated arm cross is beneath the inscription.
  • The text of the Blaine Wilson Tablet parallels and shares some of the vocabulary of the Grave Creek Tablet. Dr. Barry Fell translated the Southwest Iberic funerary inscription to read: “ The memorial of Teth. This tile (His) brother caused to be made.” Consider what these inscriptions imply. Did Iberian scribes reach West Virginia by 100 B.C.? Did they inscribe the tablets or teach Adena scribes their alphabet and language? School children Blaine Wilson and his sister found the Blaine Wilson Tablet beside the stump of a tree near Triplett Creek in Braxton County, West Virginia, in 1931. They took the inscribed tablet to their school teacher, who brought it to the attention of Mrs. Innis C. Davis, director of the West Virginia Department of Archives where it was stored. The 4 1/ 8 x 3 3/16 inch tablet is micaceous sandstone. Its three rows of Southwest Iberic script are curvilinear rather than rectilinear like the Grave Creek Tablet. A similar elongated arm cross is beneath the inscription.
  • Donal Buchanan, a noted decipherer of Southwest Iberic, translated the funerary message on the Ohio County tablet. “ This was set up for Lydia, wife, Jacob engraved it.” An elongated cross with a head on the end of the right arm and a dot beneath the left arm is below the last line of the 16 character inscription. The tablet measures I ¾ by 1 ½ inches. Robert C. Dunnell found the Ohio County Tablet in 1956 when he was a teenager. It was in a small archaeological site that became a rock quarry. D€unnell took the tablet to archaeologist Delf Norona who worked for the Grave Creek Mound Museum. Norona said the tablet was planted to legitimize other finds. His original opinion that the Grave Creek Tablet was authentic changed because other archaeologists were calling it a fake. Fortunately, Sam Shaw, editor of the Moundsville Daily Echo newspaper ,photographed the tablet and interviewed Dunnell and Norona. The tablet is lost.
  • Donal Buchanan, a noted decipherer of Southwest Iberic, translated the funerary message on the Ohio County tablet. “ This was set up for Lydia, wife, Jacob engraved it.” An elongated cross with a head on the end of the right arm and a dot beneath the left arm is below the last line of the 16 character inscription. The tablet measures I ¾ by 1 ½ inches. Robert C. Dunnell found the Ohio County Tablet in 1956 when he was a teenager. It was in a small archaeological site that became a rock quarry. Dunnell took the tablet to archaeologist Delf Norona who worked for the Grave Creek Mound Museum. Norona said the tablet was planted to legitimize other finds. His original opinion that the Grave Creek Tablet was authentic changed because other archaeologists were calling it a fake. Fortunately, Sam Shaw, editor of the Moundsville Daily Echo newspaper, photographed the tablet and interviewed Dunnell and Norona. The tablet is lost.
  • Donal Buchanan, a noted decipherer of Southwest Iberic, translated the funerary message on the Ohio County tablet. “ This was set up for Lydia, wife, Jacob engraved it.” An elongated cross with a head on the end of the right arm and a dot beneath the left arm is below the last line of the 16 character inscription. The tablet measures I ¾ by 1 ½ inches. Robert C. Dunnell found the Ohio County Tablet in 1956 when he was a teenager. It was in a small archaeological site that became a rock quarry. D€unnell took the tablet to archaeologist Delf Norona who worked for the Grave Creek Mound Museum. Norona said the tablet was planted to legitimize other finds. His original opinion that the Grave Creek Tablet was authentic changed because other archaeologists were calling it a fake. Fortunately, Sam Shaw, editor of the Moundsville Daily Echo newspaper ,photographed the tablet and interviewed Dunnell and Norona. The tablet is lost.
  • Donal Buchanan, a noted decipherer of Southwest Iberic, translated the funerary message on the Ohio County tablet. “ This was set up for Lydia, wife, Jacob engraved it.” An elongated cross with a head on the end of the right arm and a dot beneath the left arm is below the last line of the 16 character inscription. The tablet measures I ¾ by 1 ½ inches. Robert C. Dunnell found the Ohio County Tablet in 1956 when he was a teenager. It was in a small archaeological site that became a rock quarry. D€unnell took the tablet to archaeologist Delf Norona who worked for the Grave Creek Mound Museum. Norona said the tablet was planted to legitimize other finds. His original opinion that the Grave Creek Tablet was authentic changed because other archaeologists were calling it a fake. Fortunately, Sam Shaw, editor of the Moundsville Daily Echo newspaper ,photographed the tablet and interviewed Dunnell and Norona. The tablet is lost.
  • The Morristown Tablet was found near Morristown, Tennessee. Dr. Paul Cheesman brought it to the attention of epigraphic scholars in 1981. It’s inscription is comparable to the message on the Grave Creek Tablet. Donal Buchanan found that all of the symbols on the Morristown Tablet could be equated with those on the Grave Creek Tablet, which led to his conclusion that the funerary inscription must be a funerary formula. He suggested that the name “Tadach” either is not a personal name or there were two people named Tadach who were buried in different areas. Did someone made a copy of the Grave Creek Tablet? What do you think? An elongated arm cross with a bird’s head on the right end and a dot beneath the left arm is beneath the inscription.
  • The Morristown Tablet was found near Morristown, Tennessee. Dr. Paul Cheesman brought it to the attention of epigraphic scholars in 1981. It’s inscription is comparable to the message on the Grave Creek Tablet. Donal Buchanan found that all of the symbols on the Morristown Tablet could be equated with those on the Grave Creek Tablet, which led to his conclusion that the funerary inscription must be a funerary formula. He suggested that the name “Tadach” either is not a personal name or there were two people named Tadach who were buried in different areas. Did someone made a copy of the Grave Creek Tablet? What do you think? An elongated arm cross with a bird’s head on the right end and a dot beneath the left arm is beneath the inscription.
  • The Morristown Tablet was found near Morristown, Tennessee. Dr. Paul Cheesman brought it to the attention of epigraphic scholars in 1981. It’s inscription is comparable to the message on the Grave Creek Tablet. Donal Buchanan found that all of the symbols on the Morristown Tablet could be equated with those on the Grave Creek Tablet, which led to his conclusion that the funerary inscription must be a funerary formula. He suggested that the name “Tadach” either is not a personal name or there were two people named Tadach who were buried in different areas. Did someone made a copy of the Grave Creek Tablet? What do you think? An elongated arm cross with a bird’s head on the right end and a dot beneath the left arm is beneath the inscription.
  • The Morristown Tablet was found near Morristown, Tennessee. Dr. Paul Cheesman brought it to the attention of epigraphic scholars in 1981. It’s inscription is comparable to the message on the Grave Creek Tablet. Donal Buchanan found that all of the symbols on the Morristown Tablet could be equated with those on the Grave Creek Tablet, which led to his conclusion that the funerary inscription must be a funerary formula. He suggested that the name “Tadach” either is not a personal name or there were two people named Tadach who were buried in different areas. Did someone made a copy of the Grave Creek Tablet? What do you think? An elongated arm cross with a bird’s head on the right end and a dot beneath the left arm is beneath the inscription.
  • William Johnson found the Genesee Tablet in the Genesee River bed near Belfast, New York in 1975. High water and erosion often change the river’s course. Epigrapher Donald Eckler spotted the tablet in Dana Klein’s collection and forwarded a photograph of it to Dr. Barry Fell. The Genesee Tablet is dense granular rock measuring 2 x 3 inches. Dr. Fell deciphered the two lines of Iberic script noting that the tablet is a trader’s token. He translated the tablet in Arabic-related Iberian to say: “ Confirmation. I have pledged to pay in full.” Was this an early IOU? The Genesee River was part of a water route used by Amerindian trading parties. The discovery of the Genesee Tablet on a known trading route suggests that native people led foreign traders to America’s interior by following the waterways and the Indian paths that connected them. The St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes provided access to America’s heartland from the Atlantic Ocean. The Susquehanna River empties into Chesapeake Bay, and the Ohio and other tributaries flow into the Mississippi River that terminates in the Gulf of Mexico. Would this explain how Iberians reached Adena territory? Did they have boats capable of crossing the Atlantic Ocean? What trade items would Iberian people want?
  • William Johnson found the Genesee Tablet in the Genesee River bed near Belfast, New York in 1975. High water and erosion often change the river’s course. Epigrapher Donald Eckler spotted the tablet in Dana Klein’s collection and forwarded a photograph of it to Dr. Barry Fell. The Genesee Tablet is dense granular rock measuring 2 x 3 inches. Dr. Fell deciphered the two lines of Iberic script noting that the tablet is a trader’s token. He translated the tablet in Arabic-related Iberian to say: “ Confirmation. I have pledged to pay in full.” Was this an early IOU? The Genesee River was part of a water route used by Amerindian trading parties. The discovery of the Genesee Tablet on a known trading route suggests that native people led foreign traders to America’s interior by following the waterways and the Indian paths that connected them. The St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes provided access to America’s heartland from the Atlantic Ocean. The Susquehanna River empties into Chesapeake Bay, and the Ohio and other tributaries flow into the Mississippi River that terminates in the Gulf of Mexico. Would this explain how Iberians reached Adena territory? Did they have boats capable of crossing the Atlantic Ocean? What trade items would Iberian people want?
  • William Johnson found the Genesee Tablet in the Genesee River bed near Belfast, New York in 1975. High water and erosion often change the river’s course. Epigrapher Donald Eckler spotted the tablet in Dana Klein’s collection and forwarded a photograph of it to Dr. Barry Fell. The Genesee Tablet is dense granular rock measuring 2 x 3 inches. Dr. Fell deciphered the two lines of Iberic script noting that the tablet is a trader’s token. He translated the tablet in Arabic-related Iberian to say: “ Confirmation. I have pledged to pay in full.” Was this an early IOU? The Genesee River was part of a water route used by Amerindian trading parties. The discovery of the Genesee Tablet on a known trading route suggests that native people led foreign traders to America’s interior by following the waterways and the Indian paths that connected them. The St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes provided access to America’s heartland from the Atlantic Ocean. The Susquehanna River empties into Chesapeake Bay, and the Ohio and other tributaries flow into the Mississippi River that terminates in the Gulf of Mexico. Would this explain how Iberians reached Adena territory? Did they have boats capable of crossing the Atlantic Ocean? What trade items would Iberian people want?
  • CONCLUSIONS THE ADENA TALBLE IS GENUINE THE SCRIPT IS FROM IBERIA SCRIPT IS OLDER THAN 2000 Y.A. MANY PEOPLE CA,ME FROM IBERIA
  • The Gaithskill Tablet is an example of a figural tablet. Hands, serpents, birds, and sun circles were some of the symbols carved on tablets. Dating of mound burials can be estimated by the sophistication of tablet designs. The turtle tablet (right) represents an Adena cultural symbol .
  • The upper tomb burial was dated at about 100 B. C. The grave goods consisted of 1,700 disk shell beads, 500 marginella shell beads strung in a necklace source: Florida or West Indes), a gorget, five copper bracelets (source: Lake Superior copper), mica, and a small inscribed sandstone tablet called the Grave Creek Tablet. This curious tablet became the source of great controversy. Excavator Peter B. Catlett reported that the skeleton measured 7’4” when the bones were wired together. He stated, “I took the lower jawbone and put it over my chin, and it did not touch my face, and I was at that time a man who weighed 1 8 1 .” Some Adena people were very large. They had round heads that were flattened in back. The Hopewell moundbuilders had long heads and slender bodies indicating that they were a different physical type.
  • Dr. Barry Fell made the first sensible decipherment of the Grave Creek Tablet in Southwest Iberic. David Diringer’s 1968 recovery of ancient Iberic vowel values enabled Fell to make his 1972 translation of the funerary inscription: “ Tumulus in honor of Tadach. His wife caused this engraved tile to be inscribed.” (Note: Southwest Iberic reads from right to left.)
  • Archaeologists became embroiled in the controversy and many rejected the Grave Creek Tablet as a fake. They did not accept the theory that early Iberians had been in Adena territory. Their argument that the tablet was one of a kind has been disproven.
  • Burial mounds have been constructed world-wide. One example is King Midas’ Tomb. It is similar in construction to Adena mounds. The Phrygian elite of Turkey were buried in log tombs that were hilled-over with clay, rocks, and dirt. The legendary King Midas – everything he touched supposedly turned to gold - died about 696 B. C. Many burial mounds are near his tomb at the confluence of the Porsuk and Sakarya Rivers. Why would burial mounds be similar in construction world-wide?

Transcript

  • 1. AMERICA’S ADENA MOUNDBUILERS CLASS ROOM AAPS OCTOBER 2008
  • 2.  
  • 3. And Their Burial Tablets By Ida Jane Gallagher. Author, Contact with Ancient America Epigrapher since 1982 and colleague of many advocates of ancient America for 30 years.
  • 4.
    • Colonial explorers crossed the Appalachian Mountains and discovered large earthen mounds and geometric earthworks !!
    Criel Mound, South Charleston, West Virginia Who built these mounds? Why?
  • 5. The Adena Moundbuilders Adena built mounds to bury dead. Adena occupied valleys along Ohio River and its tributaries from about 1000 B. C. to 400 A. D. Later, Hopewell and Mississippian people also built mounds.
  • 6. The Adena Moundbuilders Adena people named after estate of Ohio Governor Worthington. In 1901 mound on Adena estate was excavated. Adena mound contained distinctive artifacts that identify the Adena group.
  • 7. The Adena Moundbuilders <<< Adena pipe shows squat male, with goitered neck, and stylized hair. He wears ear spools and a loin cloth feathered in back.
  • 8. The Adena Moundbuilders Replica of Adena shaman with a wolf headdress >>>> holds the Adena pipe. Adena may have migrated from Mexico due to their physical type and similar decorative designs. Both groups erected mounds over burial tombs.
  • 9. The Adena Moundbuilders Others maintain Adena mounds evolved from burial practices of earlier native people living in the Midwest or Northeast.
  • 10. The Adena Moundbuilders Burials of Adena elite contained: decorative objects, copper bracelets, mica, pipes, seed pearls, tablets incised with symbols, and tablets with ancient writing .
  • 11. Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, WV
  • 12. Grave Creek Mound on Tomlinson farm excavated by local men. A tunnel started four feet above ground struck a lower tomb near the center. It contained two skeletons.
  • 13. Grave Creek Mound Excavation Shaft sunk from top A second tunnel 34 feet above ground reached upper tomb with one skeleton and grave goods including an inscribed tablet. Tunnel to lower tomb
  • 14. Replica of the Grave Creek Tablet
  • 15. Replica of the Grave Creek Tablet 1 ½ x 2 inch tablet Grayish sandstone Three lines of Southwest Iberic script on one side translate: “ The mound raised-on-high for Tasach. This tile his queen caused-to-be made.” Signs like cross and bird’s head
  • 16. Replica of the Grave Creek Tablet AUTHENTIC? EARLY COPIES NOT ACCURATE TRANSLATIONS VARIED DISPARITY RAISED QUESTIONS Accepted translation by Dr. Barry Fell IN 1972
  • 17.
    • School children Blaine Wilson and his sister found the tablet in 1931.
    Text parallels Grave Creek Tablet “ The memorial of Teth. This tile (His) brother caused –to- be made.” (Barry Fell) Additional Southwest Iberic Tablets
  • 18. Did Iberian scribes reach West Virginia by 100 B.C.? Additional Southwest Iberic Tablets Did Iberians inscribe the tablets or teach Adena scribes their alphabet?
  • 19.
    • The Ohio County Tablet, West Virginia
    An elongated cross with a head and a dot is below the last line of Southwest Iberic scipt. Teenager Robert C. Dunnell found the Ohio County Tablet in 1956 . I ¾ by 1 ½ inches
  • 20.
    • The Ohio County Tablet, West Virginia
    Dunnell took tablet to Delf Norona at the Grave Creek Mound Museum. Archaeologist Norona’s original opinion was that Grave Creek Tablet was authentic. He later changed his mind because others said “fake.”
  • 21.
    • The Ohio County Tablet, West Virginia
    Sam Shaw, editor, Moundsville Daily Echo newspaper, photographed tablet and interviewed Dunnell and Norona. Norona then said the Ohio County Tablet was “planted” to legitimize other finds. The tablet was lost!!
  • 22.
    • The Ohio County Tablet, West Virginia
    Donal Buchanan, noted decipherer of Southwest Iberic, translated the message. “ This was set up for Lydia, wife, Jacob engraved it.”
  • 23. The Morristown Tablet Morristown Tablet was found near Morristown, Tennessee. Dr. Paul Cheesman reported it to epigraphic scholars in 1981.
  • 24. The Morristown Tablet Inscription is comparable to Grave Creek Tablet. Donal Buchanan found all symbols could be equated.
  • 25. The Morristown Tablet Conclusion: the inscription is funerary formula. Either the name “Tadach” is not a personal name or there were two people named Tadach on tablets.
  • 26. The Morristown Tablet Did someone make a copy of the Grave Creek Tablet? Was the Morristown Tablet ancient or modern? What do you think?
  • 27. The Genesee Tablet William Johnson found Genesee Tablet in the Genesee River bed near Belfast, New York in 1975. Epigrapher Donald Eckler saw tablet in Dana Klein’s collection. Tablet measures 2” x 3”
  • 28. The Genesee Tablet Eckler forwarded a photo to Dr. Fell. Dr. Fell wrote that the two lines were Iberic script. He called it a trader’s token which says: “ Confirmation. I have pledged to pay in full.” Was this an early IOU?
  • 29. The Genesee Tablet Genesee River was route traveled by Amerindians. Genesee Tablet on known trading route suggests that natives led foreign traders to America’s interior by water. St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes provided access from the Atlantic Ocean. Susquehanna River empties into Chesapeake Bay. Ohio joins Mississippi River that terminates in Gulf of Mexico.
  • 30. Was it possible for Iberian people to cross the Atlantic Ocean by 100 B.C.? Why would Iberians come to America? Did an Iberian scribe introduce Iberic script to Adena moundbuilders? Why? If Adena tablet script was invented by native people, what was its source?
  • 31. THE GRAVE CREEK TABLET IS GENUINE THE SCRIPT IS FROM IBERIA SCRIPT IS OLDER THAN 2000 Y.A. MANY PEOPLE CAME FROM IBERIA
  • 32.  
  • 33. Sophistication helps to estimate dates. Turtle tablet =Adena cultural symbol. Gaithskill Tablet = figural tablet Hands, serpents, birds, and sun circles
  • 34. Artifacts Found in the Upper Tomb
  • 35. Fell’s Translation of the Grave Creek Tablet, reading right to left
  • 36. The C ontroversy over the Tablet’s Authenticity ?
  • 37. King Midas’ Tomb, Gordion, Turkey