Evidence for Asiatic Exploration of America 2,600 BC to 500 AD Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS) By  Karl Hoenk...
Overview <ul><li>Introduce legendary ancient Chinese explorations of Americas  </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss corroborative lin...
Two Resources Documenting Ancient Chinese Explorations in America PALE INK (1953) describes four journeys of exploration b...
The Legends <ul><li>Emperor Hwang-Ti (2,600 BC) sent astronomers Hsi & Ho to  Fu Sang  to “observe the rising sun” </li></...
What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records (documents, maps, stelae, etc) </li></u...
Brief Look at Records <ul><li>Shan Hai Jing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyages of Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2,...
Shan Hai Jing &quot;Classic of the Mountains and Seas&quot;   <ul><li>Astronomers Yu & Y documented 2,200 BC journey to  F...
Voyage of Hui Shan   <ul><li>Sent, with Four Priests, to  Fu Sang  (458-499 AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective was spread...
RETURN???? To FU SANG FU SANG Proposed Routes to & from  Fu Sang 2,500 BC to 900 AD  Pt Hueneme SE China
Maps <ul><li>30 extant ancient Chinese World maps </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest from Ming Dynasty  (ruled 1368-1644 AD) </li></...
Harris Map Dated to 1300s Based on much earlier  Shan Hai Jing  map
Land of Beginning = Alaska?   Measuring Skies Mt = Denali? Bright Chasm Mts = Grand Canyon ? Sweet Lake & Sweet Mts = Taho...
4 journeys of Astronomer Yu & Prince Y,  Shan Hai Jing  (~2,240 B.C.) Approximate Routes of Land Explorations Hui Shan  (4...
Washington Oregon California Nevada Interpretation of “ SIERRA EAST ” Route Landmarks From Shan Hai Jing Sea to North (Pug...
Haplotype B Frequencies lower higher B from Coastal China source region (Haplotype B is not present among Siberian peoples)
Polynesian-Hawaiian Linkage A C D B X B X B B B X X
Things Missing in Americas <ul><li>The Wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgy (bronze, iron) </li></ul><ul><li>Horses </li></u...
Hypotheses Proposed in  Pale Ink by Henriette Mertz (1953) <ul><li>Source of Zapotec, Maya, & Aztec calenders was Asian </...
DISCUSSION?
Haplotype Pathways A C D B X B X X B B X
Conclusions from Genetics <ul><li>Americas populated 18-30,000 BP </li></ul><ul><li>Many successive “waves” associated wit...
References & Suggested Reading <ul><li>Spread of Budhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented by Li Yen Shau (early 7 th  c)  ...
Supplemental Slides
China—”Center of the World” Korea Japan Perimeter of Surrounding Ocean Tree in interior Fu Sang = Corn? Fu Sang Mountains ...
What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records (documents, maps, stelae, etc) </li></u...
Tang Dynasty Jade (618-907 AD)  Or…... American  Bison? Water Buffalo?
Chinese Customs in Americas <ul><li>Practice of altering head shape of royalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese custom from ~...
Things in Wrong Places (Or, Evidence for Exchange) <ul><li>Corn, tobacco & cochineal (red, lice-based dye) in China before...
What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records (documents, maps, stelae, etc) </li></u...
Selected Linguistic Similarities <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Chih cha </li></ul><ul><li>Topu </li></ul><ul><li>Puren <...
Transportation & Boats <ul><li>Japan Current well-known pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Knew latitude & longitude system at leas...
Technologies  Appearing in Americas <ul><li>Trepanation (India    China    Peru ???)  when??? </li></ul><ul><li>Corbelle...
What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul><...
 
Conclusions <ul><li>Physical and genetic evidence for Chinese presence in North America is strong </li></ul><ul><li>Simila...
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5- Many Peoples: 3rd Century Traveler to America-Shan Hai Jing

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From the Paradigm Project hosted by AAPS (Ancient Artifact Preservation Society) at their conferences, is this cutting edge educational material...free for the taking and sharing! This is part Five of a series of educational presentations on ancient travels of people, of cultures, of adventurers, traders, businessmen and fortune hunters. People traversed the globe in ancient days..this is the beginning of some of the evidence.

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  • Pale Ink was written by Henrietta Mertz in 1938 The Asiatic Fathers of America was written by Hendon Harris in 1975 Note that the Emperor sent an expedition to Fu Sang (America) in 2,200 BC, which means he KNEW Fu Sang was there. That implies journeys to and from America had already been made 4,200 years ago! The Shan Hai Jing documented the four expeditions, in addition to other exploration, in a 39 volume “world encyclopedia” used in Chinese schools for 2,000 years. The world maps described by Harris are different from today’s maps in that they were records of landmarks, not detailed topographies. So, i.e., traveling from here to there, you expect to see a snow-covered mountain, a stream running north, red-veined trees, and an island in a lake. If you don’t see these things, you’re off track.
  • While no one of these elements is considered decisive, with the possible exception of DNA, a large accumulation of data across many elements creates a “weight of evidence” which can be difficult to deny.
  • Fu Sang is the “Land to the East” 1 st Emperor Hwang-Ti (2,600 BC) sent astronomers Hsi &amp; Ho to Fu Sang to “observe the rising sun” Reminder: When the Shan Hai Jing reports that the earlier Hsi and Ho and present Yu and Y were sent to Fu Sang , it means the Chinese knew Fu Sang was there. This implies successful back-and-forth communication. Astronomer Yu &amp; Prince Y were sent to Fu Sang 2,200 BC Yu &amp; Y compiled Shan Hai Jing to report their journey It describes 10 areas in Americas, in addition to 4 north-to-south surveys Fu Sang is 10,000 li (3,300 miles) wide, bounded on it’s eastern side by “endless blue water” Shan Hai Jing cited in Shang Dynasty (1831-1134 BC), 479 BC, Han Dynasty (202 BC-9 AD), 89 AD, 265 AD – etc. as standard textbook in schools That the Shan Hai Jing was used in teaching for nearly 3,000 years implies continued successful back-and-forth communication Gen. Hu Tsung Tan was sent to a tribe 10,000 sea miles away; 939 AD (may coincide w/taking of Tula  Chichen Itza?) The Shanhaijing has 18 chapters ( 巻 ). Chapter 4 has 12 subsections ( 次一 ), 2 and 4 have four, and chapters 1 and 3 have three. Chapter Chinese Pinyin Translation 1 南山經 Nanshan jing Classic of the Mountains: South 2 西山經 Xishan jing Classic of the Mountains: West 3 北山經 Beishan jing Classic of the Mountains: North 4 東山經 Dongshan jing Classic of the Mountains: East 5 中山經 Zhongshan jing Classic of the Mountains: Central 6 海外南經 Haiwainan jing Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas: South 7 海外西經 Haiwaixi jing Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas: West 8 海外北經 Haiwaibei jing Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas: North 9 海外東經 Haiwaidong jing Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas: East 10 海內南經 Haineinan jing Classic of Regions Within the Seas: South 11 海內西經 Haineixi jing Classic of Regions Within the Seas: West 12 海內北經 Haineibei jing Classic of Regions Within the Seas: North 13 海內東經 Haineidong jing Classic of Regions Within the Seas: East 14 大荒東經 Dahuangdong jing Classic of the Great Wilderness: East 15 大荒南經 Dahuangnan jing Classic of the Great Wilderness: South 16 大荒西經 Dahuangxi jing Classic of the Great Wilderness: West 17 大荒北經 Dahuangbei jing Classic of the Great Wilderness: North 18 海內經 Hainei jing Classic of Regions Within the Seas
  • Fu Sang is the “Land to the East” , approximately 20,000 li to the east (~6,430 miles vs actual 6,600 miles) The effort to proselytize Buddhism was documented by: Li Yen Shau (early 7 th c) Ma Twan Lin’s account ( Kuen 327 ) published in 1321 AD Hui Shan is believed to have spent much time with the Maya; some researchers believe he helped them develop their extraordinary calendar Hui Shan brought unique gifts to the Emperor: Concave obsidian mirror a foot in diameter 300 lb of Mayan cloth Unburnable cloth of “fire rats” (asbestos?) Hui Shan also updated the Shan Hai Jing, adding new information from his 25 year journey, and redrawing the maps
  • The Japan Current which runs just south of the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska, and then southward along the West Coast is a known pathway for disabled Asian fishing boats and for debris from ships that sink. Note that it would direct explorers to Point Hueneme on the California coast. The ancient records do not define the return route. The one suggested follows the North Equatorial Current from California to China. Note that it passes directly by Hawaii. Could this have been a means of populating Hawaii, instead of the generally accepted route from Tahiti? The Kuroshio ( Japanese for &amp;quot;Black Tide&amp;quot;) is a strong western boundary current in the western north Pacific Ocean . It begins off the east coast of Taiwan and flows northeastward past Japan , where it merges with the easterly drift of the North Pacific Current . It is analogous to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean , transporting warm, tropical water northward towards the polar region . It&apos;s also sometimes known as the Black Stream —the English translation of kuroshio , and an allusion to the deep blue of its water—and also as the Japan Current . Its counterparts are the North Pacific Current to the north, the California Current to the east, and the North Equatorial Current to the south.
  • Oldest from Ming Dynasty (ruled 1368-1644 AD) All presumed to be copies of much earlier Shan Hai Jing map(s) Several maps give planet circumferance of 84,000 li = ~27,000 miles (vs 24,901 miles accepted today) Used lat/long grids very early; can be seen overlain on 1137 AD series of stone maps Correctly place Korea, Japan, Gulf of Mexico, Land of Women (who married men of Snake Clan = They married “Snakes”), etc etc
  • The explorers reported the Bald Eagle and salmon and redwoods, all novel to them They left a cache of sandals They described geography which is readily matched to outstanding locations
  • No question Polynesians left from SE China coast ~6,000 years ago Key haplotype B markers do not appear in Micronesia and Melanesia, thus contradicting pathway shown to Hawaii. Genetics suggest Polynesians came from NW American coast. Key markers are found in Kwakiutl, Haida, and Tlinkit people along British Columbia coastal islands. Much better fit with timing, ocean currents, cultural similarities &amp; legends Consistent with Emperor Hwang-Ti knowing Fu Sang was there Chapter 6 of the Shan Hai Jing is 海外南經 (Haiwainan jing) or “Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas: South”
  • Clearly, many avenues are indicated for future research to prove or disprove these claims. A key contributing factor to these hypotheses is the coincidence of timing. So-and-so shows up, writes about it, and soon thereafter new cultural elements appear among the visited peoples. The “ Great Luminous Canyon ” is often cited in Chinese sources as the place where celestial observations are, or must be, made. Scholars have searched without success in China for appropriate sites. Grand Canyon in the American Southwest is unique, and fits the descriptions.
  • Haplotype A was from the first wave of peoples reaching Americas (18-30,000 years ago) Haplotypes C &amp; D came much more recently Haplotype B does not appear on either side of the Bering Strait, where one would expect to see markers from people migrating through. Haplotype B arrived during the glacial period, thus confirming maritime skills of ancient peoples. The proposed path for Haplotype X here is not consistent with other evidence linking European types with U.S. east coast.
  • While no one of these elements is considered decisive, with the possible exception of DNA, a large accumulation of data across many elements creates a “weight of evidence” which can be difficult to deny.
  • While no one of these elements is considered decisive, with the possible exception of DNA, a large accumulation of data across many elements creates a “weight of evidence” which can be difficult to deny.
  • Chinese had the compass by 2,600 BC Chinese skilled celestial observers, navigators
  • While no one of these elements is considered decisive, with the possible exception of DNA, a large accumulation of data across many elements creates a “weight of evidence” which can be difficult to deny.
  • 5- Many Peoples: 3rd Century Traveler to America-Shan Hai Jing

    1. 1. Evidence for Asiatic Exploration of America 2,600 BC to 500 AD Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS) By Karl Hoenke Holiday Inn, Marquette, MI 25 October 2008
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduce legendary ancient Chinese explorations of Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss corroborative lines of evidence supporting actuality of these explorations </li></ul><ul><li>Identify potential weaknesses in the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Note: The present discussion focuses on events & influences prior to the “Treasure Ship” Explorations documented by Gavin Menzies in 1421 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Two Resources Documenting Ancient Chinese Explorations in America PALE INK (1953) describes four journeys of exploration by Chinese sent to North America ASIATIC FATHERS (1973) introduces the maps those explorers made and the 39 volume Shan Hai Jing used in Chinese schools for over 2,000 years.
    4. 4. The Legends <ul><li>Emperor Hwang-Ti (2,600 BC) sent astronomers Hsi & Ho to Fu Sang to “observe the rising sun” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Fu Sang is “Land to the East”, understood to be North America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Astronomer Yu & Prince Y to Fu Sang 2,200 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Hui Shan was sent, with Four Priests, to Fu San (458-499 AD) to make celestial observations & proselytize Buddhism </li></ul>
    5. 5. What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records (documents, maps, stelae, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics/DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Customs/Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Imports/Exports – Things out of Place </li></ul><ul><li>Legends/Myths </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul>
    6. 6. Brief Look at Records <ul><li>Shan Hai Jing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyages of Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2,600 B.CC. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2,240 B.C. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Voyage of Hui Shan </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>458 -- 499 A.D. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul>
    7. 7. Shan Hai Jing &quot;Classic of the Mountains and Seas&quot; <ul><li>Astronomers Yu & Y documented 2,200 BC journey to Fu Sang in 39 vol. Shan Hai Jing </li></ul><ul><li>Shan Hai Jing cited in Shang Dynasty (1831-1134 BC), 479 BC, Han Dynasty (202 BC-9 AD), 89 AD, 265 AD – etc. as standard Chinese textbook </li></ul>
    8. 8. Voyage of Hui Shan <ul><li>Sent, with Four Priests, to Fu Sang (458-499 AD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective was spread of Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He calibrated Chinese calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made celestial observations in “Great Luminous Canyon” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Returned in 499 AD with remarkable gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Described Fu Sang in detail & made additions to Map(s) & Shan Hai Jing </li></ul>
    9. 9. RETURN???? To FU SANG FU SANG Proposed Routes to & from Fu Sang 2,500 BC to 900 AD Pt Hueneme SE China
    10. 10. Maps <ul><li>30 extant ancient Chinese World maps </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest from Ming Dynasty (ruled 1368-1644 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>All presumed to be copies of much earlier Shan Hai Jing map(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Several maps give planet circumferance of 84,000 li = ~27,000 miles (vs 24,901 miles accepted today) </li></ul><ul><li>Used lat/long grids very early; can be seen overlain on 1137 AD series of stone maps </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly place Korea, Japan, Gulf of Mexico, Land of Women (who married men of Snake Clan = They married “Snakes”), etc etc </li></ul>
    11. 11. Harris Map Dated to 1300s Based on much earlier Shan Hai Jing map
    12. 12. Land of Beginning = Alaska? Measuring Skies Mt = Denali? Bright Chasm Mts = Grand Canyon ? Sweet Lake & Sweet Mts = Tahoe? Land of Women = Matriarchal Hopi? Gulf of Mexico Interpretations of Fu Sang Map Place Names Entrance Country = SF Bay? China—”Center of the World” Korea Japan Perimeter of Surrounding Ocean Hairy People Country = Alaska (Eskimos in furs?)
    13. 13. 4 journeys of Astronomer Yu & Prince Y, Shan Hai Jing (~2,240 B.C.) Approximate Routes of Land Explorations Hui Shan (458-499 A.D.)
    14. 14. Washington Oregon California Nevada Interpretation of “ SIERRA EAST ” Route Landmarks From Shan Hai Jing Sea to North (Puget Sound) & White-Headed Bird (Bald Eagle) Big-Headed Carp (Salmon) Marsh Precious Stones (Opal) Trees with Red Veins (Manzanita)
    15. 15. Haplotype B Frequencies lower higher B from Coastal China source region (Haplotype B is not present among Siberian peoples)
    16. 16. Polynesian-Hawaiian Linkage A C D B X B X B B B X X
    17. 17. Things Missing in Americas <ul><li>The Wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgy (bronze, iron) </li></ul><ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Monumental architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Does DNA support Hap-B arrival ~4,500 BP? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Hypotheses Proposed in Pale Ink by Henriette Mertz (1953) <ul><li>Source of Zapotec, Maya, & Aztec calenders was Asian </li></ul><ul><li>Kwakiutl, Hopi, Navaho, Maya, Sioux, Pueblo, Shoshone, Mapuchis (& possibly Mogollon, Cochise, Zuni) are direct descendents of Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Early Mexican glyphic writing was oriental </li></ul><ul><li>Weaving, ceramics, metallurgy, astromomy & mathematics also show oriental influences </li></ul><ul><li>“ Great Luminous Canyon” (sought by scholars in China) is the Grand Canyon (found in America) </li></ul>
    19. 19. DISCUSSION?
    20. 20. Haplotype Pathways A C D B X B X X B B X
    21. 21. Conclusions from Genetics <ul><li>Americas populated 18-30,000 BP </li></ul><ul><li>Many successive “waves” associated with Asian gene pool(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Haplotype B is key “Chinese” characteristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haplotype B in North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haplotype B not observed across Bering land bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carriers of Haplotype B bypassed the Bering Straits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact with Asia 2-directional & ongoing </li></ul>
    22. 22. References & Suggested Reading <ul><li>Spread of Budhism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documented by Li Yen Shau (early 7 th c) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copied into Ma Twan Lin’s account ( Kuen 327 ) published in 1321 AD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pale Ink, Henrietta Mertz, 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>The Asiatic Fathers of America, Hendon M. Harris, Jr., 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics Rewrites Pacific Prehistory, Peter Marsh, Ancient American, No. 68, </li></ul><ul><li>1421, Gavin Menzies, 2005 </li></ul>
    23. 23. Supplemental Slides
    24. 24. China—”Center of the World” Korea Japan Perimeter of Surrounding Ocean Tree in interior Fu Sang = Corn? Fu Sang Mountains Endless Blue Water = Atlantic Ocean? Korea
    25. 25. What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records (documents, maps, stelae, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics/DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Customs/Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Imports/Exports – Things out of Place </li></ul><ul><li>Legends/Myths </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul>
    26. 26. Tang Dynasty Jade (618-907 AD) Or…... American Bison? Water Buffalo?
    27. 27. Chinese Customs in Americas <ul><li>Practice of altering head shape of royalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese custom from ~2,600 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hwang-ti’s forehead “sloped like dragon’s” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korean Ch’en Han flattened heads of babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mayan (& other) royalty head shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maya wore hair braided with bare spot burned on top, similar to Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Maya have “Mongolian blue spot” at base of spine </li></ul><ul><li>Successor to King waits 3 years to assume throne </li></ul><ul><li>Mushroom stone form of ancestor worship </li></ul>
    28. 28. Things in Wrong Places (Or, Evidence for Exchange) <ul><li>Corn, tobacco & cochineal (red, lice-based dye) in China before Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Bantam chickens in Americas (from India & Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>300 lb of Mayan cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Unburnable cloth of “fire rats” (asbestos?) </li></ul><ul><li>Foot diameter concave obsidian mirror </li></ul><ul><li>East/West hybridized cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese quipu (4,000 BC) found in Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Cache of c. 1,000 BC Chinese coins found near Victoria, B.C. </li></ul>
    29. 29. What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records (documents, maps, stelae, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics/DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Customs/Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Imports/Exports – Things out of Place </li></ul><ul><li>Legends/Myths </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul>
    30. 30. Selected Linguistic Similarities <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Chih cha </li></ul><ul><li>Topu </li></ul><ul><li>Puren </li></ul><ul><li>Lao ma </li></ul><ul><li>Wa Wa </li></ul><ul><li>Shi-fong </li></ul><ul><li>Jo shun dee you </li></ul><ul><li>Dah Hua = “Great Chinese” </li></ul><ul><li>Is “ Gautama ” Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Chicha </li></ul><ul><li>Tipi </li></ul><ul><li>Puri </li></ul><ul><li>Llama </li></ul><ul><li>Wa Wa </li></ul><ul><li>Chi-kan </li></ul><ul><li>Bolontiku </li></ul><ul><li>Nahhuatl invaded Yucatan </li></ul><ul><li>Place name “ Guatamala ”? </li></ul>Ancient drink Land given couple at marriage Servants/Lower classes Hui Shan reported a “horse” Babies The West Nine Gods of Hell
    31. 31. Transportation & Boats <ul><li>Japan Current well-known pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Knew latitude & longitude system at least by 1137 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese had the compass by 2,600 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese skilled celestial observers, navigators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archaeology shows 8,000 BP fishing villages in Aleutians </li></ul><ul><li>3,000 year-old Chinese anchors found off Oregon and Palos Verdes, CA </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese had ships for 400 people by 412 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese-style boats appear in Peru before 1,500s AD </li></ul>
    32. 32. Technologies Appearing in Americas <ul><li>Trepanation (India  China  Peru ???) when??? </li></ul><ul><li>Corbelled roof in Yucatan ~ 475 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Famous Mayan Calendar ~ 475 AD date? </li></ul><ul><li>Chichen Itza & Uxmal suddenly appear ~ 475 AD </li></ul><ul><li>Extraordinary pyramid construction skills </li></ul><ul><li>Owens Valley Indians (California) had unusually sophisticated irrigation system, unknown to neighbors </li></ul>
    33. 33. What Kinds of Evidence Would One Look for to Support these Claims? <ul><li>Records </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Customs/Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Legends/Myths </li></ul><ul><li>Imports/Exports out of Place </li></ul>
    34. 35. Conclusions <ul><li>Physical and genetic evidence for Chinese presence in North America is strong </li></ul><ul><li>Similar evidence in Asia to support exchange is relatively weaker </li></ul><ul><li>The pathway to Fu Sang is logical as described </li></ul><ul><li>The return path to China is not described </li></ul>
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