The ABS 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing which used internationally recognised diagnostic interview schedules to assess the prevalence of mental disorder through the measurement of symptoms. This survey found that about 700,000 Australian adults aged 18 years and over, 6% of the population, had experienced depression during the 12 months prior to the survey.
This is an overview of the first burden of disease and injury studies carried out in Australia. Methods developed for the World Bank and World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease Study were adapted and applied to Australian population health data. Depression was found to be the top-ranking cause of non-fatal disease burden in Australia, causing 8% of the total years lost due to disability in 1996. Mental disorders overall were responsible for nearly 30% of the non-fatal disease burden.
Although the confounding effects of NA are alluded to in the literature (Dollard & Winefield, 1998; Vermeulen & Mustard, 2000), a recent meta-analysis of the literature relating positive and negative affectivity to job-related attitudes found that both PA and NA are important predictors of job satisfaction, organisational commitment, dimensions of burnout, and turnover intentions (Thoresen, Kaplan, Barsky, de Chermont & Warren, 2003). The implication of this research is that PA and NA should be included in models that attempt to explain how job-related variables are related to employee well-being and mental health. This meta-analysis also found that the estimated mean population correlation between PA and NA was -.36 based on a k of 76 with N = 24,361 (95% CI = -.39 to -.32). The current study includes both NA and PA as predictors of depression as well as allowing them to mediate the effects of D-C-S variables on depression.
Predicting job satisfaction and depression at work: How important are work-related factors? M. Anthony Machin Associate Professor University of Southern Queensland Presented at the 2009 Australasian Society for Psychiatric Research (ASPR) Annual Conference, Canberra
Depression is only one of a number of mental health problems that present in the workplace. Others include anxiety disorders, substance abuse disorders, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia and organic states.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (1998) found that 6% of the population had experienced depression during the 12 months prior to the 1997 survey.
The first burden of disease and injury study carried out in Australia found that depression was found to be the top-ranking cause of non-fatal disease burden in Australia, causing 8% of the total years lost due to disability in 1996. Mental disorders overall were responsible for nearly 30% of the non-fatal disease burden (Mathers, Vos, Stevenson & Begg, 2000)
Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller (2008) proposed that a combination of situational and dispositional factors would explain employees’ affective states and (through these), employees’ satisfaction and performance
Figure 8.1 from Judge and Kammeyer-Mueller (2008) Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2008). Affect, satisfaction, and performance. In N. M. Ashkanasy & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Research companion to emotion in organizations (Ch. 8, pp. 136-151). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Press.
The Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) model provides a theoretical means of understanding the relationship between psychosocial work factors and subjective well-being, and has accordingly dominated research in this area ( Van der Doef & Maes, 1999; Van Veldhoven, Taris, Jonge, & Broersen, 2005)
This study examined the the unique contribution of various work characteristics to the prediction of job satisfaction and depression, after controlling for measures of personality and affectivity (both positive and negative)
Burns and Machin (2010) showed that, after controlling for personality, aspects of PWB were a significant predictor of SWB .
Fava and Tomba (2009) describe an approach called “Well-being therapy” which focuses on developing PWB and resilience.
Burns, R. A., & Machin, M. A. (2010). Identifying gender differences in the independent effects of personality and psychological well-being on two broad affect components of subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 48 , 22-27 . DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.08.007