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Mineral And Rocks
 

Mineral And Rocks

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    Mineral And Rocks Mineral And Rocks Presentation Transcript

    • Rocks & Minerals
    • Minerals
    • What is a Mineral?
      • Naturally Occurring
      • Inorganic
      • Solid
      • Definite Chemical Formula
      • Definite Crystal Structure
    • Naturally Occurring
      • Formed by natural processes not in the laboratory
      • - Is an Ice Cube a mineral?
      • - Is the ice on the windshield of a car a
      • mineral?
    • Inorganic
      • Formed by inorganic processes; not living
      • Does not contain chains of carbon atoms
    • Solid
      • Not gas or liquid
      • -H 2 O as ice in a glacier is a mineral, but
      • water is not
    • Definite Crystal Structure
      • Highly ordered atomic arrangement of atoms in regular geometric patterns
      8 Apatite Feldspar Diamond Quartz
    • Definite Chemical Formula
      • Minerals are expressed by a specific chemical formula
      • -Gold (Au)
      • -Calcite (CaCO 3 )
      • -Quartz (SiO 2 )
      • -Pyrite (FeS 2 )
    • Composition of the Earth’s Crust
        • Eight Elements that make up over 98% of Earth’s Crust
        • -Oxygen (O)
        • -Silicon (SI)
        • -Aluminum (Al)
        • -Iron (Fe)
        • -Calcium (Ca)
        • -Sodium (Na)
        • -Potassium (K)
        • -Magnesium (Mg)
    • Where Do Minerals Come From? Magma Evaporation
    • How Are Minerals Identified?
      • Color
      • Luster
      • Hardness
      • Streak
      • Density
      • Crystal Shape
      • Cleavage and Fracture
      • Special Properties
    • Color
      • Usually the first and most easily observed
      • -Some minerals are always the same color
      • -Some minerals can have many colors
      QUARTZ ROSE QUARTZ SMOKY QUARTZ
    • Luster
      • General appearance of a mineral surface in reflected light
      Glassy- Obsidian
    • Hardness
      • Resistance to scratching by different items; “scratchability”
      • Mohs Hardness Scale
        • >2 fingernail
        • 3 penny
        • ~5 Steel of a pocket knife
        • 5.5 Window Glass
        • 6.6 Steel of a file
        • 7 quartz crystal
    • Mohs Mineral Hardness Scale
      • 1) Talc
      • 2) Gypsum
      • 3) Calcite
      • 4) Flourite
      • 5) Apatite
      • 6) Feldspar
      • 7) Quartz
      • 8) Topaz
      • 9) Corundum
      • 10) Diamond
      Softest Hardest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
    • Streak
      • The color of a finely powdered mineral
      • Determined by rubbing the mineral on a piece of unglazed porcelain (streak plate)
    • Density
      • The amount of matter in a given space (Mass/Volume)
    • Crystal Shape
      • Minerals have a characteristic crystal shape resulting from the atomic packing of the atoms when the mineral is forming
    • Cleavage and Fracture
      • Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to split or crack along parallel or flat planes
      • Fracture occurs when a mineral breaks at random lines instead of at consistent cleavage planes.
      Obsidian No Cleavage 1 Direction of Cleavage Conchoidal Fracture BIOTITE QUARTZ
    • Special Properties
      • Magnetism (Magnetite)
      • Glowing under ultraviolet light (Fluorite)
      • Salty taste (Halite)
      • Smell (Sulfur)
      • Reaction to HCl (Calcite)
      Magnetite
    • Economic Importance of Minerals
      • Minerals are in many things we see and use everyday such as; bricks, glass, cement, plaster, iron, gold
    • Every American Requires 40,000 Pounds of New Minerals per Year
      • at this level of consumption the average newborn infant will need a lifetime supply of:
      • -795 lbs of lead (car batteries, electric components)
      • -757 lbs of zinc (to make brass, rubber, paints)
      • -1500lbs of copper (electrical motors, wirings
      • -3593 lbs aluminum (soda cans, aircraft)
      • -32,700 lbs of iron (kitchen utensils, automobiles, buildings)
      • -28,213 lbs of salt (cooking, detergents)
      • -1,238,101 lbs of stone, sand, gravel, cement (roads, homes, etc.)
    • Rocks
    • Rocks
        • Made of two or more different minerals that have been:
          • cemented together
          • squeezed and heated together
          • melted and cooled together.
    • Types of Rocks
      • Igneous
      • Sedimentary
      • Metamorphic
    • Igneous Rocks
      • Most igneous rocks are produced deep underground by the cooling and hardening of magma
    • Sedimentary Rocks
      • Formed from the breaking apart of other rocks (igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks) and the cementation, compaction and recrystallization of these broken pieces of rock
    • Fact about the Mississippi River
      • Did You Know?
      • The Mississippi River carries an average of 436,000 tons of sediment each day
      • It moves an average of 159,000,000 tons of sediment a year
    • Metamorphic Rocks
      • Formed from heat and pressure changing the original or parent rock into a completely new rock. The parent rock can be either sedimentary, igneous, or even another metamorphic rock.
    • The Rock Cycle
      • The diagram of the rock cycle shows how the earth's rocks are changed again and again
    • Classification of Igneous Rocks
      • Composition -refers to the minerals that make up the rock
      • Texture -shape, size, arrangement and distribution of minerals that make up the rock
    • Composition
      • Extrusive - Formed from lava; volcanic
      • Intrusive - Formed deep within the earth
      Obsidian Pumice Granite
    • Textures
      • Glassy
      • Fine-grained
      • Coarse-grained
      • Porphyritic
      Obsidian Granite Granite Basalt
    • Classification of Sedimentary Rocks
      • Clastic Rocks- Made of the fragments of previously existing rocks
      • Organic Rocks- Come from organisms
      • Chemical Rocks- Formed by inorganic processes such as evaporation
    • Clastics Rocks
      • Conglomerate
      • Sandstone
      • Mudstone
    • Organic Rocks
      • Limestone
      Coquina Fossiliferous Limestone
    • Chemical Rocks
      • Limestone
    • Metamorphic Rocks
      • Foliated- Parallel alignment of flattened mineral grains and pebbles
      • Unfoliated- Rocks that are not banded and do not break into layers
    • Foliated Gneisse
    • Unfoliated Marble
    • Distribution of Rocks in the U.S.