Okie Migration
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Okie Migration Okie Migration Presentation Transcript

  • THE OKIE MIGRATION Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] A WebQuest for 11th Grade (U.S. History) Designed by Kayce Dillman [email_address] Based on a template from The WebQuest Page Photo by: Dorothea Lange
  • INTRODUCTION Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] The prosperity that America experienced during the 1920s which was characterized by increased production of consumer goods would be short lived. On “Black Tuesday”, in October 1929, the house of cards that was the United States economy came crashing down as stock prices plummeted and the countless employees who had invested in their companies lost thousand of dollars, not to mention their pensions and lifetime savings. “ Black Tuesday” marked an event that began the greatest economic depression in American history that would plague the country for more than a decade. It is a time not only of great economic hardship, but also of social disturbance as previously establish social order was turned upside down as millions of Americans from all classes lost their jobs and their livelihoods. For those who Lived in Oklahoma and other States such as Arkansas, Texas, And Missouri, the falling crop prices and severe drought Conditions that marked The Great Depression produced Created an environment in Which poverty was so extreme That massive amounts of People left these poverty Stricken areas, fleeing for California by the hundreds in hopes that their flourishing agricultural economy, along with the large amounts of relief money they received would help them crawl their way out of debt . However, the Depression was not isolated by region, and California was in no better position to take care of these migrant workers and their families. As a result of the increased strain put on relief agencies by the se new migrants. This resulted in discrimination against these new arrivals who were called Okies as most of them came from Oklahoma. It is your job to assume the role of a teenager who lived in Oklahoma before the Great Depression set in, and who endured the Great Migration out to California in hopes of a better tomorrow. Photo by: Daily Mail
  • THE TASK Student Page Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ]
    • In this assignment it is your job ,as a teenage migrant moving from California to Oklahoma, to document the effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl Migration on your everyday life through a series of journals .
    • You will create three journal entries that will pertain to:
      • What it was like to live in Oklahoma prior to the Onset of the Great Depression.
      • What life was like after the onset of the Great Depression.
      • What life was like once settled in California.
    Title
  • THE PROCESS (DAY 1) Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ]
    • In order to accomplish this task you will be completing the following steps in order so that you can get a perspective not only of the effects of the Great Depression, but also a grasp on the chronology.
    • As Oklahoma is not one of the original thirteen colonies it was sparsely settled until the land rush and the turn of the 20 th century. It is important to understand the type of economy that was present in Oklahoma to understand the lives of people during the time.
      • First, go take a look at the development of Oklahoma’s economy up until and during the Great Depression.
        • While looking at this document also keep in mind things that affect social life such as infrastructure and the cultural characteristics of those inhabiting the region.
      • Although the infrastructure of Oklahoma and the cities were beginning to grow, a majority of the economy still depended mainly on agriculture. Read this information on Tenant Farming and Sharecropping in Oklahoma.
        • Be sure to pay particular attention to things that may cause social inequality and injustices, or things that may effect daily living. Also, keep in mind for the next section how this system of tenant farming may affect the ability of you and your family to migrate during the depression.
      • Now that you have gotten an idea of the real life situations that people in Oklahoma faced prior to the Great Depression, now it is your turn to put yourself in the shoes of a teenager living in Oklahoma during this era!
        • Try to keep in mind that although conditions were tough, that it was common place during this time period and that teenagers were much like you all today in that they still found ways to have fun!
    Onto day 2
  • THE PROCESS (DAY 2) Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ]
    • Now that we have examined the economic and social situation for those living in Oklahoma before the depression, we can better understand the impact that it had on the lives of those living in Oklahoma.
      • Read about how the Great Depression affected those living in the region.
        • In this document, pay particular attention to how agriculture changed due to the depression and the drought.
        • Also keep in mind that Federal assistance programs are emerging as new ideas in America at this time, and has a profound impact not only on how people relate to their government, but also existing community institutions .
      • As a result of hard economic times, many people were forced to leave their land and gathered in shantytowns. Read about these communities that are also often referred to as Hoovervilles .
        • Try to keep in mid the type of impact that this hold on people’s social lives through putting yourself in the shoes of a teenager going through this!
      • Next, read about how these conditions, especially the drought, lead some Oklahomans to Desperation Road , as hundreds of thousand s migrated from this area during the course of the depression.
        • While reading this, try to pay particular attention to the extent of the conditions which forced many Oklahomans to leave the state.
        • Also try and focus on reasons that California was so attractive to them.
      • Now that you have gotten an idea of how the depression affected people living in Oklahoma and the surrounding regions, it is time to write your second journal entry!
        • Try to keep in mind that not everyone had the same experience or the most severe. Also try to put yourself in their shoes by focusing on how this transition effected you not only physically but emotionally.
    Onto Day 3
  • THE PROCESS (DAY 3) Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ]
    • Now that you can better understand the desperation and the reasoning of those hit hardest by the depression in Oklahoma, it is time to look at their experiences once they arrived in the Golden State that was supposed to offer so much promise.
      • Read the material on Okie Life in California .
        • While reading, try to focus on the types of jobs that they held once in California.
        • also pay attention to the type of housing they acquired and the types of communities that they settled in once they were relocated.
        • Most importantly, are the expectations of these ‘Okies’ fulfilled once they were out in California? How did reality differ from these expectations.
      • Now , read about the California Okie Subculture that emerged as a result of the mass migration.
        • When reading this, try to put yourself in the place of a teenage Okie facing discrimination in California by previous residents.
        • How did these migrants try to overcome this new discrimination that they had never know as whites?
      • Finally, it is time to write your last journal entry!
        • This journal entry should be somewhat contemplative over the entire migration experience.
          • Try to include things such as whether it lived up to expectations
          • Try to construct your experiences in California, once again not only physically but emotionally
            • This should include the types of work and housing encountered!
    • Additionally, you should also take a look at these primary sources on the Great Depression . They can give you a better idea not only as to actual conditions and challenges faced, but also a look into the mind set of someone living during the era!
  • EVALUATION Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ]
  • CONCLUSION Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] Clearly the effects of the Great Depression had a profound effect on not only the way that people lived, but on the social structures of their everyday lives. As drought continued to plague Oklahoma and crop prices continued to fall, with little hope for relief, hundreds of thousands took to the road and headed west in hopes that all the propaganda that made California seem like the land of milk and honey was true. However, once they reached the Golden State, many of them confronted a harsher reality in which they faced improper housing, intense job competition, and little improvement in relief received. Furthermore, because of the strain that they put on an economy who, although not as dire, still was struggling to survive the hardship s of the depression; many of these new migrants faced intense discrimination as they were seen as parasites to the existing community. However, those ‘Okies’ who decided to stay in California despite all these things created a sub-culture in California that is very distinctive and still can be seen today, as many of them not only chose to, but were forced to live together as matter of survival. With the onset of World War II and the end of the Great Depression, those who fought so hard to keep ‘Okies’ out , changed their tune as California once again became a booming economy with the introduction of war industries and labor contracts. California would once again become the promise land for thousands of migrants hoping to secure a job in wartime industries!
  • CREDITS & REFERENCES Student Page Title Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Credits [ Teacher Page ] Links to Internet resources: Oklahoma’s economy: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/O/OK041.html Tenant Farming and Sharecropping: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/T/TE009.html Hoovervilles: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1642.html Great Depression: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/G/GR014.html Desperation Road: http://www.redriverhistorian.com/desperation.html Okie Life in California: http://faculty.headroyce.org/~us2001/meredithc/okielifeincalifornia.html Okie Subculture: http://faculty.headroyce.org/~us2001/meredithc/californiaokiesubculture.html Primary sources on the Great Depression: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/great_depression/documents.cfm Link back to The WebQuest Page and The WebQuest Slideshare Group
  • THE OKIE MIGRATION (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page A WebQuest for 11th Grade (U.S. History) Designed by Kayce Dillman [email_address] Based on a template from The WebQuest Page Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion Photo By: Dorothea Lange
  • INTRODUCTION (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page This lesson was developed in order to complete the curriculum for the teacher education program at Colorado State University. At first I was very skeptical about creating a lesson plan based almost solely on technology. But on a project like this it was a great way to find primary sources that allow them to interact with their past; both audibly through sound bites, or visually through photo journals that I may not have other wise. It also allows the students more freedom of choice to allow for greater diversity in finished products, which as any teacher knows makes for a more interesting read! This lesson is about looking at the Great Depression and the events that ensued in a different way. Instead of looking at it from the top-down, as in studying the legislation that was passed that extended the federal governments power farther than it ever had before. The student will become more acquainted with the effects that it had on the lives of millions of Americans just like you and me. It will allow them not only to hear another view on the events that occurred, but to synthesize the information that will make it more concrete to them. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • LEARNERS (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page This lesson was developed for an eleventh grade U.S. History class, and also involves language arts to a lesser degree as the student is expected to write with very little errors, and try to capture the voice of what would be an Okie living in California during what is termed the Dust Bowl Migration. It could likely also be adapted for younger ages such as eighth graders by doing simple modifications. Instead of writing journals, they could write reports or make a poster board on the Okie experience, or different areas of the ensuing subculture. Prior to this lesson, the learner should know the essentials about the Great Depression such as its reasons, and why this caused so many problems for the population as a whole. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • CURRICULUM STANDARDS (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page
    • Social Studies Standards Addressed
    • 1.3 Students use chronology to examine and explain historical relationships.
    • 4.2 Students understand how economic factors have influenced historical events.
    • 5.1 Students understand how democratic ideas and institutions in the United
    • States have developed, changed, and/or been maintained.
      • .
    • In this lesson students will gain access to higher order thinking through collecting information at the various websites and synthesizing this information into a product. They will do this through creative writing which will result in three journals entries meant to mimic that of a person of their same age and sex before the depression, after it hit, and after their migration out to California in search of work.
    Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • THE PROCESS (DAY 1) (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page
    • * Prior to beginning this lesson, it is important to do a background exercise that includes information about what triggered the Great Depression, and how it affected the overall economy.
    • In order to accomplish this task you will be completing the following steps in order so that you can get a perspective not only of the effects of the Great Depression, but also a grasp on the chronology.
    • *This activity should be done in a place where each child can access their own computer.
    • As Oklahoma is not one of the original thirteen colonies it was sparsely settled until the land rush and the turn of the 20 th century. It is important to understand the type of economy that was present in Oklahoma to understand the lives of people during the time.
      • First, go take a look at the development of Oklahoma’s economy up until and during the Great Depression.
        • While looking at this document also keep in mind things that affect social life such as infrastructure and the cultural characteristics of those inhabiting the region.
      • Although the infrastructure of Oklahoma and the cities were beginning to grow, a majority of the economy still depended mainly on agriculture. Read this information on Tenant Farming and Sharecropping in Oklahoma.
        • Be sure to pay particular attention to things that may cause social inequality and injustices, or things that may effect daily living. Also, keep in mind for the next section how this system of tenant farming may affect the ability of you and your family to migrate during the depression.
      • Now that you have gotten an idea of the real life situations that people in Oklahoma faced prior to the Great Depression, now it is your turn to put yourself in the shoes of a teenager living in Oklahoma during this era!
        • Try to keep in mind that although conditions were tough, that it was common place during this time period and that teenagers were much like you all today in that they still found ways to have fun!
    • * The teacher should be going around to all the students to make sure they don’t need help, and that they are making the proper connections. Onto Day 2
    Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • THE PROCESS (DAY 2) (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
    • * Have the student’s read their journal entry from the previous day in order to reacquaint themselves with what they have already learned, before continuing onto the next part.
    • Now that we have examined the economic and social situation for those living in Oklahoma before the depression, we can better understand the impact that it had on the lives of those living in Oklahoma.
      • Read about how the Great Depression affected those living in the region.
        • In this document, pay particular attention to how agriculture changed due to the depression and the drought.
        • Also keep in mind that Federal assistance programs are emerging as new ideas in America at this time, and has a profound impact not only on how people relate to their government, but also existing community institutions .
      • As a result of hard economic times, many people were forced to leave their land and gathered in shantytowns. Read about these communities that are also often referred to as Hoovervilles .
        • Try to keep in mid the type of impact that this hold on people’s social lives through putting yourself in the shoes of a teenager going through this!
      • Next, read about how these conditions, especially the drought, lead some Oklahomans to Desperation Road , as hundreds of thousand s migrated from this area during the course of the depression.
        • While reading this, try to pay particular attention to the extent of the conditions which forced many Oklahomans to leave the state.
        • Also try and focus on reasons that California was so attractive to them.
      • Now that you have gotten an idea of how the depression affected people living in Oklahoma and the surrounding regions, it is time to write your second journal entry!
        • Try to keep in mind that not everyone had the same experience or the most severe. Also try to put yourself in their shoes by focusing on how this transition effected you not only physically but emotionally.
    • The teacher should continue to circulate the room. After all the students are done, it would be a good idea to do an activity in which you ask the students to voice what they think would happen now if it were to occur now, to put them in the right mindsets before they write their journal entry.
    • Onto Day 3
  • THE PROCESS (DAY 3) (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • THE PROCESS (VARIATIONS) (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page I feel as if this Webquest is best completed on an individual level, as it allows the students with the most freedom of choice, and will make for journals that are more personalized. They will also allow the student to put a voice into their paper which will help them to become a better writer overall. This Webquest could be modified to perform as an entire class, and would best be utilized for special education of ELL classes as it allows the teacher to give the class more guidance and instruction in achieving the desired finished product, whatever you may choose that to be. Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • RESOURCES (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page
    • This lesson is based extensively on the websites that are contained within the Process sections of the Webquest. They are as follows:
    • Oklahoma’s economy: this website gives an easy to follow description of the development of Oklahoma's economy beginning in the 19 th century. This will also allow the student’s to understand the development of social structures in the region.
      • http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/O/OK041.html
    • Tenant Farming and Sharecropping: this explains the common method of farming when the great depression hit, and will help the students to understand the problem with New Deal programs. Also it can help them understand why the problem was so bad.
      • http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/T/TE009.html
    • Hoovervilles: This shows the student about an option the many people truend to in response to the economic turmoil.
      • http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1642.html
    • Great Depression: This explains the reason as to why the times were so desperate for so many people, and why many were desperate enough to migrate to California.
      • http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/G/GR014.html
    • Desperation Road: this gives the reasons for the people of the region to leave, their experiences on the road, and in California.
      • http://www.redriverhistorian.com/desperation.html
    • Okie Life in California: this gives a description of their experiences in California, and how it helped to shape their culture.
      • http://faculty.headroyce.org/~us2001/meredithc/okielifeincalifornia.html
    • Okie Subculture: This website describes the separate elements that make up the sub-culture created by them in California
    • http://faculty.headroyce.org/~us2001/meredithc/californiaokiesubculture.html
    • Primary sources on the Great Depression: This website offers students different primary sources to add variations to their final project.
    • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/great_depression/documents.cfm
    • This lesson is designed so that one teacher could teach it. It is especially good for new teachers, as the process is described very thoroughly and so that the students can come to you for mere clarifications or questions concerning specific information or ideas.
    Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • EVALUATION (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion This rubric is to be used to evaluate the journal writings that the students were to complete by the end of the assignment. The process takes them through the steps, and also guides them in the topic of the journals , letting them know what you want out of the final product. This will help you determine the quality of the entries and also to let the students know exactly what you are looking for as far as examples, and style of writing you are looking for.
  • TEACHER SCRIPT (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page
    • This Webquest can be used very easily to adapt for primary - aged learners, ELL students, or those with special needs. In order to facilitate this, the teacher should first decide what product that they want to have the class to create and move on from there. Also begin the lesson by building up prior knowledge of what the students may or may not know about the subject
    • For this Webquest, the process is written like a script that is to be followed. This makes it easy for the facilitator to run the webquest as a large group. Only slight alterations are to be made.
      • In the Process (Day 1) :
        • Ignore where it says all should have their own computer, as you will lead this.
        • Read through part a., and then go to the website.
          • Instead of having the students read it, you will read to them the parts that you find relevant which match the description of what to look for, which is a sub point.
        • Now, read through part b., which describes how tenant farming worked in the region. Once again highlight in the reading what is says to look for below.
        • Instead of doing part C, simply discuss what it would have been like to be a teenager living during this time.
      • Now, go onto the Process (Day 2) :
        • Review the materials that were learned about in the last section.
        • Now read through number 2., and go to the website listed in part a. Read to the students the parts concerning how the depression effected agriculture and the types of assistance programs that cam as a result.
        • Now for part b., read the prompt and then go to the website, and read aloud to students about the Hoovervilles.
        • Go onto part c., and after reading the prompt go to the website and focus on discussing the push and pull factors to migrating to California
        • Finally, try to bring this altogether through class discussion using the journal prompt of how the depression changed lives of people in the region.
      • Finally, go onto the Process (Day 3) :
        • Once again, review the information from the previous section.
        • Read through number 3, then move onto part a., reading aloud what is outlined to focus on, which can be found below. Do the same for part b., except read the whole thing aloud while asking your students to focus on the prompts.
        • Lastly, instead of writing a final journal entry hold a final discussion over the prompt, before having them set out on the alternative task assigned
      • For your purposes, ignore the primary sources unless you find them particularly interesting to share.
    • Congratulations, you have successfully modified this webquest! Feel free to get creative and put your own touch on it. Make it unique to you and your students so that you can get the most out of the learning experience!
    Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • CONCLUSION (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page
      • So often in today’s American society we see the poverty of other third world countries flash on the screen before us in a news story, or on the headlines; and although we feel sympathy it also seems unreal and like it could never happen to us. However, the Great Depression lead millions of Americans into that poverty which we think of as impossible. Hundreds of thousands were so desperate in fact, that they decided to take a chance to move out to California in hopes that things would be better than the conditions faced back home. It is important to bring this to light in hopes that students will be able to understand somewhat more how desperation and poverty can occur even in the wealthiest nation.
      • Furthermore, this lesson brings to light the discrimination of new group of people, who before they moved to California were considered to be among the top of American society as white Protestants. However, once in California they faced discrimination for the first time. This webquest also helps to point out the possible reasons for this, and can also help to understand more broadly the possible reasons for the race relations that prevail in America today.
    Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion
  • CREDITS & REFERENCES (TEACHER) [ Student Page ] Title Introduction Learners Standards Process Resources Credits Teacher Page
    • The sources for the two images that can be found in this webquest are courtesy of the Library of Congress, which can be found at http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/catalog.html .
    • The Monograph American Exodus by James N. Gregory was also used as a source of ideas, and is a great record of the “Dust Bowl” migration and the Okie subculture that was created as a result.
    • Some other helpful links:
    • This will take you to The WebQuest Page which will allow you to download a template so that you can make your own, or find another one to use!
    • Here is a link to The WebQuest Slideshare Group so that others can acquire the latest version of this template and training materials.
    Evaluation Teacher Script Conclusion