Importance: temple in home town, not in typical king graveyard. No pyramids, chamber in cliffs. Wanted to elevate status of Amun-ra (amun was a local diety and sun god, and Ra was already thriving). Landscape architecture. Axial= draw line down middle, exact same on both sides= symmetrical. **ramp to complex= NEW ramp style. Leads to artificial platform. Planted sycamore trees by ramps= sacred to HATHOR.
Statues of Montuhotep led to ramp. 22 Statues. Dressed like Osiris. Large, block like feet (pre-uni style). White and red crowns.
Collonades- **first not engaged columns. Free standing in a row. Flat-roofed complex-- mound of creation. Central courtyard has columns. 6 Chapels dedicated to 6 queens. Open courtyard is open to the sky. ***Hypostyle hall is filled with columns- common to greek, dark room (1st and not the last).
The further into the cliff, the more sacred. Ka in rock-cut niche. Underground burial chamber. IMPORTANT: new tradition of burying in cliff. landscape arch, ramp, axiol (long and narrow), free standing columns.
Old theme: defeated, foreign people. King conquers enemies. Enemies in state of disarray, king imposes order.
Montuhotep wears red crown. Post unification style. Montu in white-intimate.
Ka statue (very traditional)= sandstone brightly painted (black/green=osiris=farming/regeneration/fertility/MUD). Old pose- seated on a throne. Formal style, similar to Djoser. Block-like= very solid. Hed seb robe. Referenced osiris with mummification style (arms). Double crown=upper/lower egypt. Not following OK tradition of pyramids but follows local/theban tradition of cliff tombs. Burial chamber lined with granite (Old tradition). Mortuary chapel is where the ka statue was found.
Don’t have resources of OK, so badly preserved. New construction technique= deteriorates and not as solid. No standardization of layouts and pyramid sizes. Continued the layout though- similar to dyn 5/6. Causeway, open courtyard, mortuary temple, valley temple, pyramid with enclosed wall, underground burial, satellite temples.
**NEW: more statues decorated in middle kingdom. Causeway is filled with statues. Statue-in causeway, no head, muscular, osiris arms of mummification.
Kings don’t focus on tombs like OK. Built temples to link themselves to gods. Kings interact with gods unlike OK.
Small, jewel box, very decorative, limestone. Square, flat roof, 2 ramps, many windows. 16 pillars, part of festival (renewal of power) 1. Jubilee festival kiosk(hed seb festival) After(stop on sacred prosession): 2. Held boat of amun.
Held double throne of senwosret 1
Reliefs= excellent quality= royal workshop.
Reliefs have muscles, jaw line, etc. king interacts with gods. Amon= headress, erect penis (fertility, depicted as a mummy-lower body in shroud) Atum= creation, leading pharoah to amon. Holds ankh to king (breath of life to king).
King in the middle, guided by Montu (war), leading him to amon (double ploomed headress). Amon holds ankh. Kings now arent as powerful, must be intimate with god to prove divinity.
New motifs and new ideas: no heavy makeup (on reliefs too), more personal- more human= not diety-like. Sagging eyes, loose skin= old, past prime. Heavy eyelids- large creases on eyes. Mouth is frowning=sad, somber, stressed, worried. Middle kingdom=age of anxiety. King wants to show he is working hard for people. More of a message than reality.
Funerary portrait (different from public portrait) more idealized. Baggy eyes, youthful.
** New take on an old idea. Sphinx= guardian, divine figure. Guardian of the entry way to the temple. Combining power of lion with pharoah’s intellect.
Elite burial grounds= beni hasan tombs. Tombs cut into cliffs= very decorated. Governors were buried here- best preserved of rock cut tombs. West of nile- all burial sites. Enter porch with columns- round bases, square capitals, columns influenced greek columns. 3 curved ceilings, geometric patterns= reed mats in homes=new translation of house into stone. Columns don’t support weight, just decorative. Very lively paintings- no reliefs.
Local governor- columns not well preserved. Style is less formal. Khnumhotep is spear fishing. **difference= deceased is taking part in activity unlike tomb of ti. Servants are helping too.
Scene over door= trapping birds--sustence for after life. **difference= knu is actually trapping the birds himself. Detail in birds- fluttering in trees. Specie-recognizable.
Scene of feeding oryxes- servants (close cropped hair). Oryxe= god form of nome- referenced nome Knu was governor of. Fattening them up for sacrifice. ** NEW= 3 overlapping figures= unusual. Orxye and servants overlap- each figure has own ground line= sense of depth.
Scene of fig picking= two servants picking figs. Monkey in trees eating figs (more personal/lively).
Scene of procession of foreigners= interested in trade- dealt with as governor. From syria/palestine= “Hyksos.” They take over egypt. Peacful caravan of traders. Different clothing- men/women/children. Donkey with imports and kids on its back (didn’t ride horses or donkeys until hyksos conquer).
Gurantees moral life. Memorial chapels at abydos for ka. Block statue=version of ka statue. Once ka has made voyage to abydos, he rests here. Stela- rectangular slab for ka statue. Offering formula to osiris. Sahathor offering table- offering to osiris. If could afford bc: memorial chapels- 1.ka-pious-shares offerings with osiris. If something happened to tomb, you could share with osiris. 2. Close to osiris- resurrected every year. Overcoming death, access to eternal life **NEW. **New difference= egyptian king is assumed to have after life. If not king, you have to work for it= emphasis on moral goodness- life of justice (ma’at). Need to make pilgrimages. Style- squatting position. Arms crossed (osiris). No attempt for reality-block like. Represents person squatting on boat. Travel to abydos on boat. Depiction of pilgrimage, just arrived on boat, after life and nile. Block=primordial mound. Head sticks out= creation/being born. Wanted to be like osiris because he overcame death. If couldn’t travel to osiris temple, then mummy could.
How common people lived. By sir flanders petrie, worker’s village and high class and priests. Takes whole town to build pyramids. Stash of papyri-100s of scrolls=“kahun papyri” architecture, town plan, and writing. Legal/medical issues- how it was run. Temple documents-cult, temple, etc math-studying it and theorems. Wills. Run by governor and admin. Official. Occupied for 100 years (dyn 12-13). Surrounded by massive brick walls. Orthagonal plan= grid plan= planned from scratch. Series of blocks of houses- one main street. High class-10-12 rooms, courtyard, high class/officials/ supervisors, kitchen, people slept on flat roofs. Mud brick walls seperated lower and upper town. Upper town is smaller and tighter= for workers and lower class. Babies buried under house-not human until adult.
Perfected mummification. More contact with outside world. Nubia for gold, sinai for stones. Crete for textiles to wrap mummies. Syria/lebanon= cedar wood for coffines, oil, etc.
Access to afterlife. If you could afford it. Not just for kings anymore***. Coffin change- OK for kings- plain Now more elaborate, better materials. Kawit- funerary chapel of montuhotep. Made of limestone covered with relief carvings **NEW.
**NEW= wadjet eyes= eyes of horus= face east towards rising sun (reborn). Symbolic= osiris’ death. Seth gauged out his eyes, god of Tha restored eyes (god of magic). Wholeness- restored and regenerated, to be made whole again. Relief= kawit holds mirror, servant pours water, lady of court fixes hair (**NEW). Table of food, slaughtering of oxen--glimpse of luxury living- trivial rich women. Symbolism= pouring water(same word for impregnate)=cosmetic symbols= sexual, fertility (reborn in afterlife).
Painted, wooden coffin. Began to paint inside too for mummies to look at. Food for afterlife-ducks, grain, oxen. Door-to go in and out. Wadjet eyes.
Coffin texts- texts in coffin. How to get to afterlife, maps, guides for ka, spells. Vs pyramid texts- maps guides spells to get to other world. **difference= pyramid texts written in pyramid for kings, coffin texts= available to anyone who can afford it.
Figurines in coffins or in tombs. Little helpers- affordable- perform things for you. Ceramic- glassy glazed mummies.
Thebes, dyn 11- looted very early, but missed a chamber. Found 24 wooden models- complete full set * very affordable- models of wokers. Magically sprang to life, lively scenes.
Compared to OK- stiff, no life or not personable. Bakery= every figure has its own job and pose.
Fishing- no longer on just tomb walls **NEW
Ideal house- open court, columns, garden.
8 Middle Kingdom(2)
The Middle Kingdom Dynasties 11-13 ca. 2040-1640 BCE
The End of Chaos <ul><li>Nehepetra Montuhotep (Dynasty 11) unifies Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Ends 1st Intermediate Period, establishes Middle Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Changes his Horus name to Sematawy (he who unifies two lands) </li></ul><ul><li>Thebes now dominate city </li></ul><ul><li>Initiates a new artistic style: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Memphis area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distances himself from previous chaos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signals return to centralized state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally links himself to Memphite style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constant tension between tradition & innovation </li></ul></ul></ul>
Mummiform statue of Senwosret I Pyramid Complex of Senwosret I Lisht, Dynasty 12, ca. 1930 BCE
Dynasty 12 Temples <ul><li>Great period of temple building </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilt, adorn, and build new temples at Heliopolis and Karnak </li></ul><ul><li>Most mudbrick with stone elements </li></ul>
Jubilee Shrine of Senwosret I Karnak, Dynasty 12, ca. 1940 BCE
Function: Jubilee festival kiosk Held double throne of Senwosret I After death: Transformed into a way station for the barq of Amun
Jubilee Shrine of Senwosret I: pillar reliefs Karnak, Dynasty 12, ca. 1940 BCE
Amun-Ra Atum Jubilee Shrine of Senwosret I: relief pillar Karnak, Dynasty 12, ca. 1940 BCE
Montu Amun-Ra Jubilee Shrine of Senwosret I: relief pillar Karnak, Dynasty 12, ca. 1940 BCE
Papyrus with a fragment of the Instructions of Amenemhat I Dynasty 12: Royal Instruction Texts
<ul><li>“ Trust none as brother. Make no friend. </li></ul><ul><li>Create no intimates - it is worthless…” </li></ul>Dynasty 12: Royal Instruction Texts
<ul><li>“… I myself was maker of crops beloved of Nepri. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile Flood honored me at every embrace. </li></ul><ul><li>None hungered in my years, none thirsted then. </li></ul><ul><li>Men rested through what I had done, and told tales of me. </li></ul><ul><li>All I had decreed was in its correct place.” </li></ul>Dynasty 12: Royal Instruction Texts