The broad region that corresponds to the
     A band                 length of the thick filaments.




                  ...
A plant hormone that generally acts to inhibit
 abscisic acid (ABA)     growth, promote dormancy, and help the
           ...
Physiological adjustment to a change in an
 acclimatization                 environmental factor.




                    ...
A mixture of recently swallowed food and
    acid chyme                        gastric juice.




                      Ra...
A globular protein that links into chains, two
                     of which twist helically about each other,
     actin ...
The amount of energy that reactants must
activation energy   absorb before a chemical reaction will start.




           ...
Inherited characteristics that enhance the
   adaptations           ability of an organism to survive and
                ...
The attraction between different kinds of
     adhesion                          molecules.




                      An e...
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism,
     aerobic            environment, or cellular process that
               ...
A fruit such as a blackberry that develops
  aggregate fruit      from a single flower that has several carpels.




     ...
Organic compounds containing hydroxyl
   alcohols                        groups.




                   An organic molecul...
One of four extra-embryonic membranes;
      allantois           serves as a repository for the embryo's
                 ...
An action that occurs either completely or
    all-or-none event        not at all, such as the generation of an action
  ...
Behavior that reduces an individual's fitness
    altruisim           while increasing the fitness of another
            ...
An organic compound with one or more
    amine                      amino groups.




                    An organic molec...
A small and very toxic nitrogenous waste
  ammonia                produced by metabolism.




                 Shelled cep...
A shelled, water-retaining egg that enables
    amniotic egg        reptiles, birds, and egg-laying mammals to
           ...
The strengthening of stimulus energy that is
    amplification        otherwise too weak to be carried into the
          ...
The similarity of structure between two
     analogy             species that are not closely related;
                   ...
anatomy           The study of the structure of an organism.




                       The requirement that to divide, a ...
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a
angiosperm           protective chamber called an ovary.




               ...
Sensory appendages found in uniramians
   antennae                      and crustaceans.




                     Also cal...
The phylum of hornworts, small herbaceous
Anthocerophyta             (non-woody) plants.




 Anthophyta        The phylum...
A specialized base triplet at one end of a
                        tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular
     anticod...
Cells that ingest bacteria and viruses and
antigen-presenting cell    then destroy them. Class II MHC molecules
          ...
A limb-bud organizing region consisting of a
apical ectodermal ridge    thickened area of ectoderm at the tip of a
       ...
apomixes                The asexual production of seeds.




                            A derived phenotypic character, o...
A small, fingerlike extension of the vertebrate
   appendix        cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells
           ...
One of two prokaryotic domains, the other
  Archaea                being the Bacteria.




                Primitive eukar...
A vessel that conveys blood between an
   arteriole               artery and a capillary bed.




                      A ...
The selective breeding of domesticated
 artificial selection      plants and animals to encourage the
                    ...
The acquired ability to associate one
  associative learning      stimulus with another; also called classical
           ...
A cardiovascular disease in which growths
atherosclerosis   called plaques develop on the inner walls of
                 ...
An adenine-containing nucleoside
     ATP (adenosine          triphosphate that releases free energy when
                ...
(plural, atria) A chamber that receives blood
      atrium               returning to the vertebrate heart.




          ...
A type of polyploid species resulting from
                   one species doubling its chromosome
autopolyploid     number...
The vertebrate class of birds, characterized
        Aves             by feathers and other flight adaptations.




      ...
bacterial artificial       An artificial version of a bacterial
                          chromosome that can carry insert...
A bone that is contained in, and helps stiffen,
      baculum             the penis of rodents, raccoons, walruses,
      ...
Glands near the vaginal opening in a human
 Bartholin’s glands     female that secrete lubricating fluid during
          ...
The floor of an epithelial membrane on which
basement membrane                      the basal cells rest.




            ...
A type of mimicry in which a harmless
Batesian mimicry          species looks like a species that is
                     ...
The communites of organisms living in the
      benthos                 benthic zone of an aquatic biome.




            ...
A life history in which adults have but a
                         single reproductive opportunity to produce
big-bang rep...
The two-part latinized name of a species,
      binomial           consisting of genus and specific epithet.




         ...
The principle that all life arises by the
     biogenesis              reproduction of preexisting life.




  biogenic am...
A trophic process in which retained
 biological magnification    substances become more concentrated with
                ...
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life;
   biosphere          the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.




         ...
Any of a class of warm-blooded vertebrates
                        distinguished by having the body more or
      birds   ...
An embryonic stage in mammals; a hollow
blastocyst       ball of cells produced one week after
                         fe...
A type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix
      blood               called plasma in which blood cells are
         ...
bolus                A lubricated ball of chewed food.




                         The quantity of energy that must be
  ...
A model of community organization in which
                       mineral nutrients control community
                   o...
A brain center that directs the activity of
breathing control center          organs involved in breathing.




          ...
The phylum of mosses. Note that the term
              quot;bryophyte quot; refers instead to the informal
             gr...
A substance that consists of acid and base
                        forms in a solution and that minimizes
      buffer    ...
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the
             initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic
C3 Plant      mate...
An intracellular protein to which calcium
    calmodulin       binds in its function as a second messenger
               ...
cAMP receptor protein   A regulatory protein that directly stimulates
                                     gene expression...
The protein shell that encloses a viral
    capsid        genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral,
                      ...
A functional group present in organic acids
                     and consisting of a single carbon atom
 carboxyl group   ...
A type of muscle that forms the contractile
   cardiac muscle           wall of the heart; its cells are joined by
       ...
An animal, such as a shark, hawk, or spider,
   carnivore                  that eats other animals.




                  ...
A type of flexible connective tissue with an
     cartilage         abundance of collagenous fibers embedded
             ...
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each
                   boundary between strata corresponded in
catastrophism       ...
A T cell surface protein that enhances the
         CD8              interaction between the antigen-presenting
          ...
The part of a cell, such as a neuron, that
       cell body                      houses the molecules.




               ...
The disruption of a cell and separation of its
   cell fractionation           organelles by centrifugation.




      cel...
The structural and functional divergence of
                            cells as they become specialized during a
cellular...
The narrow cavity in the center of the spinal
    central canal         cord that is continuous with the fluid-filled
    ...
Material present in the cytoplasm of all
  centrosome         eukaryotic cells, important during cell
                  di...
The surface of the cerebrum; the largest and
                      most complex part of the mammalian brain,
             ...
A scrubland biome of dense, spiny
                   evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes
  chaparral       along coasts...
Clawlike feeding appendages characteristic
  chelicerae                of the chelicerate group.




                  The...
In a reversible chemical reaction, the point at
chemical equilibrium   which the rate of the forward reaction equals
     ...
An organism that must consume organic
chemoheterotroph      molecules for both energy and carbon.




                    ...
A structural polysaccharide of an amino
   chitin           sugar found in many fungi and in the
                        e...
A flagellated feeding cell found in sponges.
                           Also called a collar cell, it has a collarlike
   ...
chondrocytes                         Cartilage cells.




                            A member of a diverse phylum of anim...
The complex of DNA and proteins that
                       makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When
     chromatin         ...
Small intracellular globules composed of fats
chylomicron      that are mixed with cholesterol and coated
                ...
(plural, cilia) A short cellular appendage
                    specialized for locomotion, formed from a
     cilium      ...
A dichotomous phylogenetic tree that
                       branches repeatedly, suggesting a
  cladogram       classifica...
A collection of cell surface glycoproteins
                           encoded by a family of genes called the
            ...
The prevailing weather conditions at a
    climate                          locality.




                   Graded variat...
(1) A lineage of genetically identical
                             individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, a
        ...
Describing a dispersion pattern in which
 clumped         individuals are aggregate in patches.




                 A spe...
The probability that a particular gene present
                             in one individual will also be inherited from ...
The mutual influence on the evolution of two
                     different species interacting with each other
   coevolu...
The binding together of like molecules, often
       cohesion                        by hydrogen bonds.




              ...
The covering of the young root of the embryo
   coleorhizae                     of a grass seed.




                     ...
Adhesive structures on the tentacles of
 colloblasts                 ctenophores.




                   The tubular porti...
The study of how interactions between
community ethology         species affect community structure and
                  ...
A set of about 20 serum proteins that carry
     complement            out a cascade of steps leading to the lysis of
    ...
A type of inheritance in which the
 complete dominance         phenotypes of the heterozygote and
                        ...
A small molecule that cooperates with a
     compressor           repressor protein to switch an operon off.




         ...
One of two types of photoreceptors in the
  cone cell     vertebrate eye; detects color during the day.




              ...
In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA
    conjugation          between two cells that are temporarily
                  ...
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
Biology Flash Cards Part I
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Biology Flash Cards Part I

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Campbell text book biology flashcards A-C.

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Biology Flash Cards Part I

  1. 1. The broad region that corresponds to the A band length of the thick filaments. One of three binding sites for tRNA during translation, it holds the tRNA carrying the A site next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain; A stands for aminoacyl- tRNA site. The body cavity in mammals that primarily houses parts of the digestive, excretory, and abdominal cavity reproductive systems. It is separated from the more cranial thoracic cavity by the diaphragm. Nonliving chemical and physical factors in abiotic components the environment. Genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B on the ABO blood groups surface of red blood cells. The ABO blood group phenotypes, also call blood types, are A, B, AB, and O.
  2. 2. A plant hormone that generally acts to inhibit abscisic acid (ABA) growth, promote dormancy, and help the plant tolerate stressful conditions. The uptake of small nutrient molecules by an absorption organism's own body; the third main stage of food processing, following digestion. The range of a pigment's ability to absorb absorption spectrum various wavelengths of light. The very deep benthic communities near the bottom of the ocean. This region is abyssal zone characterized by continuous cold, extremely high water pressure, low nutrients, and near or total absence of light. A group of ancient jawed fishes from the acanthodians Devonian period.
  3. 3. Physiological adjustment to a change in an acclimatization environmental factor. The automatic adjustment of an eye to focus accommodation on near objects. acetyl CoA (acetyl The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment coenzyme A) of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme. One of the most common neurotransmitters; functions by binding to receptors and altering the permeability of the postsynaptic acetylcholine membrane to specific ions, either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing the membrane. A substance that increases the hydrogen ion acid concentration of a solution.
  4. 4. A mixture of recently swallowed food and acid chyme gastric juice. Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than acid precipitation pH 5.6. A solid-bodied animal lacking a cavity acoelomate between the gut and outer body wall. The discharge of a sperm's acrosome when acrosomal reactions the sperm approaches an egg. An organelle at the tip of a sperm cell that acrosome helps the sperm penetrate the egg.
  5. 5. A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, actin forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells. Actinistia The class of lobe-finned fishes. Actinopterygii The class of ray-finned fishes. A rapid change in the membrane potential of an excitable cell, caused by stimulus- action potential triggered, selective opening and closing of voltage-sensitive gates in sodium and potassium ion channels. A profile of the relative performance of action spectrum different wavelengths of light.
  6. 6. The amount of energy that reactants must activation energy absorb before a chemical reaction will start. A transcription factor that binds to an activator enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene. Immunity conferred by recovering from an active immunity infectious disease. The specific portion of an enzyme that active site attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds. The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its active transport concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
  7. 7. Inherited characteristics that enhance the adaptations ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment. An equilibrium state in a population when the gene pool has allele frequencies that adaptive peak maximize the average fitness of a population's members. The emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an adaptive radiation environment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems. Also called the anterior pituitary, it consists of endocrine cells that synthesize and adenohypophysis secrete several hormones directly into the blood. An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP adenylyl cyclase in response to a chemical signal.
  8. 8. The attraction between different kinds of adhesion molecules. An endocrine gland located adjacent to the kidney in mammals; composed of two glandular portions: an outer cortex, which adrenal gland responds to endocrine signals in reacting to stress and effecting salt and water balance, and a central medulla, which responds to nervous inputs resulting from stress. The central portion of an adrenal gland, controlled by nerve signals, that secretes the adrenal medulla fight-or-flight hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. A peptide hormone released from the adrenocorticotropic anterior pituitary, it stimulates the production and secretion of steroid hormones by the hormone adrenal cortex. Roots extending from stems and leaves adventitious above ground.
  9. 9. Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, aerobic environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen. afferent arteriole The blood vessel supplying a nephron. A branch of mammals that includes sloths, Afrotheria anteaters, and armadillos. The relative number of individuals of each age structure age in a population. An antibody-mediated immune response in which bacteria or viruses are clumped agglutination together, effectively neutralized, and opsonized.
  10. 10. A fruit such as a blackberry that develops aggregate fruit from a single flower that has several carpels. A member of a jawless class of vertebrates agnathan represented today by the lampreys and hagfishes. A type of behavior involving a contest of some kind that determines which competitor agnostic behavior gains access to some resource, such as food or mates. AIDS (acquired The name of the late stages of HIV infection; defined by a specified reduction of T cells immunodeficiency and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections. syndrome) The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide alcohol fermentation and ethyl alcohol.
  11. 11. Organic compounds containing hydroxyl alcohols groups. An organic molecule with a carbonyl group aldehyde located at the end of the carbon skeleton. An adrenal hormone that acts on the distal tubules of the kidney to stimulate the aldosterone reabsorption of sodium (Na+) and the passive flow of water from the filtrate. (plural, algae) A photosynthetic, plantlike alga protist. A digestive tract consisting of a tube running alimentary canal between a mouth and an anus.
  12. 12. One of four extra-embryonic membranes; allantois serves as a repository for the embryo's nitrogenous waste. alleles Alternate versions of a gene. The variation in the relative rates of growth allometric growth of various parts of the body, which helps shape the organism. A mode of speciation induced when the allopatric speciation ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographic barrier. A common type of polyploid species resulting from two different species allopolyploid interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.
  13. 13. An action that occurs either completely or all-or-none event not at all, such as the generation of an action potential by a neuron. A specific receptor site on some part of an allosteric site enzyme molecule remote from the active site. A spiral shape constituting one form of the alpha helix secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure. A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, alternation of generations and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants. A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are alternative RNA splicing produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
  14. 14. Behavior that reduces an individual's fitness altruisim while increasing the fitness of another individual. The aiding of another individual at one's own altruistic behavior risk or expense. A protistan clade that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and the ciliates. Alveolates have small membrane- Alveolata bounded cavities called alveoli under their cell surfaces. The function of alveoli is unknown. (plural, alveoli) (1.) One of the deadend, multilobed air sacs that constitute the gas alveolus exchange surface of the lungs. (2.) One of the milk-secreting sacs of epithelial tissue in the mammary glands. Neurons of the retina that help integrate amacrine cell information before it is sent to the brain.
  15. 15. An organic compound with one or more amine amino groups. An organic molecule possessing both amino acid carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins. A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can amino group act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1. aminoacyl-tRNA An enzyme that joins each amino acid to the correct tRNA. synthetase An enzyme found within the small intestine that splits off one amino acid at a time, aminopeptidase beginning at the opposite end of the polypeptide containing a free carboxyl group.
  16. 16. A small and very toxic nitrogenous waste ammonia produced by metabolism. Shelled cephalopod animals that were the dominant invertebrate predators for millions ammonites of years ending with the mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous period. A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of amniocentesis certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus. The innermost of four extraembryonic amnion membranes; encloses a fluid-filled sac in which the embryo is suspended. A vertebrate possessing an amnion amniote surrounding the embryo; reptiles, birds, and mammals are amniotes.
  17. 17. A shelled, water-retaining egg that enables amniotic egg reptiles, birds, and egg-laying mammals to complete their life cycles on dry land. A type of protist characterized by great amoeba flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia. An amoebalike cell that moves by pseudopodia, found in most animals; depending on the species, may digest and amoebocyte distribute food, dispose of wastes, form skeletal fibers, fight infections, and change into other cell types. The vertebrate class of amphibians, Amphibia represented by frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region amphipathic molecule and a hydrophobic region.
  18. 18. The strengthening of stimulus energy that is amplification otherwise too weak to be carried into the nervous system. Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, anaerobic environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it. A metabolic pathway that synthesizes a anabolic pathway complex molecule from simpler compounds. The use of inorganic molecules other than anaerobic respiration oxygen to accept electrons at the quot;downhillquot; end of electron transport chains. The use of inorganic molecules other than anagenesis oxygen to accept electrons at the quot;downhillquot; end of electron transport chains.
  19. 19. The similarity of structure between two analogy species that are not closely related; attributable to convergent evolution. The fourth subphase of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have anaphase separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell. anaphylactic shock An acute, life-threatening, allergic response. One of three groups of amniotes based on anapsids key differences between their skulls. anatomically modern Fully modern humans. humans
  20. 20. anatomy The study of the structure of an organism. The requirement that to divide, a cell must anchorage dependence be attached to the substratum. Adhesive junctions that link cells together anchoring junctions into tissues. The principal male steroid hormones, such as testosterone, which stimulate the androgens development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. A chromosomal aberration in which certain aneuploidy chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
  21. 21. A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a angiosperm protective chamber called an ovary. The ability to survive in a dormant state anhydrobiosis when an organism's habitat dries up. Also called cryptobiosis. The portion of the egg where the least yolk is animal pole concentrated. Opposite of vegetal pole. anion A negatively charged ion. A plant that completes its entire life cycle in a annual single year or growing season.
  22. 22. Sensory appendages found in uniramians antennae and crustaceans. Also called the adenohypophysis, it consists of endocrine cells that synthesize and anterior pituitary secrete several hormones directly into the blood. Referring to the head end of a bilaterally anterior symmetrical animal. The terminal pollen sac of a stamen, inside anther which pollen grains with male gametes form in the flower of an angiosperm. (plural, antheridia) In plants, the male antheridium gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
  23. 23. The phylum of hornworts, small herbaceous Anthocerophyta (non-woody) plants. Anthophyta The phylum containing all angiosperms. A member of a primate group made up of the apes (gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, anthropoid chimpanzee, and bonobo), monkeys, and humans. A chemical that kills bacteria or inhibits their antibiotic growth. An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, antibody produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
  24. 24. A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular anticodon complementary codon on an mRNA molecule. A hormone that is part of an elaborate antidiuretic hormone feedback scheme that helps regulate the osmolarity of the blood. A foreign macromolecule that does not antigen belong to the host organism and that elicits an immune response. The process by which an MHC molecule cradles a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen presentation antigen in its hammocklike groove, carries it to the cell surface, and quot;presentsquot; the protein to an antigen receptor on a nearby T cell. Transmembrane versions of antibody molecules that B cells and T cells use to antigen receptor recognize specific antigens. Also called membrane antibodies.
  25. 25. Cells that ingest bacteria and viruses and antigen-presenting cell then destroy them. Class II MHC molecules in these cells collect peptide remnants of this (APCs) degradation and present them to helper T cells. The order of frogs and toads that includes anura tailless tetrapod amphibians. anurans The group of frogs and toads. The part of the ocean beneath the photic aphotic zone zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur. Concentration of growth at the tip of a plant apical dominance shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth.
  26. 26. A limb-bud organizing region consisting of a apical ectodermal ridge thickened area of ectoderm at the tip of a limb bud. Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots apical meristem and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length. One of a group of parasitic protozoans, apicomplexan some of which cause human diseases. The order of caecilians that includes legless apoda amphibians. apodans The group of caecilians.
  27. 27. apomixes The asexual production of seeds. A derived phenotypic character, or apomorphic character homology, that evolved after a branch diverged from a phylogenetic tree. In plants, the nonliving continuum formed by apoplast the extracellular pathway provided by the continuous matrix of cell walls. Programmed cell death brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a apoptosis cascade of quot;suicidequot; proteins in the cells destined to die. The bright coloration of animals with aposematic coloration effective physical or chemical defenses that acts as a warning to predators.
  28. 28. A small, fingerlike extension of the vertebrate appendix cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity. A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically aquaporin facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis). Plasmalike liquid in the space between the lens and the cornea in the vertebrate eye; aqueous humor helps maintain the shape of the eye, supplies nutrients and oxygen to its tissues, and disposes of its wastes. aqueous solution A solution in which water is the solvent. The animal class that includes scorpions, Arachnida spiders, ticks, and mites.
  29. 29. One of two prokaryotic domains, the other Archaea being the Bacteria. Primitive eukaryotic group that includes diplomonads, such as Giardia; some Archaezoa systematists assign kingdom status to archezoans. (plural, archegonia) In plants, the female archegonium gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop. The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during archenteron the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal. The reptilian group that includes crocodiles, archosaurs alligators, dinosaurs, and birds.
  30. 30. A vessel that conveys blood between an arteriole artery and a capillary bed. A cardiovascular disease caused by the arteriosclerosis formation of hard plaques within the arteries. A vessel that carries blood away from the artery heart to organs throughout the body. Segmented coelomates with exoskeletons arthropod and jointed appendages. The most diverse phylum in the animal kingdom; includes the horseshoe crab, arachnids (e.g., spiders, ticks, scorpions, and mites), crustaceans (e.g., crayfish, Arthropoda lobsters, crabs, barnacles), millipedes, centipedes, and insects. Arthropods are characterized by a chitinous exoskeleton, molting, jointed appendages, and a body formed of distinct groups of segments.
  31. 31. The selective breeding of domesticated artificial selection plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits. ascocarps Macroscopic fruiting bodies of sac fungi. (plural, asci) A saclike spore capsule located at the tip of the ascocarp in dikaryotic ascus hyphae; defining feature of the Ascomycota division of fungi. A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical asexual reproduction offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts. An amino acid that functions as a CNS aspartate neurotransmitter.
  32. 32. The acquired ability to associate one associative learning stimulus with another; also called classical conditioning. A type of nonrandom mating in which mating assortative mating partners resemble each other in certain phenotypic characters. Glial cells that provide structural and astrocytes metabolic support for neurons. A carbon atom covalently bonded to four asymmetric carbon different atoms or groups of atoms. Cell division in which one daughter cell asymmetric cell division receives more cytoplasm than the other during mitosis.
  33. 33. A cardiovascular disease in which growths atherosclerosis called plaques develop on the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters. The smallest unit of matter that retains the atom properties of an element. An atom's central core, containing protons atom nucleus and neutrons. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and atomic number designated by a subscript to the left of the elemental symbol. The total atomic mass, which is the mass in atomic weight grams of one mole of the atom.
  34. 34. An adenine-containing nucleoside ATP (adenosine triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This triphosphate) energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells. A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron ATP synthase transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion. A peptide hormone that opposes the renin- atrial natriuretic factor angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). A region of specialized muscle tissue between the right atrium and right ventricle. atrioventricular (AV) note It generates electrical impulses that primarily cause the ventricles to contract. A valve in the heart between each atrium atrioventricular valve and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the ventricles contract.
  35. 35. (plural, atria) A chamber that receives blood atrium returning to the vertebrate heart. According to this model, eukaryotic cells evolved by the specialization of internal autogenesis model membranes originally derived from prokaryotic plasma membranes. An immunological disorder in which the autoimmune disease immune system turns against itself. A subdivision of the motor nervous system of vertebrates that regulates the internal autonomic disease environment; consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. A subdivision of the motor nervous system of autonomic nervous vertebrates that regulates the internal environment; consists of the sympathetic system and parasympathetic divisions.
  36. 36. A type of polyploid species resulting from one species doubling its chromosome autopolyploid number to become tetraploid, which may self-fertilize or mate with other tetraploids. A chromosome that is not directly involved in autosome determining sex, as opposed to a sex chromosome. An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. autotroph Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones. A class of plant hormones, including indoleacetic acid (IAA), having a variety of effects, such as phototropic response auxins through the stimulation of cell elongation, stimulation of secondary growth, and the development of leaf traces and fruit. A nutritional mutant that is unable to synthesize and that cannot grow on media auxotroph lacking certain essential molecules normally synthesized by wild-type strains of the same species.
  37. 37. The vertebrate class of birds, characterized Aves by feathers and other flight adaptations. An embryonic shoot present in the angle axillary bud formed by a leaf and stem. A typically long extension, or process, from a axon neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body toward target cells. A type of lymphocyte that develops in the B lymphocyte (B cell) bone marrow and later produces antibodies, which mediate humoral immunity. One of two prokaryotic domains, the other Bacteria being the Archaea.
  38. 38. bacterial artificial An artificial version of a bacterial chromosome that can carry inserts of chromosome (BAC) 100,000–500,000 base pairs. A virus that infects bacteria; also called a bacteriophage phage. See phage. A photosynthetic pigment found in bacteriorhodopsin halophiles. It is very similar to the visual pigments in the retinas of our eyes. (plural, bacteria) A prokaryotic bacterium microorganism in Domain Bacteria. A form of Rhizobium contained within the bacteroids vesicles formed by the root cells of a root nodule.
  39. 39. A bone that is contained in, and helps stiffen, baculum the penis of rodents, raccoons, walruses, and several other mammals. The ability of natural selection to maintain balanced polymorphism diversity in a population. All tissues external to the vascular cambium in a plant growing in thickness, consisting of bark phloem, phelloderm, cork cambium, and cork. A dense object lying along the inside of the Barr body nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells, representing an inactivated X chromosome. Contraception that relies upon a physical barrier methods barrier to block the passage of sperm. Examples include condoms and diaphragms.
  40. 40. Glands near the vaginal opening in a human Bartholin’s glands female that secrete lubricating fluid during sexual arousal. A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may basal body organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole. basal metabolic rate The minimal number of kilocalories a resting animal requires to fuel itself for a given time. (BMR) A cluster of nuclei deep within the white basal nuclei matter of the cerebrum. A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion base concentration of a solution.
  41. 41. The floor of an epithelial membrane on which basement membrane the basal cells rest. A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the base-pair substitution complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides. Elaborate fruiting bodies of a dikaryotic basidiocarps mycelium of a club fungus. (plural, basidia) A reproductive appendage that produces sexual spores on the gills of basidium mushrooms. The fungal division Basidiomycota is named for this structure. A circulating leukocyte that produces basophil histamine.
  42. 42. A type of mimicry in which a harmless Batesian mimicry species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators. behavior What an animal does and how it does it. A heuristic approach based on the expectation that Darwinian fitness behavioral ecology (reproductive success) is improved by optimal behavior. A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the benign tumor site of origin. The bottom surfaces of aquatic benthic zone environments.
  43. 43. The communites of organisms living in the benthos benthic zone of an aquatic biome. The source of insulin within the islets of beta cell Langerhans, nestled within the pancreas. A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids beta oxidation down to two-carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA. One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds beta (b) pleated sheet back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds. A plant that requires two years to complete biennial its life cycle.
  44. 44. A life history in which adults have but a single reproductive opportunity to produce big-bang reproduction large numbers of offspring, such as the life history of the Pacific salmon. Also known as semelparity. Characterizing a body form with a central bilateral symmetry longitudinal plane that divides the body into two equal but opposite halves. Members of the branch of eumetazoans bilateria possessing bilateral symmetry. A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and acts bile as a detergent to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats. The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing binary fission daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.
  45. 45. The two-part latinized name of a species, binomial consisting of genus and specific epithet. All of the variety of life; usually refers to the variety of species that make up a community; concerns both species richness biodiversity (the total number of different species) and the relative abundance of the different species. The current rapid decline in the variety of life biodiversity crisis on Earth, largely due to the effects of human culture. A relatively small area with an exceptional biodiversity hot spot concentration of endemic species. The study of how organisms manage their bioenergetics energy resources.
  46. 46. The principle that all life arises by the biogenesis reproduction of preexisting life. biogenic amines Neurotransmitters derived from amino acids. Any of the various nutrient circuits, which biogeochemical cycles involve both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. The study of the past and present biogeography distribution of species. An internal timekeeper that controls an organism's biological rhythms; marks time with or without environmental cues but often biological clock requires signals from the environment to remain tuned to an appropriate period. See also circadian rhythm.
  47. 47. A trophic process in which retained biological magnification substances become more concentrated with each link in the food chain. The definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have biological species concept the potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring; a biological species is also called a sexual species. The dry weight of organic matter comprising biomass a group of organisms in a particular habitat. One of the world's major ecosystems, classified according to the predominant biome vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment. The use of living organisms to detoxify and bioremediation restore polluted and degraded ecosystems.
  48. 48. The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; biosphere the sum of all the planet's ecosystems. The manipulation of living organisms or their biotechnology components to produce useful products. Pertaining to the living organisms in the biotic environment. All the organisms that are part of the biotic components environment. Neurons that synapse with the axons of rods bipolar cell and cones in the retina of the eye.
  49. 49. Any of a class of warm-blooded vertebrates distinguished by having the body more or birds less completely covered with feathers and the forelimbs modified as wings. Chemical contraceptives that inhibit ovulation, retard follicular development, or birth control pills alter a woman's cervical mucus to prevent sperm from entering the uterus. A flower equipped with both stamens and bisexual flower carpels. A leaflike structure of a seaweed that blade provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis. The fluid-filled cavity that forms in the center blastocoels of the blastula embryo.
  50. 50. An embryonic stage in mammals; a hollow blastocyst ball of cells produced one week after fertilization in humans. An embryonic cap of dividing cells resting on blastodisc a large undivided yolk. blastomeres Small cells of an early embryo. The opening of the archenteron in the blastopore gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes. The hollow ball of cells marking the end blastula stage of cleavage during early embryonic development.
  51. 51. A type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix blood called plasma in which blood cells are suspended. The hydrostatic force that blood exerts blood pressure against the wall of a vessel. A set of tubes through which the blood blood vessel moves through the body. A specialized capillary arrangement in the brain that restricts the passage of most blood-brain barrier substances into the brain, thereby preventing dramatic fluctuations in the brain's environment. A fluid-containing space between the body cavity digestive tract and the body wall.
  52. 52. bolus A lubricated ball of chewed food. The quantity of energy that must be absorbed to break a particular kind of bond energy chemical bond; equal to the quantity of energy the bond releases when it forms. A type of connective tissue, consisting of bone living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts. Organs of gas exchange in spiders, book lungs consisting of stacked plates contained in an internal chamber. Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, bottleneck effect such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
  53. 53. A model of community organization in which mineral nutrients control community organization because nutrients control plant bottom-up model numbers, which in turn control herbivore numbers, which in turn control predator numbers. A cup-shaped receptacle in the vertebrate kidney that is the initial, expanded segment Bowman’s capsule of the nephron where filtrate enters from the blood. Also called lamp shells, these animals superficially resemble clams and other brachiopod bivalve mollusks, but the two halves of the brachiopod shell are dorsal and ventral to the animal rather than lateral, as in clams. A hormone produced by neurosecretory cells in the insect brain. It promotes development brain hormone by stimulating the prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone. The hindbrain and midbrain of the vertebrate central nervous system. In humans, it forms brainstem a cap on the anterior end of the spinal cord, extending to about the middle of the brain.
  54. 54. A brain center that directs the activity of breathing control center organs involved in breathing. Fine branches of the bronchus that transport bronchioles air to alveoli. (plural, bronchi) One of a pair of breathing bronchus tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs. One of a group of marine, multicellular, brown algae autotrophic protists, the most common type of seaweed. Brown algae include the kelps. A special tissue in some mammals, located brown fat in the neck and between the shoulders, that is specialized for rapid heat production.
  55. 55. The phylum of mosses. Note that the term quot;bryophyte quot; refers instead to the informal group of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, Bryophyta nonvascular plants that inhabit the land but lack many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants. A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but bryophytes lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants. A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but bryozoans lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants. An asexual means of propagation in which outgrowths from the parent form and pinch budding off to live independently or else remain attached to eventually form extensive colonies. Used in reference to the gains and losses of various materials and energy. Most energy and materials budgets are interconnected, budgets with changes in the flux of one component affecting the exchanges of other components.
  56. 56. A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes buffer changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution. One of a pair of glands near the base of the penis in the human male that secrete fluid bulbourethral gland that lubricates and neutralizes acids in the urethra during sexual arousal. The movement of water due to a difference bulk flow in pressure between two locations. Animals that eat relatively large pieces of bulk-feeder food. A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into bundle-sheath cell tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
  57. 57. A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic C3 Plant material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate. A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic C4 Plant material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate. An important class of cell-to-cell adhesion cadherins molecules. A mammalian thyroid hormone that lowers calcitonin blood calcium levels. A mass of dividing, undifferentiated cells at callus the cut end of a shoot.
  58. 58. An intracellular protein to which calcium calmodulin binds in its function as a second messenger in hormone action. The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C; also the amount of heat energy that 1 g of water calorie (cal) releases when it cools by 1°C. The Calorie (with a capital C), usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie. The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), Calvin cycle involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate. A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. CAM plant Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed. A burst of evolutionary origins when most of the major body plans of animals appeared in Cambrian explosion a relatively brief time in geologic history; recorded in the fossil record about 545 to 525 million years ago.
  59. 59. cAMP receptor protein A regulatory protein that directly stimulates gene expression. (CRP) canaliculi Minute canals in a bodily structure. The uppermost layer of vegetation in a canopy terrestrial biome. A microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues and consists of a single layer of capillary endothelial cells that allows exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid. A network of capillaries that infiltrate every capillary bed organ and tissue in the body.
  60. 60. The protein shell that encloses a viral capsid genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complete in shape. A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface capsule and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces. A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its carbohydrate dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides). The incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic carbon fixation organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic bacterium). A functional group present in aldehydes and carbonyl group ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
  61. 61. A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom carboxyl group double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group. An organic compound containing a carboxyl carboxylic acid group. An enzyme found within the small intestine that splits off one amino acid at a time, carboxypeptidase beginning at the end of the polypeptide that has a free carboxyl group. carcinogen A chemical agent that causes cancer. The alternating contractions and relaxations cardiac cycle of the heart.The alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart.
  62. 62. A type of muscle that forms the contractile cardiac muscle wall of the heart; its cells are joined by intercalated discs that relay each heartbeat. The volume of blood pumped per minute by cardiac output the left ventricle of the heart. cardiovascular disease Diseases of the heart and blood vessels. A closed circulatory system with a heart and branching network of arteries, capillaries, cardiovascular system and veins; the system is characteristic of vertebrates. The group of birds with a carina, or sternal carnites keel, supporting their large breast muscles.
  63. 63. An animal, such as a shark, hawk, or spider, carnivore that eats other animals. An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that carotenoid chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis. The female reproductive organ of a flower, carpel consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary. In human genetics, an individual who is heterozygous at a given genetic locus, with one normal allele and one potentially harmful carrier recessive allele. The heterozygote is phenotypically normal for the character determined by the gene but can pass on the harmful allele to offspring. The maximum population size that can be carrying capacity supported by the available resources, symbolized as K.
  64. 64. A type of flexible connective tissue with an cartilage abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in chondrin. A water-impermeable ring of wax around endodermal cells in plants that blocks the Casparian strip passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls. A metabolic pathway that releases energy by catabolic pathway breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. In E. coli, a helper protein that stimulates catabolite activator gene expression by binding within the promoter region of an operon and enhancing protein (CAP) the promoter's ability to associate with RNA polymerase. A chemical agent that changes the rate of a catalyst reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
  65. 65. The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in catastrophism time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time. A class of compounds, including epinephrine catecholamines and norepinephrine, that are synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. An ion with a positive charge, produced by cation the loss of one or more electrons. A process in which positively charged minerals are made available to a plant when cation exchange hydrogen ions in the soil displace mineral ions from the clay particles. A T cell surface protein, present on most CD4 helper T cells, CD4 binds to part of the class II MHC protein.
  66. 66. A T cell surface protein that enhances the CD8 interaction between the antigen-presenting infected cell and a cytotoxic T cell. A limited gene library using complementary cDNA library DNA. The library includes only the genes that were transcribed in the cells examined. (plural, ceca) A blind outpocket of a hollow cecum organ such as an intestine. The simplest collection of matter that can cell live. Glycoproteins that contribute to cell cell adhesion molecules migration and stable tissue structure.
  67. 67. The part of a cell, such as a neuron, that cell body houses the molecules. A region in the cytoplasm near the nucleus cell center from which microtubules originate and radiate. An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the cell cycle division of a parent cell until its own division into two; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases. A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell cycle control system cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle. cell division The reproduction of cells.
  68. 68. The disruption of a cell and separation of its cell fractionation organelles by centrifugation. cell lineage The ancestry of a cell. A double membrane across the midline of a cell plate dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis. A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a cell wall polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid and is the primary constituent of wood. The type of immunity that functions in defense against fungi, protists, bacteria, and cell-mediated immunity viruses inside host cells and against tissue transplants, with highly specialized cells that circulate in the blood and lymphoid tissue.
  69. 69. The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a cellular differentiation multicellular organism's development; dependent on the control of gene expression. The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which cellular respiration oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel. A type of protist that has unicellular cellular slime mold amoeboid cells and multicellular reproductive bodies in its life cycle. A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, cellulose consisting of glucose monomers joined by b- 1, 4-glycosidic linkages. A temperature scale (°C) equal to 5/9 (°F 232) that measures the freezing point of Celsius scale water at 0°C and the boiling point of water at 100°C.
  70. 70. The narrow cavity in the center of the spinal central canal cord that is continuous with the fluid-filled ventricles of the brain. central nervous system In vertebrate animals, the brain and spinal cord. (CNS) A membranous sac in a mature plant cell central vacuole with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development. A structure in an animal cell composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets arranged in a centriole 9 + 0 pattern. An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles involved in cell division. The centralized region joining two sister centromere chromatids.
  71. 71. Material present in the cytoplasm of all centrosome eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center. An evolutionary trend toward the cephalization concentration of sensory equipment on the anterior end of the body. A chordate without a backbone, represented cephalochordate by lancelets, tiny marine animals. Part of the vertebrate hindbrain (rhombencephalon) located dorsally; cerebellum functions in unconscious coordination of movement and balance. Part of the vertebrate hindbrain (rhombencephalon) located dorsally; cerebral cortex functions in unconscious coordination of movement and balance.
  72. 72. The surface of the cerebrum; the largest and most complex part of the mammalian brain, containing sensory and motor nerve cell cerebral cortex bodies of the cerebrum; the part of the vertebrate brain most changed through evolution. cerebral hemisphere The right or left side of the vertebrate brain. Blood-derived fluid that surrounds, protects, cerebrospinal fluid against infection, nourishes, and cushions the brain and spinal cord. The dorsal portion, composed of right and left hemispheres, of the vertebrate forebrain; cerebrum the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex functions of the central nervous system. The neck of the uterus, which opens into the cervix vagina.
  73. 73. A scrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes chaparral along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers. Protein molecules that assist the proper chaperonin folding of other proteins. character A heritable feature. The green algal group that shares two ultrastructural features with land plants. They Charophyceans are considered to be the closest relatives of land plants. A critical control point in the cell cycle where checkpoint stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle.
  74. 74. Clawlike feeding appendages characteristic chelicerae of the chelicerate group. The animal phylum that includes horseshoe Chelicerata crabs, scorpions, ticks, spiders, and an extinct group called the eurypterids. Members of the animal phylum that includes chelicerates horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, spiders, and an extinct group called the eurypterids. An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the chemical bond presence of opposite charges on the atoms; the bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells. Energy stored in the chemical bonds of chemical energy molecules; a form of potential energy.
  75. 75. In a reversible chemical reaction, the point at chemical equilibrium which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. A process leading to chemical changes in chemical reaction matter; involves the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds. chemically-gated ion Specialized ion channels that open or close in response to a chemical stimulus. channels An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular chemiosmosis work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis. An organism that needs only carbon dioxide chemoautotroph as a carbon source but that obtains energy by oxidizing inorganic substances.
  76. 76. An organism that must consume organic chemoheterotroph molecules for both energy and carbon. A group of about 50 different proteins secreted by blood vessel endothelial cells and monocytes. These molecules bind to chemokin receptors on many types of leukocytes and induce numerous changes central to inflammation. A receptor that transmits information about chemoreceptor the total solute concentration in a solution or about individual kinds of molecules. (plural, chiasmata) The X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing chiasma homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis. Chilopoda The animal class that includes centipedes.
  77. 77. A structural polysaccharide of an amino chitin sugar found in many fungi and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods. A green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll a can chlorophyll participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy. A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll a that participates directly in the light reactions. A type of yellow-green accessory chlorophyll b photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a. An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight chloroplast and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
  78. 78. A flagellated feeding cell found in sponges. Also called a collar cell, it has a collarlike choanocyte ring that traps food particles around the base of its flagellum. A hormone released from the walls of the cholecystokinin (CCK) duodenum in response to the presence of amino acids or fatty acids. A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a cholesterol precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids. The vertebrate class of cartilaginous fishes, Chondrichthyes represented by sharks and their relatives. A protein-carbohydrate complex secreted by chondrin chondrocytes; chondrin and collagen fibers form cartilage.
  79. 79. chondrocytes Cartilage cells. A member of a diverse phylum of animals that possess a notochord; a dorsal, hollow chordate nerve cord; pharyngeal gill slits; and a postanal tail as an embryo. The outermost of four extraembryonic chorion membranes; contributes to the formation of the mammalian placenta. A technique for diagnosing genetic and chorionic villus sampling congenital defects in a fetus by removing and analyzing a small sample of the fetal (CVS) portion of the placenta. A thin, pigmented inner layer of the choroid vertebrate eye.
  80. 80. The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When chromatin the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope. In some classification systems, a kingdom chromista consisting of brown algae, golden algae, and diatoms. A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of chromosome one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. See chromatin. A basic principle in biology stating that genes chromosome theory of are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis inheritance accounts for inheritance patterns. A DNA mapping technique that begins with a gene or other sequence that has already been cloned, mapped, and sequenced and chromosome walking quot;walksquot; along the chromosomal DNA from that locus, producing a map of overlapping restriction fragments.
  81. 81. Small intracellular globules composed of fats chylomicron that are mixed with cholesterol and coated with special proteins. An enzyme found in the duodenum. It is chymotrypsin specific for peptide bonds adjacent to certain amino acids. Mainly aquatic primitive fungi that form uniflagellated spores (zoospores). The chytrid chytrids and fungi are now thought to form a monophyletic branch of the eukaryotic tree. A type of protozoan that moves by means of ciliate cilia. A portion of the vertebrate eye associated with the lens. It produces the clear, watery ciliary body aqueous humor that fills the anterior cavity of the eye.
  82. 82. (plural, cilia) A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a cilium core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane. A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and circadian rhythm that persists even in the absence of external cues. clade Each evolutionary branch in a cladogram. A taxonomic approach that classifies organisms according to the order in time at cladistics which branches arise along a phylogenetic tree, without considering the degree of morphological divergence. A pattern of evolutionary change that produces biological diversity by budding one cladogenesis or more new species from a parent species that continues to exist; also called branching evolution.
  83. 83. A dichotomous phylogenetic tree that branches repeatedly, suggesting a cladogram classification of organisms based on the time sequence in which evolutionary branches arise. In classification, the taxonomic category class above order. The animal group that includes scorpions, class Arachnida spiders, ticks, and mites. class Chilopoda The centipede group of animals. class Diplopoda The millipede group of animals.
  84. 84. A collection of cell surface glycoproteins encoded by a family of genes called the major histocompatibility complex. In humans, class I MHC molecules these glycoproteins are also known as the HLA, human leukocyte antigens. Class I MHC molecules are found on all nucleated cells. A collection of cell surface glycoproteins encoded by a family of genes called the major histocompatibility complex. In humans, class II MHC molecules these glycoproteins are also known as the HLA, human leukocyte antigens. Class II MHC molecules are restricted to a few specialized cell types. A type of associative learning; the classical conditioning association of a normally irrelevant stimulus with a fixed behavioral response. The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane; specifically, the succession of cleavage rapid cell divisions without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cells. The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a cleavage furrow shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
  85. 85. The prevailing weather conditions at a climate locality. Graded variation in some traits of individuals cline that parallels a gradient in the environment. An organ in the female that engorges with clitoris blood and becomes erect during sexual arousal. A common opening for the digestive, urinary, cloaca and reproductive tracts in all vertebrates except most mammals. The mechanism that determines specificity and accounts for antigen memory in the immune system; occurs because an antigen clonal selection introduced into the body selectively activates only a tiny fraction of inactive lymphocytes, which proliferate to form a clone of effector cells specific for the stimulating antigen.
  86. 86. (1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically clone identical to another individual. (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell. See also gene cloning. Using a somatic cell from a multicellular cloning organism to make one or more genetically identical individuals. An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. A plasmid that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into cloning vector a cell is an example of a cloning vector, as is a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection. Circulatory systems in which blood is closed circulatory system confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid. The common name for members of the club fungus phylum Basidiomycota. The name comes from the clublike shape of the basidium.
  87. 87. Describing a dispersion pattern in which clumped individuals are aggregate in patches. A specialized cell for which the phylum Cnidaria is named; consists of a capsule cnidocyte containing a fine coiled thread, which, when discharged, functions in defense and prey capture. The complex, coiled organ of hearing that cochlea contains the organ of Corti. A phenotypic situation in which the two codominance alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways. A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid codon or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
  88. 88. The probability that a particular gene present in one individual will also be inherited from a coefficient of relatedness common parent or ancestor in a second individual. A body cavity completely lined with coelom mesoderm. An animal whose body cavity is completely lined by mesoderm, the layers of which coelomate connect dorsally and ventrally to form mesenteries. Referring to a multinucleated condition coenocytic resulting from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division. An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. coenzyme Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
  89. 89. The mutual influence on the evolution of two different species interacting with each other coevolution and reciprocally influencing each other's adaptations. Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an cofactor enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis. The ability of an animal's nervous system to cognition perceive, store, process, and use information obtained by its sensory receptors. The scientific study of cognition; the study of cognitive ethology the connection between data processing by nervous systems and animal behavior. A representation within the nervous system cognitive map of spatial relations among objects in an animal's environment.
  90. 90. The binding together of like molecules, often cohesion by hydrogen bonds. The idea that specific evolutionary cohesion species concept adaptations and discrete complexes of genes define species. A group of individuals of the same age, from cohort birth until all are dead. The insertion of a penis into a vagina, also coitus called sexual intercourse. The covering of the young shoot of the coleoptiles embryo of a grass seed
  91. 91. The covering of the young root of the embryo coleorhizae of a grass seed. A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found collagen extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom. Tough fibers of the extracellular matrix. They collagenous fibers are made of collagen that are nonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise. The location in the kidney where filtrate from collecting duct renal tubules is collected; the filtrate is now called urine. A flexible plant cell type that occurs in collenchymas cell strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restraining growth.
  92. 92. Adhesive structures on the tentacles of colloblasts ctenophores. The tubular portion of the vertebrate alimentary tract between the small intestine colon and the anus; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces. The column shape of one type of epithelial columnar cell. A symbiotic relationship in which the commensalism symbiont benefits but the host is neither helped nor harmed. All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of community different species living close enough together for potential interaction.
  93. 93. The study of how interactions between community ethology species affect community structure and organization. A type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube cell by many plasmodesmata and companion cell whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube cells. Active demand by two or more organisms or competition kinds of organisms for some environmental resource in short supply. The concept that when populations of two similar species compete for the same limited competitive exclusion resources, one population will use the resources more efficiently and have a principle reproductive advantage that will eventually lead to the elimination of the other population. A substance that reduces the activity of an competitive inhibitor enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
  94. 94. A set of about 20 serum proteins that carry complement out a cascade of steps leading to the lysis of microbes. An immune response in which antigen- complement fixation antibody complexes activate complement proteins. A group of at least 20 blood proteins that cooperate with other defense mechanisms; may amplify the inflammatory response, complement system enhance phagocytosis, or directly lyse pathogens; activated by the onset of the immune response or by surface antigens on microorganisms or other foreign cells. A DNA molecule made in vitro using mRNA complementary DNA as a template and the enzyme reverse transcriptase. A cDNA molecule therefore (cDNA) corresponds to a gene, but lacks the introns present in the DNA of the genome. A digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called alimentary canal. complete digestive tract An incomplete digestive tract has only one opening.
  95. 95. A type of inheritance in which the complete dominance phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable. A flower that has sepals, petals, stamens, complete flower and carpels. The transformation of a larva into an adult that looks very different, and often functions complete metamorphosis very differently in its environment, than the larva. A substance consisting of two or more compound elements in a fixed ratio. A type of multifaceted eye in insects and crustaceans consisting of up to several compound eye thousand light-detecting, focusing ommatidia; especially good at detecting movement.
  96. 96. A small molecule that cooperates with a compressor repressor protein to switch an operon off. An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient concentration gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated. conception The fertilization of the egg by a sperm cell. A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the condensation reaction loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction. The direct transfer of thermal motion (heat) conduction between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other.
  97. 97. One of two types of photoreceptors in the cone cell vertebrate eye; detects color during the day. A characterization of an animal in regard to environmental variables. The animal is a conformer conformer if it allows some conditions within its body to vary with certain external changes. (plural, conidia) A naked, asexual spore conidium produced at the ends of hyphae in ascomycetes. A gymnosperm whose reproductive structure conifer is the cone. Conifers include pines, firs, redwoods, and other large trees. The largest of the four gymnosperm phyla, the reproductive structure is the cone. Coniferophyta Conifers include pines, firs, redwoods, and other large trees.
  98. 98. In bacteria, the direct transfer of DNA conjugation between two cells that are temporarily joined. A mucous membrane that helps keep the eye moist; lines the inner surface of the conjunctiva eyelid and covers the front of the eyeball, except the cornea. Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse connective tissue population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix. The group of ancient vertebrates that date conodonts back as far as 510 million years. A goal-oriented science that seeks to conservation biology counter the biodiversity crisis, the current rapid decrease in Earth's variety of life.

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