A daily decrease in metabolic activity and
                      corresponding body temperature during
                   ...
A relatively large group of crustaceans that
      decapods              includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, and
         ...
A chemical reaction in which two molecules
 dehydration reaction       covalently bond to each other with the
            ...
One of usually numerous, short, highly
                       branched processes of a neuron that
    dendrite          co...
density-independent      Any factor that affects a population by the
                         same percentage, regardless ...
A heterotroph, such as an earthworm, that
   deposit-feeder      eats its way through detritus, salvaging bits
           ...
A type of growth characteristic of animals, in
determinate growth    which the organism stops growing after it
           ...
The sum of all of the changes that
   development         progressively elaborate an organism's body.




                ...
Blood pressure that remains between heart
diastolic pressure                 contractions.




                       The ...
The process of breaking down food into
  digestion        molecules small enough for the body to
                         ...
An extremely diverse group of ancient
dinosaurs        reptiles varying in body shape, size, and
                         ...
Diplopoda          The animal class that includes millipedes.




       Dipnoi                    The class of lungfishes...
The pattern of spacing among individuals
   dispersion         within geographic population boundaries.




              ...
Natural selection that favors extreme over
diversifying selection            intermediate phenotypes.




      diversity ...
A method to detect and measure the
                          expression of thousands of genes at one
                     ...
A linear quot;pecking orderquot; of animals, where
dominance hierarchy       position dictates characteristic social
     ...
A condition typified by extremely low
     dormancy           metabolic rate and a suspension of growth
                  ...
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms,
                       in which two sperm cells unite with two cells
double f...
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-
Duchenne muscular     linked recessive allele; characterized by
                 ...
A steroid hormone that triggers molting in
     ecdysone                          arthropods.




                        ...
(nich) The sum total of a species' use of the
  ecological niche            biotic and abiotic resources of its
          ...
The study of energy flow and the cycling of
ecosystem ecology     chemicals among the various biotic and
                 ...
Organisms that do not produce enough
   ectothermic       metabolic heat to have much effect on body
                     ...
The short section of the ejaculatory route in
                         mammals formed by the convergence of the
   ejacula...
An ion transport protein generating voltage
electrogenic pump                across the membrane.




 electromagnetic    ...
An energy level representing the distance of
     electron shell         an electron from the nucleus of an atom.




    ...
The passing of undigested material out of
  elimination             the digestive compartment.




    embryo             ...
The process that keeps tiny fat droplets from
  emulsification                      coalescing.




                      ...
A ductless gland that secretes hormones
endocrine gland          directly into the bloodstream.




                      ...
The collection of membranes inside and
                           around a eukaryotic cell, related either
endomembrane sy...
A hormone produced in the brain and
     endorphin         anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception.




         ...
The innermost, simple squamous layer of
   endothelium           cells lining the blood vessels; the only
                ...
The capacity to do work (to move matter
    energy               against an opposing force).




                    In ce...
A category of hormones secreted by the wall
 enterogastrones                  of the duodenum.




                       ...
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical
 enzyme         agent that changes the rate of a reaction
                with...
A cartilaginous flap that blocks the top of the
                windpipe, the glottis, during swallowing,
 epiglottis   wh...
A brain region, derived from the
                    diencephalon, that contains several clusters
 epithalamus          of...
A channel that conducts food, by peristalsis,
     esophagus               from the pharynx to the stomach.




          ...
The primary female steroid sex hormones,
                    which are produced in the ovary by the
                develo...
The only gaseous plant hormone,
  ethylene             responsible for fruit ripening, growth
                      inhibi...
Members of the subkingdom that includes all
   eumetazoa                animals except sponges.




                      ...
Pertaining to a highly productive lake, having
     eutrophic              a high rate of biological productivity
        ...
A structure that evolves and functions in one
                           environmental context but that can perform
      ...
The cellular secretion of macromolecules by
exocytosis       the fusion of vesicles with the plasma
                      ...
exponential population    The geometric increase of a population as it
                           grows in an ideal, unlim...
extracellular matrix    The substance in which animal tissue cells
                         are embedded consisting of pro...
A fertility factor in bacteria, a DNA segment
                    that confers the ability to form pili for
              ...
The spontaneous passage of molecules and
                          ions, bound to specific carrier proteins,
facilitated d...
A biological compound consisting of three
fat (tracylglycerol)   fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.




        ...
A method of metabolic control in which the
                         end product of a metabolic pathway acts as
 feedback i...
A lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem
              of angiosperms and functions in mechanical
   fiber       su...
A dense tissue with large numbers of
fibrous connective      collagenous fibers organized into parallel
                  ...
first law of         The principle of conservation of energy.
                       Energy can be transferred and transfo...
The currently accepted model of cell
                         membrane structure, which envisions the
fluid mosaic model  ...
The pathway along which food is transferred
 food chain    from trophic level to trophic level, beginning
                ...
A marine protozoan that secretes a shell and
   foram         extends pseudopodia through pores in its
                   ...
Genetic drift attributable to colonization by a
  founder effect      limited number of individuals from a parent
        ...
A quantity of energy that interrelates entropy
                             symbolized by G (S) and the system's total
   ...
Fungi              The kingdom that contains the fungi.




                      A heterotrophic eukaryote that digests i...
The first growth phase of the cell cycle,
  G1 phase     consisting of the portion of interphase before
                  ...
The mature gamete-producing structure of a
  gametophores             gametophyte body of a moss.




                    ...
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells
                        that allows the passage of material or current
  ...
The two-layered, cup-shaped embryonic
     gastrula                           stage.




   gastrulation       The formati...
A discrete unit of hereditary information
      gene           consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence
              ...
The alternation of the genes of a person
   gene therapy             afflicted with a genetic disease.




    generalized...
The general term for the production of
genetic recombination    offspring with new combinations of traits
                ...
A set of thousands of DNA segments from a
genomic library    genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage,
                   ...
The geographic area in which a population
geographic variation                     lives.




                        A ti...
Pregnancy; the state of carrying developing
  gestation        young within the female reproductive tract.




           ...
glandular epithelia     Epithelia that secrete chemical solutions.




   glans penis                 The head end of the ...
A peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic
    glucagon           endocrine cells that raises blood glucose
                ...
An amino acid that functions as a CNS
  glycine                  neurotransmitter.




               A fuzzy coat on the ...
A covalent bond formed between two
glycosidic linkage   monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.




 gnathostomes      ...
Hormones that stimulate the activities of the
gonadotropins         testes and ovaries; a collective term for
            ...
graft versus host
    reaction



   Gram stain




 gram-negative




 gram-positive




    granum
gravitropism




  gray crescent




   gray matter




   green algae




greenhouse effect
gross primary
production (GPP)



ground meristem




 ground tissue




 growth factor




growth hormone
guard cell




gustatory receptors




     guttation




   gymnosperm




     habitats
habituation




   hair cell




    half-life




Hamilton’s Rule




  haploid cell
Hardy-Weinberg
  equilibrium



Hardy-Weinberg
    formula



Hardy-Weinberg
   theorem



  haustorium




Haversian syst...
heart




     heart rate




       heat




heat of vaporization




heat-shock protein
heavy chains




    helicase




   heliozoan




helper T cell (TH)




  hemocyanin
hemoglobin




    hemolymph




    hemophilia




hepatic portal vessel




   Hepatophyta
herbivore




   herbivory




   heredity




hermaphrodite




hermaphroditism
heterochromatin




 heterochrony




  heterocyst




 heterogeneity




 heterokaryon
heteromorphic




heterosporous




heterotrophy



heterozygote
 advantage



heterozygous
hibernation



high-density lipoprotein
        (HDL)



       hindbrain




       histamine




        histone
histone acetylation



     HIV (human
immunodeficiency virus)



       holdfast




 holoblastic cleavage




      home...
homeosis




 homeostasis




homeotic gene




  hominid




  hominoid
homologous
    chromosomes



homologous structures




     homology




    homosporous




    homozygous
horizontal cell




  hormone




 hornworts




     host




 host range
human chorionic
 gonadotropin (HCG)



Human Genome Project




  humoral immunity




       humus




 Huntington’s dise...
hybridization




hydration shell




 hydrocarbon




hydrogen bond




hydrogen ion
hydrolysis




      hydrophilic




     hydrophobic




hydrophobic interaction




 hydrostatic skeleton
hydroxide ion




 hydroxyl group




     hymen




hyperpolarization




   hypertonic
hypha




   hypocotyls




  hypothalamus




hypotonic solution
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Biology Flash Cards 2

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Biology Flash Cards 2

  1. 1. A daily decrease in metabolic activity and corresponding body temperature during times of inactivity for some small mammals daily torpor and birds. The physiological changes during resting periods enable these organisms to survive on energy stores in their tissues. A measure of mass for atoms and subatomic dalton particles. The contribution an individual makes to the Darwinian fitness gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals. Either of the two cells that result when a cell daughter cells divides. A plant whose flowering is not affected by day-neutral plant photoperiod.
  2. 2. A relatively large group of crustaceans that decapods includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, and shrimp. Any of the saprotrophic fungi and bacteria that absorb nutrients from nonliving organic decomposers material such as corpses, fallen plant material, and the wastes of living organisms, and convert them into inorganic forms. The breakdown of organic materials into decomposition inorganic ones. An international initiative focusing on the deepest phylogenetic branching within the deep green plant kingdom to identify and name the major plant clades. A dark, hot, oxygen-deficient environment deep-sea hydrothermal associated with volcanic activity. The food producers are chemoautotrophic vents prokaryotes.
  3. 3. A chemical reaction in which two molecules dehydration reaction covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule. (1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through deletion breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene. A shift from zero population growth in which birth rates and death rates are high to zero demographic transition population growth characterized instead by low birth and death rates. The study of statistics relating to births and demography deaths in populations. For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For denaturation DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
  4. 4. One of usually numerous, short, highly branched processes of a neuron that dendrite conveys nerve impulses toward the cell body. The number of individuals per unit area or desnity volume. Any characteristic that varies according to an density dependent increase in population density. density-dependent Any factor that has a greater impact on a population as the population density factor increases. density-dependent The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when inhibition they come into contact with one another.
  5. 5. density-independent Any factor that affects a population by the same percentage, regardless of density. factor A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's (DNA) proteins. The sugar component of DNA, having one deoxyribose less hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA. An electrical state in an excitable cell whereby the inside of the cell is made less negative relative to the outside than at the resting membrane potential. A neuron depolarization membrane is depolarized if a stimulus decreases its voltage from the resting potential of 270 mV in the direction of zero voltage. The condition of a membrane that is more depolarized negatively charged on one side than on the other.
  6. 6. A heterotroph, such as an earthworm, that deposit-feeder eats its way through detritus, salvaging bits and pieces of decaying organic matter. The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells dermal tissue system covering young plant organs formed by primary growth. descent with Darwin's initial phrase for the general process of evolution. modification A type of intercellular junction in animal cells desmosome that functions as an anchor. A type of embryonic development in protostomes that rigidly casts the determinate cleavage developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early.
  7. 7. A type of growth characteristic of animals, in determinate growth which the organism stops growing after it reaches a certain size. The progressive restriction of developmental potential, causing the possible fate of each determination cell to become more limited as the embryo develops. A consumer that derives its energy from detritivore nonliving organic material. detritus Dead organic matter. One of two distinct evolutionary lines of coelomates, consisting of the echinoderms and chordates and characterized by radial, deuterostomes indeterminate cleavage, enterocoelous formation of the coelom, and development of the anus from the blastopore.
  8. 8. The sum of all of the changes that development progressively elaborate an organism's body. A second messenger produced by the diacylglycerol (DAG) cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane. (1) A sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the thoracic cavity in mammals; active in ventilating the lungs. (2) A dome-shaped diaphragm rubber cup fitted into the upper portion of the vagina before sexual intercourse. It serves as a physical barrier to block the passage of sperm. One of three groups of amniotes based on diapsids key differences between their skulls. The stage of the heart cycle in which the diastole heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
  9. 9. Blood pressure that remains between heart diastolic pressure contractions. The stage of the heart cycle in which the diatom heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood. A subdivision of flowering plants whose dicot members possess two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons. differentiation See cellular differentiation. The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a diffusion more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
  10. 10. The process of breaking down food into digestion molecules small enough for the body to absorb. An organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest. A dihybrid results from a cross between parents doubly dihybrid homozygous for different alleles. For example, parents of genotype AABB and aabb produce a dihybrid of genotype AaBb. A mycelium of certain septate fungi that dikaryon possesses two separate haploid nuclei per cell. A mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, dikaryotic one from each parent. A unicellular photosynthetic alga with two dinoflagellate flagella situated perpendicular grooves in cellulose plates covering the cell.
  11. 11. An extremely diverse group of ancient dinosaurs reptiles varying in body shape, size, and habitat. Referring to a plant species that has diocious staminate and carpellate flowers on separate plants. An enzyme found attached to the intestinal dipeptidase lining. It splits small peptides. diploblastic Having two germ layers. A cell containing two sets of chromosomes diploid cell (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
  12. 12. Diplopoda The animal class that includes millipedes. Dipnoi The class of lungfishes. Natural selection that favors individuals at directional selection one end of the phenotypic range. A double sugar, consisting of two disaccharide monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis. The distribution of individuals within dispersal geographic population boundaries.
  13. 13. The pattern of spacing among individuals dispersion within geographic population boundaries. A chart showing the relative amounts of oxygen bound to hemoglobin when the dissociation curve pigment is exposed to solutions varying in their partial pressure of dissolved oxygen. In the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a distal tubule nephron that helps refine filtrate and empties it into a collecting duct. A force that changes a biological community and usually removes organisms from it. disturbance Disturbances, such as fire and storms, play pivotal roles in structuring many biological communities. Strong covalent bonds formed when the disulfide bridge sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer.
  14. 14. Natural selection that favors extreme over diversifying selection intermediate phenotypes. diversity Variety in organisms. An individual's unique collection of DNA DNA fingerprint restriction fragments, detected by electrophoresis and nucleic acid probes. A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of DNA ligase the 39 end of a new DNA fragment to the 59 end of a growing chain. The addition of methyl groups (—CH3) to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may DNA methylation serve as a long-term control of gene expression.
  15. 15. A method to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time. Tiny amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing DNA microarray assays different genes are fixed to a glass slide. These fragments, ideally representing all the genes of an organism, are tested for hybridization with various samples of cDNA molecules. An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of DNA polymerase new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain. A chemically synthesized, radioactively labeled segment of nucleic acid used to find DNA probe a gene of interest by hydrogen-bonding to a complementary sequence. A part of the three-dimensional structure of a DNA-binding domain transcription factor that binds to DNA. A taxonomic category above the kingdom domain level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
  16. 16. A linear quot;pecking orderquot; of animals, where dominance hierarchy position dictates characteristic social behaviors. In a heterozygote, the allele that is fully dominant allele expressed in the phenotype. The phenotype that results from having at dominant phenotype least one dominant allele. Those species in a community that have the highest abundance or highest biomass. dominant species These species exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species. A biogenic amine closely related to dopamine epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  17. 17. A condition typified by extremely low dormancy metabolic rate and a suspension of growth and development. Pertaining to the back of a bilaterally dorsal symmetrical animal. dorsal lip The dorsal side of the blastopore. A circulation scheme with separate double circulation pulmonary and systemic circuits, which ensures vigorous blood flow to all organs. A type of covalent bond in which two atoms double covalent bond share two pairs of electrons; symbolized by a pair of lines between the bonded atoms.
  18. 18. A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells double fertilization in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm. The form of native DNA, referring to its two double helix adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape. A human genetic disease resulting from having an extra chromosome 21, Down syndrome characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects. Members of the group Oomycota, they are heterotrophic stramenopiles that lack downy mildews chloroplasts, typically have cell walls made of cellulose, and generally live on land as parasites of plants. Drosophila Fruit fly.
  19. 19. A human genetic disease caused by a sex- Duchenne muscular linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle dystrophy tissue. The first section of the small intestine, where acid chyme from the stomach mixes with duodenum digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and gland cells of the intestinal wall. An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from an error in meiosis or duplication mutagens; duplication of a portion of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome. A large contractile protein forming the side- dynein arms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella. One of three binding sites for tRNA during translation, it is the place where discharged E site tRNAs leave the ribosome; E stands for exit site.
  20. 20. A steroid hormone that triggers molting in ecdysone arthropods. One of two distinct clades within the ecdysozoa protostomes. It includes the arthropods. Sessile or slow-moving animals that include echinoderms sea stars, sea urchins, brittle stars, crinoids, and basket stars. The ratio of net productivity at one trophic ecological efficiency level to net productivity at the next lower level. A method to use multiple constraints to estimate the human carrying capacity of Earth by calculating the aggregate land and ecological footprint water area in various ecosystem categories that is appropriated by a nation to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates.
  21. 21. (nich) The sum total of a species' use of the ecological niche biotic and abiotic resources of its environment. ecological species The idea that ecological roles (niches) define species. concept Transition in the species composition of a biological community, often following ecological succession ecological disturbance of the community; the establishment of a biological community in an area virtually barren of life. The study of how organisms interact with ecology their environments. All the organisms in a given area as well as ecosystem the abiotic factors with which they interact; a community and its physical environment.
  22. 22. The study of energy flow and the cycling of ecosystem ecology chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem. The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the ectoderm outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye. A type of mycorrhizae in which the mycelium forms a dense sheath, or mantle, over the surface of the root. Hyphae extend from the ectomycorrhizae mantle into the soil, greatly increasing the surface area for water and mineral absorption. Parasites that feed on the external surface of ectoparasites a host. An animal, such as a reptile, fish, or amphibian, that must use environmental ectotherm energy and behavioral adaptations to regulate its body temperature.
  23. 23. Organisms that do not produce enough ectothermic metabolic heat to have much effect on body temperature. ediacaran period The last period of the Precambrian era. A muscle cell or gland cell that performs the body's responses to stimuli; responds to effector cell signals from the brain or other processing center of the nervous system. efferent arteriole The blood vessel draining a nephron. Another name for maternal effect genes, egg-polarity genes these genes control the orientation (polarity) of the egg.
  24. 24. The short section of the ejaculatory route in mammals formed by the convergence of the ejaculatory duct vas deferens and a duct from the seminal vesicle. The ejaculatory duct transports sperm from the vas deferens to the urethra. Long threads made of the protein elastin. Elastic fibers provide a rubbery quality to the elastic fibers extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers. electrocardiogram (ECG A record of the electrical impulses that travel through cardiac muscle during the heart or EKG) cycle. The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing electrochemical a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion gradient across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential. electroencephalogram A medical test that measures different patterns in the electrical activity of the brain. (EEG)
  25. 25. An ion transport protein generating voltage electrogenic pump across the membrane. electromagnetic Receptors of electromagnetic energy, such as visible light, electricity, and magnetism. receptor electromagnetic The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to spectrum more than a kilometer. A subatomic particle with a single negative electron charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom. A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope. A transmission electron electron microscope microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cell surfaces.
  26. 26. An energy level representing the distance of electron shell an electron from the nucleus of an atom. A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons electron transport chain during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP. The attraction of an atom for the electrons of electronegativity a covalent bond. A technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse electroporation to a solution containing cells. The electricity creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membranes, through which DNA can enter. Any substance that cannot be broken down element to any other substance.
  27. 27. The passing of undigested material out of elimination the digestive compartment. embryo New developing individuals. The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the embryo sac megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei. Mutations with phenotypes leading to death embryonic lethal at the embryo or larval stage. Another name for land plants, recognizing embryophyte that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
  28. 28. The process that keeps tiny fat droplets from emulsification coalescing. Molecules that are mirror images of each enantiomer other. A species that is in danger of extinction endangered species throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Species that are confined to a specific, endemic species relatively small geographic area. A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in endergonic reaction which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
  29. 29. A ductless gland that secretes hormones endocrine gland directly into the bloodstream. The internal system of chemical communication involving hormones, the ductless glands that secrete hormones, and the molecular receptors on or in target cells endocrine system that respond to hormones; functions in concert with the nervous system to effect internal regulation and maintain homeostasis. The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions endocytosis of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle. The innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the endoderm archenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract. The innermost layer of the cortex in plant endodermis roots; a cylinder one cell thick that forms the boundary between the cortex and the stele.
  30. 30. The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either endomembrane system through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles. The inner lining of the uterus, which is richly endometrium supplied with blood vessels. A type of mycorrhizae that, unlike ectomycorrhizae, do not have a dense endomycorrhizae mantle ensheathing the root. Instead, microscopic fungal hyphae extend from the root into the soil. endoparasites Parasites that live within a host. An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer endoplasmic reticulum nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
  31. 31. A hormone produced in the brain and endorphin anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception. A hard skeleton buried within the soft tissues of an animal, such as the spicules of endoskeleton sponges, the plates of echinoderms, and the bony skeletons of vertebrates. A nutrient-rich tissue formed by the union of a sperm cell with two polar nuclei during endosperm double fertilization, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds. A thick-coated, resistant cell produced within endospore a bacterial cell exposed to harsh conditions. A hypothesis about the origin of the eukaryotic cell, maintaining that the endosymbiotic theory forerunners of eukaryotic cells were symbiotic associations of prokaryotic cells living inside larger prokaryotes.
  32. 32. The innermost, simple squamous layer of endothelium cells lining the blood vessels; the only constituent structure of capillaries. An animal that uses metabolic energy to endotherm maintain a constant body temperature, such as a bird or mammal. Organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is endothermic usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment. A component of the outer membranes of endotoxin certain gram-negative bacteria responsible for generalized symptoms of fever and ache. The concept that the length of a food chain is energetic hypothesis limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain.
  33. 33. The capacity to do work (to move matter energy against an opposing force). In cellular metabolism, the use of energy energy coupling released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction. The different states of potential energy for energy level electrons in an atom. A DNA sequence that recognizes certain enhancer transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes. The type of development found in deuterostomes. The coelomic cavities form enterocoelous when mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron and hollows out.
  34. 34. A category of hormones secreted by the wall enterogastrones of the duodenum. An intestinal enzyme that directly or eneteropeptidase indirectly triggers activation of other enzymes within the intestinal lumen. entomology The study of insects. A quantitative measure of disorder or entropy randomness, symbolized by S. An ecological term for the effect of spatial environmental gain variation, or patchiness, relative to the size and behavior of an organism.
  35. 35. A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical enzyme agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. The embryonic axis above the point at which epicotyl the cotyledons are attached. (1) The dermal tissue system in plants. (2) epidermis The outer covering of animals. A coiled tubule located adjacent to the testes epididymis where sperm are stored. The progressive development of form in an epigenesist embryo.
  36. 36. A cartilaginous flap that blocks the top of the windpipe, the glottis, during swallowing, epiglottis which prevents the entry of food or fluid into the respiratory system. A hormone produced as a response to epinephrine stress; also called adrenaline. A plant that nourishes itself but grows on the epiphyte surface of another plant for support, usually on the branches or trunks of tropical trees. A genetic element that can exist either as a episome plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome. A genetic element that can exist either as a epistasis plasmid or as part of the bacterial chromosome.
  37. 37. A brain region, derived from the diencephalon, that contains several clusters epithalamus of capillaries that produce cerebrospinal fluid. Sheets of tightly packed cells that line epithelial tissue organs and body cavities. A localized region on the surface of an epitopse antigen that is chemically recognized by antibodies; also called antigenic determinant. A red blood cell; contains hemoglobin, which erythrocyte functions in transporting oxygen in the circulatory system. A hormone produced in the kidney when tissues of the body do not receive enough erythropoietin oxygen. This hormone stimulates the production of erythrocytes.
  38. 38. A channel that conducts food, by peristalsis, esophagus from the pharynx to the stomach. The amino acids that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must obtain from food. essential amino acids Eight amino acids are essential in the human adult. Certain unsaturated fatty acids that animals essential fatty acids cannot make. A chemical element that is required for a plant to grow from a seed and complete the essential nutrient life cycle, producing another generation of seeds. A physiological state characterized by slow metabolism and inactivity, which permits estivation survival during long periods of elevated temperature and diminished water supplies.
  39. 39. The primary female steroid sex hormones, which are produced in the ovary by the developing follicle during the first half of the cycle and in smaller quantities by the corpus estrogens luteum during the second half. Estrogens stimulate the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. A type of reproductive cycle in all female mammals except higher primates, in which estrous cycle the nonpregnant endometrium is reabsorbed rather than shed, and sexual response occurs only during midcycle at estrus. A period of sexual activity associated with estrus ovulation. The area where a freshwater stream or river estuary merges with the ocean. The study of animal behavior in natural ethology conditions.
  40. 40. The only gaseous plant hormone, ethylene responsible for fruit ripening, growth inhibition, leaf abscission, and aging. The more open, unraveled form of eukaryotic euchromatin chromatin that is available for transcription. A large subgroup of traditionally dicot eudicots angiosperms including roses, peas, buttercups, sunflowers, oaks, and maples. A group of protistans, including Euglena and its relatives, characterized by an anterior euglenoid pocket or chamber from which one or two flagella emerge. A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles, eukaryotic cell present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals; also called eukaryote.
  41. 41. Members of the subkingdom that includes all eumetazoa animals except sponges. Organisms that can tolerate substantial euryhaline changes in external osmolarity. Mainly marine and freshwater, extinct, eurypterids chelicerates. These predators, also called water scorpions, ranged up to 3 meters long. The tube that connects the middle ear to the Eustachian tube pharynx. Placental mammals; those whose young complete their embryonic development eutherian mammals within the uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta.
  42. 42. Pertaining to a highly productive lake, having eutrophic a high rate of biological productivity supported by a high rate of nutrient cycling. The removal of heat energy from the surface evaporation of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules. The property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to evaporative cooling a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state. All the changes that have transformed life on evolution Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today. evolutionary species The idea that evolutionary lineages and ecological roles can form the basis of concept species identification.
  43. 43. A structure that evolves and functions in one environmental context but that can perform exaptation additional functions when placed in some new environment. Cells that have the ability to generate excitable cells changes in their membrane potentials. An electrical change (depolarization) in the membrane of a postsynaptic neuron caused excitatory postsynaptic by the binding of an excitatory neurotransmitter from a presynaptic cell to a potential (EPSP) postsynaptic receptor; makes it more likely for a postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential. The disposal of nitrogen-containing waste excretion products of metabolism. A spontaneous chemical reaction in which exergonic reaction there is a net release of free energy.
  44. 44. The cellular secretion of macromolecules by exocytosis the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane. Powerful hydrolytic enzymes secreted by a exoenzymes fungus outside its body to digest food. A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, exon which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns. A hard encasement on the surface of an animal, such as the shells of mollusks or the exoskeleton cuticles of arthropods, that provides protection and points of attachment for muscles. A toxic protein secreted by a bacterial cell exotoxin that produces specific symptoms even in the absence of the bacterium.
  45. 45. exponential population The geometric increase of a population as it grows in an ideal, unlimited environment. growth A cloning vector that contains the requisite prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a expression vector restriction site where a eukaryotic gene can be inserted. The fusion of gametes that parents have external fertilization discharged into the environment. Sensory receptors that detect stimuli outside exteroreceptor the body, such as heat, light, pressure, and chemicals. extracellular digestion The breakdown of food outside cells.
  46. 46. extracellular matrix The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and (ECM) polysaccharides. extraembryonic Four membranes (yolk sac, amnion, chorion, allantois) that support the developing embryo membranes in reptiles, birds, and mammals. Microorganisms that live in unusually highly extreme halophiles saline environments such as the Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea. Microorganisms that thrive in hot extremeophile environments (often 60–80 degrees C). Microorganisms that live in extreme environments. They are further classified as 5’ cap either methanogens, extreme halophiles, or extreme thermophiles.
  47. 47. A fertility factor in bacteria, a DNA segment that confers the ability to form pili for conjugation and associated functions F factor required for the transfer of DNA from donor to recipient. It may exist as a plasmid or integrated into the bacterial chromosome. The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a genetic F1 generation cross-fertilization. The F factor and its plasmid that consists of F1 plasmid about 25 genes, most of which are required for the production of sex pili. Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the F2 generation hybrid F1 generation. The positive effect of early species on the facilitate appearance of later species in ecological succession.
  48. 48. The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients. An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that facultative anaerobe switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. In classification, the taxonomic category family above genus. The depolarization of the egg membrane fast block to within 1–3 seconds after sperm binding to the vitelline layer. The reaction prevents polyspermy additional sperm from fusing with the egg's plasma membrane. Muscle cells used for rapid, powerful fast muscle fibers contractions.
  49. 49. A biological compound consisting of three fat (tracylglycerol) fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule. Territorial diagrams of embryonic fate maps development that reveal the future development of individual cells and tissues. A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and fatty acid location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat. Light epidermal outgrowths that form the feathers external covering of the body of birds. feces The wastes of the digestive tract.
  50. 50. A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as feedback inhibition an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway. A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an fermentation electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid. The union of haploid gametes to produce a fertilization diploid zygote. The swelling of the vitelline layer away from fertilization envelope the plasma membrane. A developing human from the ninth week of fetus gestation until birth; has all the major structures of an atult.
  51. 51. A lignified cell type that reinforces the xylem of angiosperms and functions in mechanical fiber support; a slender, tapered sclerenchyma cell that usually occurs in bundles. The activated form of the blood-clotting fibrin protein fibrinogen, which aggregates into threads that form the fabric of the clot. The inactive form of the plasma protein that is converted to the active form fibrin, which fibrinogen aggregates into threads that form the framework of a blood clot. A type of cell in loose connective tissue that fibroblast secretes the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers. A glycoprotein that helps cells attach to the fibronectin extracellular matrix.
  52. 52. A dense tissue with large numbers of fibrous connective collagenous fibers organized into parallel bundles. This is the dominant tissue in tissue tendons and ligaments. Root systems common to monocots fibrous root systems consisting of a mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface. filament The stalk of a stamen. Fluid extracted by the excretory system from the blood or body cavity. The excretory filtrate system produces urine from the filtrate after extracting valuable solutes from it and concentrating it. In the vertebrate kidney, the extraction of filtration water and small solutes, including metabolic wastes, from the blood by the nephrons.
  53. 53. first law of The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, thermodynamics but it cannot be created or destroyed. fixed action pattern A sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried (FAP) to completion once initiated. Limp. Walled cells are flaccid in isotonic flaccid surroundings, where there is no tendency for water to enter. (plural, flagella) A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a flagellum core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane. In an angiosperm, a short stem with four sets flower of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction.
  54. 54. The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the fluid mosaic model membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids. An animal that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluid-feeder fluids from another living organism. A microscopic structure in the ovary that follicle contains the developing ovum and secretes estrogens. follicle-stimulating A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of hormone (FSH) eggs by the ovaries and sperm by the testes. That portion of the ovarian cycle during follicular phase which several follicles in the ovary begin to grow.
  55. 55. The pathway along which food is transferred food chain from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers. food vacuole A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis. The elaborate, interconnected feeding food web relationships in an ecosystem. The portion of a moss sporophyte that gathers sugars, amino acids, water, and foot minerals from the parent gametophyte via transfer cells. Behavior necessary to recognize, search for, foraging capture, and consume food.
  56. 56. A marine protozoan that secretes a shell and foram extends pseudopodia through pores in its shell. One of three ancestral and embryonic forebrain regions of the vertebrate brain; develops into the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebrum. A preserved remnant or impression of an fossil organism that lived in the past. Energy deposits formed from the remains of fossil fuels extinct organisms; fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas. The chronicle of evolution over millions of fossil record years of geologic time engraved in the order in which fossils appear in rock strata.
  57. 57. Genetic drift attributable to colonization by a founder effect limited number of individuals from a parent population. An eye's center of focus and the place on the fovea retina where photoreceptors are highly concentrated. A hereditary mental disorder, partially explained by genomic imprinting and the fragile X syndrome addition of nucleotides to a triplet repeat near the end of an X chromosome. A means of asexual reproduction whereby a fragmentation single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals. A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a frameshift mutation multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
  58. 58. A quantity of energy that interrelates entropy symbolized by G (S) and the system's total energy (H). The change in free energy of a free energy system is calculated by the equation: G equals delta H minus T times delta S, where T is absolute temperature. The initial investment of energy necessary to free energy of activation start a chemical reaction; also called activation energy. A decline in the reproductive success of a frequency-dependent morph resulting from the morph's phenotype becoming too common in a population; a selection cause of balanced polymorphism in populations. A mature ovary of a flower that protects fruit dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal. A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic functional group molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
  59. 59. Fungi The kingdom that contains the fungi. A heterotrophic eukaryote that digests its food externally and absorbs the resulting small nutrient molecules. Most fungi consist fungus of a netlike mass of filaments called hyphae. Molds, mushrooms, and yeasts are examples of fungi. The cambium cells within the vascular fusiform initials bundles. The name refers to the tapered ends of these elongated cells. A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G-protein linked receptor, to other signal-transduction proteins inside the G protein cell. When such a receptor is activated, it in turn activates the G protein, causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates the G protein. A nondividing state in which a cell has left G0 phase the cell cycle.
  60. 60. The first growth phase of the cell cycle, G1 phase consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins. The second growth phase of the cell cycle, G2 phase consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs. An organ that stores bile and releases it as gallbladder needed into the small intestine. (plural, gametangia) The reproductive organ of bryophytes, consisting of the male gametangium antheridium and female archegonium; a multichambered jacket of sterile cells in which gametes are formed. A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. gamete Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
  61. 61. The mature gamete-producing structure of a gametophores gametophyte body of a moss. The multicellular haploid form in organisms undergoing alternation of generations that gametophyte mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation. gamma aminobutyric An amino acid that functions as a CNS neurotransmitter. acid (GABA) (plural, ganglia) A cluster (functional group) ganglion of nerve cell bodies in a centralized nervous system. Mutations in these genes cause quot;gapsquot; in Drosophila segmentation. The normal gene gap genes products map out the basic subdivisions along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo.
  62. 62. A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current gap junction between cells; also known as a communicating junction. The uptake of molecular oxygen from the gas exchange environment and the discharge of carbon dioxide to the environment. The collection of fluids secreted by the gastric juice epithelium lining the stomach. A digestive hormone, secreted by the gastrin stomach, that stimulates the secretion of gastric juice. An extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passageway to gastrovascular cavity disperse materials throughout most of an animal's body.
  63. 63. The two-layered, cup-shaped embryonic gastrula stage. gastrulation The formation of a gastrula from a blastula. A protein channel in a cell membrane that gated channel opens or closes in response to a particular stimulus. A gated channel for a specific ion. By gated ion channel opening and closing such channels, a cell alters its membrane potential. The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical gel electrophoresis charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
  64. 64. A discrete unit of hereditary information gene consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). The selective synthesis of DNA, which gene amplification results in multiple copies of a single gene, thereby enhancing expression. gene cloning The production of multiple copies of a gene. The loss or gain of alleles in a population gene flow due to the migration of fertile individuals or gametes between populations. The total aggregate of genes in a population gene pool at any one time
  65. 65. The alternation of the genes of a person gene therapy afflicted with a genetic disease. generalized The random transfer of bacterial genes from one bacterium to another. transduction Changes in the gene pool of a small genetic drift population due to chance. The direct manipulation of genes for practical genetic engineering purposes. An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic map genetic markers) along a chromosome.
  66. 66. The general term for the production of genetic recombination offspring with new combinations of traits inherited from the two parents. genetically modified An organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means; also known as a (GM) organism transgenic organism. The scientific study of heredity and genetics hereditary variation. The complete complement of an organism's genome genes; an organism's genetic material. The parental effect on gene expression whereby identical alleles have different genomic imprinting effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.
  67. 67. A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genomic library genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector. The study of whole sets of genes and their genomics interactions. genotype The genetic makeup of an organism. (plural, genera) A taxonomic category above genus the species level, designated by the first word of a species' binomial Latin name. The geographic area in which a population geographic range lives.
  68. 68. The geographic area in which a population geographic variation lives. A time scale established by geologists that reflects a consistent sequence of historical geologic time scale periods, grouped into four eras: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. Compounds that have the same molecular geometric isomers formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms. A rapid J-shaped growth curve that typically geometric population occurs when members have access to abundant food and are free to reproduce at growth their physiological capacity. Three main layers that form the various germ layers tissues and organs of an animal body.
  69. 69. Pregnancy; the state of carrying developing gestation young within the female reproductive tract. A class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stem and leaves, gibberellins trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and stimulate fruit development with auxin. A localized extension of the body surface of gill many aquatic animals, specialized for gas exchange. gill circulation The flow of blood through gills. A phylum of gymnosperms represented by a single extant species, Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgophyta characterized by fanlike leaves that turn gold and are deciduous in autumn.
  70. 70. glandular epithelia Epithelia that secrete chemical solutions. glans penis The head end of the penis. Supporting cells that are essential for the glia structural integrity of the nervous system and for the normal functioning of neurons. A nonconducting cell of the nervous system glial cell that provides support, insulation, and protection for the neurons. A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's glomerulus capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.
  71. 71. A peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic glucagon endocrine cells that raises blood glucose levels; an antagonistic hormone to insulin. A corticosteroid hormone secreted by the glucocorticoid adrenal cortex that influences glucose metabolism and immune function. An amino acid that functions as a CNS glutamate neurotransmitter. glyceraldehydes-3- The carbohydrate produced directly from the Calvin cycle. phosphate (G3P) A three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group glycerol on each carbon.
  72. 72. An amino acid that functions as a CNS glycine neurotransmitter. A fuzzy coat on the outside of animal cells, glycocalyx made of sticky oligosaccharides. An extensively branched glucose storage glycogen polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch. The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that glycolysis occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration. A protein covalently attached to a glycoprotein carbohydrate.
  73. 73. A covalent bond formed between two glycosidic linkage monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction. gnathostomes The vertebrate subgroup that possess jaws. A phylum of gymnosperms consisting of just Gnetophyta three extant genera that are very different in appearance. Typically unicellular, biflagellated, algae with golden algae yellow and brown carotene and xanthophyll accessory pigments. An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, Golgi apparatus store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  74. 74. Hormones that stimulate the activities of the gonadotropins testes and ovaries; a collective term for follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones. The male and female sex organs; the gonads gamete-producing organs in most animals. G-protein linked receptor graded potential gradualism
  75. 75. graft versus host reaction Gram stain gram-negative gram-positive granum
  76. 76. gravitropism gray crescent gray matter green algae greenhouse effect
  77. 77. gross primary production (GPP) ground meristem ground tissue growth factor growth hormone
  78. 78. guard cell gustatory receptors guttation gymnosperm habitats
  79. 79. habituation hair cell half-life Hamilton’s Rule haploid cell
  80. 80. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg formula Hardy-Weinberg theorem haustorium Haversian system
  81. 81. heart heart rate heat heat of vaporization heat-shock protein
  82. 82. heavy chains helicase heliozoan helper T cell (TH) hemocyanin
  83. 83. hemoglobin hemolymph hemophilia hepatic portal vessel Hepatophyta
  84. 84. herbivore herbivory heredity hermaphrodite hermaphroditism
  85. 85. heterochromatin heterochrony heterocyst heterogeneity heterokaryon
  86. 86. heteromorphic heterosporous heterotrophy heterozygote advantage heterozygous
  87. 87. hibernation high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hindbrain histamine histone
  88. 88. histone acetylation HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) holdfast holoblastic cleavage homeobox
  89. 89. homeosis homeostasis homeotic gene hominid hominoid
  90. 90. homologous chromosomes homologous structures homology homosporous homozygous
  91. 91. horizontal cell hormone hornworts host host range
  92. 92. human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Human Genome Project humoral immunity humus Huntington’s disease
  93. 93. hybridization hydration shell hydrocarbon hydrogen bond hydrogen ion
  94. 94. hydrolysis hydrophilic hydrophobic hydrophobic interaction hydrostatic skeleton
  95. 95. hydroxide ion hydroxyl group hymen hyperpolarization hypertonic
  96. 96. hypha hypocotyls hypothalamus hypotonic solution

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