1. Green Manufacturing “Green manufacturing involves making manufactured products and the manufacturing process safer for the environment and human health” (Cha). What does this mean? Regarding Products The use of less toxic or nontoxic materials Post-consumer recycled content (containing materials that consumers have used and recycled) Locally sourced materials (ex. Stone and granite from local quarries rather than imported from around the globe) Products manufactured and used in renewable and energy efficient systems (ex. Gearboxes used in small-scale wind turbines) Regarding Process Improving operational energy efficiency Onsite recycling Employee occupational health and safety
1. Green manufacturing (continued) Local Example: Tri-State Biodiesel, Bronx Vision: “TSB believes that the use of sustainably produced biodieselin combination with demand reduction measures such as mass-transit and transportation alternatives and in concert with technological advances such as diesel hybrids and light rail systems, can create an America that is both energy independent and sustainable.” Image courtesy of : http://www.tristatebiodiesel.com/
Green Manufacturing in action The TSB Process 1.) Waste oil from restaurants is emptied into large steel storage barrels 2.) A TBS representative comes to siphon the used oil into a collection tank 3.) Oil is processed to remove dirt, food particles, and water 4.) Purified oil feedstock is transported to aBiodieselfacility where methanol, sodium methylate, and heat are added causing a chemical reaction called Transesterification 5.) Transesterification yields mono-alkyl esters or Biodiesel 6.) Hence, the heater that warms you or the car you drive could be fueled byBiodieselmade from recycled vegetable oil Baker, Brent. "Tristate Biodiesel.” Sustainability. Tristate Biodiesel. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. <http://www.tristatebiodiesel.com/>.
2. Deconstruction “Deconstruction is the process of carefully dismantling and removing useable materials from structures for reuse, recycling, and waste management” (Cha). Advantages: Maximizes the recovery of valuable building materials for reuse and recycling Minimizes the amount of waste destined for landfills Alternative to demolition “A typical 13,300 square foot commercial demolition project generates over 155 pounds per square foot or over 2 million pounds of waste;2 building-related projects in the U.S. alone generate an estimated 164 million tons of construction and demolition (C&D) material every year. Approximately 40% of this material is reused, recycled, or sent to waste-to-energy facilities, while 60 percent is sent to C&D landfills” EPA Report: Beneficial Use of Secondary Materials – Construction and Demolition Materials
2. DECONSTRUCTION (CONTINUED) Example: Susquehanna Deconstruction Pilot Project
Deconstruction pilot project to determine cost-effective methods for removing lumber and other valuable materials
The project successfully demonstrated that deconstruction can be cost-competitive with hand demolition when there are sufficient recoverable materials to offset the high labor costs.
Experiment with “paneling,” large sections of row houses are removed intact for disassembly and reuse. Unique architectural features such as a corner turret and radiators are retrieved from urban row houses and sold through local salvage business. Images courtesy of OSWER Innovation Project Success Story: Deconstruction
3. Reuse “This subsector redistributes unwanted yet perfectly usable materials and equipment, including items from demolished structures” (Cha). Advantages Keeps goods and materials out of the waste stream Advances source reduction Preserves the ‘embodied energy’ originally used to manufacture an item Creates less air and water pollution than making a new product or recycling Saves money in purchase and disposal costs
4. Recycling “Recycling is the collection, sorting, and reprocessing of used material into new raw materials” (Cha). Image courtesy of: http://www.newrockford-sheyenne.k12.nd.us/activities/groups/nhs/Recycling
5. Remanufacturing “A process of bringing the used products back to ‘as new’ condition by performing the necessary operations such as disassembly, overhaul and replacement” (Fleishman et al.) Advantages:
A typical unit (a product or a part) flow in remanufacturing (Gungor et. al.)
Works Cited Baker, Brent. "Tristate Biodiesel.” Sustainability. Tristate Biodiesel. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. http://www.tristatebiodiesel.com/ Cha, J. Mijin, and Jack Dafoe. New York City Green-Collar Jobs Roadmap. Rep. Center for American Progress & Urban Agenda, Oct. 2009. Web. 6 Apr. 2010 Fleischmann, M., and J.M. Boemhof-Ruwaard. "Quantitative Models for Reverse Logistics: A Review.” European Journal of Operational Research 103 (1997): 1-17. Science Direct. Web. 7 May 2010. Gungor, Askiner, and Surendra M. Gupta. "Issues in Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing and Product Recovery: a Survey." Computers & Industrial Engineering 36.4: 811-53. Science Direct. Web. 7 May 2010.