PRIMARY – Information or data that has not been evaluated or analyzed
census data laws
musical scores letters
SECONDARY – Information or data that has been evaluated.
Journalists-Professional Commercial Publishers
Easy to understand language General Audience
No specific format Brief-non-technical
Glossy paper, color photos No cites-bibs
Authors not always identified Credentials not given
Specific group with an interest in a particular trade/industry.
Provide general news, information, and statistics about a specific industry.
Industry specific advertising.
Professional technical, business, and staff writers.
Writers not always identified.
Glossy paper, color photos.
Support Industry, public relations, support professionals, and
schol·ar·ship (skŏl'ər-shĭp') n. Knowledge resulting from study and research in a particular field .
Investigate, experiment, inform, persuade, share
HOW CAN WE TELL IF IT’S SCHOLARLY?
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society
Article: pp. 634–637 | Abstract
Volume 76, Issue 4 (October 2003)
New Records of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) for North Dakota
P. P. Tinerella
Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 581
Always acknowledged in the article (credentials and affiliation)
Recognized experts with significant knowledge in a subject area
Possess the credentials to speak to a subject authoritatively
Universities and professional societies that are always identified
Peer reviewed (also known as refereed or juried ) is a process of subjecting an author's work , research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It is used primarily by editors to select and to screen submitted manuscripts .
PLoS Biology Editorial Board
Anurag Agrawal Cornell University
Julie Ahringer University of Cambridge
Shizuo Akira Osaka University Japan Richard W. Aldrich University of Texas Austin America Goran Arnqvist University of Uppsala James Ashe University of Minnesota Anthony D. Barnosky University of California
Nick H. Barton University of Edinburgh
Konrad Basler University of Zurich
EDITORIAL POLICY `
Articles longer and provide in-depth analysis
Jargon w/in Field
An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, which precedes the main text.
Biology, Habitat Preference, and Larval Description of Cicindela cursitans Leconte (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae)
Mathew L. Brust, A , W. Wyatt Hoback A , and C. Barry Knisley B
A. Department of Biology University of Nebraska at Kearney, 905 W. 25th St. Kearney, NE 68849, U.S.A. E-mail:
LeConte is a small, flightless tiger beetle with a widely scattered distribution in the Great Plains, the Ohio Valley, and the north-central Gulf Coast region. Many aspects of the life history of C. cursitans are poorly known, and the larval stages have remained undescribed until now. We designed experiments to determine specific habitat preference, female oviposition preference, and daily activity cycles of the adults. In addition, we describe the entire pre-adult life history. Adults are most numerous on moist clay soils with sparse to patchy vegetation, but they may also occur in tall-grass prairies. Females oviposit strictly in moist soils consisting of fine particles. Adults are both diurnal and crepuscular, and presumably spend the nighttime hours hiding among vegetation. Larvae occur in the same habitats as the adults and are typically clustered near the bases of plants. The larvae are the smallest of any tiger beetle species described in North America (body length of first instars = 2.6–3.2 mm, second instars = 5.4–6.7 mm, third instars = 8.4–10.1 mm) and most similar in morphology to Cicindela debilis Bates. Knowledge of the life history and habitats used by this species will allow a better understanding of its distribution and abundance, and its association with prairie habitats. This information as well as low dispersal rates may make this species useful for assessment of habitat quality and restoration success.
SCHOLARS CITE THEIR SOURCES
1. Ludwell H. Johnson, Division and Reunion : America 1848-1877 (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978), 195-6.
2. Arthur Schlesinger, The Imperial Presidency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), 72-75.
3. Hans L. Trefousse, Andrew Johnson: A Biography (New York: W.W. Nortonand Company, 1969), 311.
4. Page Smith, Trial by Fire: A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York: Penguin Books, 1982), 699-689.
5. John W. Burgess, Reconstruction and the Constitution: 1866-1876 (New York: DeCapo Press, 1970), 9-10.
6. Kenneth M. Stampp, The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (New York: Vintage Books, 1965), 24-30.
7. Smith, p. 789.
Illustrations that support the text
Graphs, tables, and charts
PUT IT ALL TOGETHER
Katharine Sharp Review #8 - Summer 1999
Judith Currano "Making a Sound" in Chemical Information: The Importance of a Structure Editor in Information Retrieval
David Michalski The Predicament of Anthropology: Providing Reference Support in a Fragmented Discipline
Rebecca Platzner Dealing With Death: A Close Look at Margaret Wise Brown and Remy Charlip's Picture Book Classic, The Dead Bird
Vincent P. Tinerella The Crisis in Scholarly Publishing and the Role of the Academic Library
Kevin Ward, University of Illinois - Founding Editor Luis Acosta, Catholic University of America Robert Benson, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Robert Bolander, Kent State University Daniel Cook, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Sheila Devaney, North Carolina Central University Deborah Dossinger, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Maureen Downey, University College, Dublin Melisa Fiumara, University at Buffalo Annie Goodwin, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
AUTHOR and AFFILIATION, ABSTRACT, TABLES, JARGON, FORMAL WRITING STYLE
SECTION HEADINGS, STATISTICS, FOOTNOTES
Conclusion, Notes, References, Bibliography, Author Information
List of Contributors
Digital Spaces and Resources
Pre-Prints and Open Access Projects
THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF SCHOLARS AND RESEARCHERS PUBLISH THEIR WORK IN ACADEMIC JOURNALS AVAILABLE FROM SUBSCRIPTION BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES ACCESSIBLE FROM THE LIBRARY HOMEPAGE— NOT FREE ON THE INTERNET