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  • 1.
    • IDENTIFYING SCHOLARLY MATERIAL
    • VINCENT P. TINERELLA
  • 2. EVIDENCE
  • 3. SOURCES
    • PRIMARY – Information or data that has not been evaluated or analyzed
    • census data laws
    • diaries speeches
    • autobiographies
    • tech reports
    • transcripts e-mail
    • musical scores letters
    • SECONDARY – Information or data that has been evaluated.
      • books
      • articles
      • reviews
      • textbooks
      • bibliographies
      • Web sites
  • 4.  
  • 5. PERIODICAL LITERATURE
  • 6. POPULAR MAGAZINES
    • Journalists-Professional Commercial Publishers
    • Easy to understand language General Audience
    • No specific format Brief-non-technical
    • Glossy paper, color photos No cites-bibs
    • Authors not always identified Credentials not given
    • Entertain
    • COMMERCIAL ADS
  • 7. TRADE JOURNALS
    • Specific group with an interest in a particular trade/industry.
    • Provide general news, information, and statistics about a specific industry.
    • Industry specific advertising.
    • Professional technical, business, and staff writers.
    • Writers not always identified.
    • Rarely cites-bibliographies.
    • Professional publishers.
    • Glossy paper, color photos.
    • Support Industry, public relations, support professionals, and
  • 8. SCHOLARLY JOURNALS
    • schol·ar·ship   (skŏl'ər-shĭp')   n.  Knowledge resulting from study and research in a particular field .
    • Investigate, experiment, inform, persuade, share
  • 9. HOW CAN WE TELL IF IT’S SCHOLARLY?
  • 10. AUTHORS
    • Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society
    • Article: pp. 634–637 | Abstract
    • Volume 76, Issue 4 (October 2003)
    • New Records of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) for North Dakota
    • P. P. Tinerella
    • Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 581
    • Always acknowledged in the article (credentials and affiliation)
    • Recognized experts with significant knowledge in a subject area
    • Possess the credentials to speak to a subject authoritatively
  • 11. PUBLISHERS
    • Universities and professional societies that are always identified
  • 12. PEER REVIEW
    • Peer reviewed (also known as refereed or juried ) is a process of subjecting an author's work , research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field. It is used primarily by editors to select and to screen submitted manuscripts .
    • PLoS Biology Editorial Board
    • Anurag Agrawal Cornell University
    • Julie Ahringer University of Cambridge
    • Shizuo Akira Osaka University Japan Richard W. Aldrich University of Texas Austin America Goran Arnqvist University of Uppsala James Ashe University of Minnesota Anthony D. Barnosky University of California
    • Nick H. Barton University of Edinburgh
    • Konrad Basler University of Zurich
    • EDITORIAL POLICY `
  • 13. FORMAL WRITING
    • Articles longer and provide in-depth analysis
    • Standardized Rules
    • Jargon w/in Field
    • Technical Language
  • 14. ABSTRACTS
    • An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, which precedes the main text.
    • Biology, Habitat Preference, and Larval Description of Cicindela cursitans Leconte (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae)
    • Mathew L. Brust, A , W. Wyatt Hoback A , and C. Barry Knisley B
    • A. Department of Biology University of Nebraska at Kearney, 905 W. 25th St. Kearney, NE 68849, U.S.A. E-mail:
    • Abstract:
    • LeConte is a small, flightless tiger beetle with a widely scattered distribution in the Great Plains, the Ohio Valley, and the north-central Gulf Coast region. Many aspects of the life history of C. cursitans are poorly known, and the larval stages have remained undescribed until now. We designed experiments to determine specific habitat preference, female oviposition preference, and daily activity cycles of the adults. In addition, we describe the entire pre-adult life history. Adults are most numerous on moist clay soils with sparse to patchy vegetation, but they may also occur in tall-grass prairies. Females oviposit strictly in moist soils consisting of fine particles. Adults are both diurnal and crepuscular, and presumably spend the nighttime hours hiding among vegetation. Larvae occur in the same habitats as the adults and are typically clustered near the bases of plants. The larvae are the smallest of any tiger beetle species described in North America (body length of first instars = 2.6–3.2 mm, second instars = 5.4–6.7 mm, third instars = 8.4–10.1 mm) and most similar in morphology to Cicindela debilis Bates. Knowledge of the life history and habitats used by this species will allow a better understanding of its distribution and abundance, and its association with prairie habitats. This information as well as low dispersal rates may make this species useful for assessment of habitat quality and restoration success.
  • 15. SCHOLARS CITE THEIR SOURCES
    • 1.   Ludwell H. Johnson, Division and Reunion : America 1848-1877 (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978), 195-6.
    • 2.  Arthur Schlesinger, The Imperial Presidency (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), 72-75.
    • 3.  Hans L. Trefousse, Andrew Johnson: A Biography (New York: W.W. Nortonand Company, 1969), 311.
    • 4. Page Smith, Trial by Fire: A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York: Penguin Books, 1982), 699-689.
    • 5.  John W. Burgess, Reconstruction and the Constitution: 1866-1876 (New York: DeCapo Press, 1970), 9-10.
    • 6.  Kenneth M. Stampp, The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (New York: Vintage Books, 1965), 24-30.
    • 7.  Smith, p. 789.
  • 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 17. SPECIAL FEATURES
    • Illustrations that support the text
    • Statistics
    • Graphs, tables, and charts
    • Maps
    • Archival Photographs
  • 18. Formal Structure
    • Abstract
    • Literature Review
    • Methodology
    • Body w/headings
    • Results
    • Conclusions
    • Notes
    • Bibliography
  • 19. PUT IT ALL TOGETHER
    • Katharine Sharp Review #8 - Summer 1999
    • Current Issue:
    • Judith Currano "Making a Sound" in Chemical Information: The Importance of a Structure Editor in Information Retrieval
    • David Michalski The Predicament of Anthropology: Providing Reference Support in a Fragmented Discipline
    • Rebecca Platzner Dealing With Death: A Close Look at Margaret Wise Brown and Remy Charlip's Picture Book Classic, The Dead Bird
    • Vincent P. Tinerella The Crisis in Scholarly Publishing and the Role of the Academic Library  
    • Katharine Sharp Review Editorial Board - Issue No. 8
    • Kevin Ward, University of Illinois - Founding Editor Luis Acosta, Catholic University of America Robert Benson, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Robert Bolander, Kent State University Daniel Cook, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Sheila Devaney, North Carolina Central University Deborah Dossinger, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Maureen Downey, University College, Dublin Melisa Fiumara, University at Buffalo Annie Goodwin, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
  • 20. AUTHOR and AFFILIATION, ABSTRACT, TABLES, JARGON, FORMAL WRITING STYLE
  • 21. SECTION HEADINGS, STATISTICS, FOOTNOTES
  • 22. Conclusion, Notes, References, Bibliography, Author Information
  • 23.
    • BOOKS /ENCYCLOPEDIAS
    • Indexes
    • Editors/Editorial Board
    • List of Contributors
    • Appendices
    • WEB SITES
    • Google Scholar
    • Digital Spaces and Resources
    • Pre-Prints and Open Access Projects
    • Government Studies
    • E-Books/E-Journals
  • 24. http://library.atu.edu/
    • THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF SCHOLARS AND RESEARCHERS PUBLISH THEIR WORK IN ACADEMIC JOURNALS AVAILABLE FROM SUBSCRIPTION BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASES ACCESSIBLE FROM THE LIBRARY HOMEPAGE— NOT FREE ON THE INTERNET