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  • Role models, helping with community service, relief efforts, exposure to the world, jobs, internships, advertising, and a fun night out.
  • Dr. Naismith is in the Canadian Basketball Hall of Fame, the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame, the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame, the Ontario Sports Legends Hall of Fame, the Ottawa Sports Hall of Fame, the McGill University Sports Hall of Fame, the Kansas State Sports Hall of Fame and the FIBA Hall of Fame. The basketball Hall of Fame is even named after him with having the name Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in Springfield Mass. Founded the University of Kansas Basketball program First game was played in Toronto, Canada on Nov. 1, 1946 Syracuse Nets won the First ever NBA title of the shot clock era
  • The NBA rules have been modified a bit although no drastic rule changes have been put into play. The Shot clock was put into the NBA for reasons, because it makes the game move along faster, and makes the game more exciting if you are watching it as a fan.
  • Ownership is in control and has all the power for the organization that they own. They control all players salary’s, hires the GM and the front office people. Then the GM is like the mini owner, he controls the players, coaches and trainers. (all the on the court people) Owners have the last say in whether the person of hire is cutting it to help the team as much as they can. If not, then he or they can fire them. On Court presentations Giveaways Check presentations Luxury Tax Teams can live or die by Susan O’Malley President for the Washington Wizards
  • Some stadiums are owned by the owner of the NBA team. If they do not own the stadium then they have to rent the stadium from the owner or company of owners that do. Normally the name of the stadium is from the owners’ company, but it doesn’t always have to be. The name can come from a company that has money in the team and wants to advertise a little more then what you see on TV and billboards. The stadiums also get money from the business that want to be inside the stadiums so they can make more money but they do not make all that is seen. A certain percent of the money they make the owner of the stadium or team gets. The largest stadium is The Pistons which holds 22,076 and the smallest is ARCO Arena (Kings) 17,317 Companies inside the stadium Most of the profit is kept by the company Although a percentage of the money goes to the organization
  • Depends on how good a team is in the year If the team is the best in the league most likely they will not only have the highest ticketing prices, but they will also have the highest paid attendance. Take the Bulls for example, they are not the best in the league, but the front office knows how to put a good team on the court, therefore causing them to get the highest paid attendance in the league. The Nets aren’t doing too well this year, they have a young team and their front office is trying everything to put the best team on the court, but unfortunately that’s not happening this year causing their attendance to suffer.
  • One player can make the attendance good or bad. If the team gets a new player who shows the skills necessary to play for that team at the highest level, the fans will come and see him play on the court. If a very good player gets hurt then it can effect the attendance in a negative way. The player that gets hurt can be the best in the league and without him playing people tend not to go because of that one player. Allen Iverson Came back to the Sixers and the stadium was sold out for the first week he was back in a Sixers uniform The more popular the player the more money the team loses in cap space More money the organization makes from merchandising and ticket revenue
  • Luxury tax is what all teams have to pay and at the end of the year that money is divided up between the lowest salary cap teams in the league. (poor teams) Trades effect the salary cap really the most. Although in order to trade for a better player you need to have the cap space. Trades take place all the time and the teams cap can get eaten up from that one players salary that they just inherited. Luxury Tax Lowest pay teams get the money Trades Teams have to watch how much salary the player has that is traded They have to watch the amount of salary they get in return in the trade or they could have to pay a penalty (luxury tax)
  • Biggest bar is the New York Knicks, Dallas Mavericks, Trail Blazers, Sixers, Timberwolves, Grizzlies, Pacers, Celtics, Kings, Lakers, Magic, Bucks, Rockets, Warriors, Heat, Nets, Supersonics, Pistons, Bulls, Raptors, Wizards, Cavaliers, Spurs, Clippers, Hornets, Jazz, Nuggets, Suns, Hawks, Bobcats is the smallest bar.
  • http://hoopshype.com/salaries.htm The 2009-2010 Salaries for the 30 NBA Teams On the left is the 30 highest paid players and their salaries These teams and players salaries show how much money one of the top players in the league takes up out of their owners pocket.
  • This year for the NBA the Salary Cap is around $156 million and the luxury tax is starting to take shape. The tax last year was $71.2 million and the teams that finished around last place split the money up to fit the needs of the teams. This year the luxury tax has not come out because the season has to end to get a final number so the teams can split it up.
  • Foreign players have helped the game grow into their cultures. Fans from all around the world sometimes have to stay up to watch their favorite player or players play in a NBA game. With fans from all around the world wanting to watch their favorite players the NBA sometimes does trips to countries where these players are from so that they can expand the business of the NBA and hopefully one day make the business side go global. The NBA executives go to different countries to open stores and see if they are welcomed to play a game in that country.
  • Tony Parker is one of the most well known player in the league because of his great personality and ability to stay out of trouble. He is also one of the best players to ever step on the court.
  • Merchandising is the key for any NBA team. The owners and the league rely on the players to basically sell their own jersey’s. This is why only the players who play their jersey’s are sold. People are more likely to wear a jersey that people know who it is, then a player who has only seen the court for 8 minutes in a whole year. Sneakers are a huge part of merchandising because players and sponsors work together to put out the shoe that the player wears so the fan can wear what the players are wearing. Most money comes for merchandising but they make most of their money from ticketing Most likely: Only the players that play most of the time Rarely are bench players jersey sold (Unless customized by the fan)
  • Sponsors in different stadiums Depending on the city and what they are known for For example Madison Square Garden has Nathan’s hotdog’s all over the stadium Sponsors come from all around the world. Some examples: Gatorade Toyota Lexus Nike- Sneakers Adidas- Clothing and apparel ESPN TNT TBS Local businesses and companies based on the team and city Spalding
  • Sponsors are found all around the stadium and on commercials. Some sponsors on the outside consist of big name companies known all around the country. For example, the LA Lakers and LA Clippers stadium is called the Staple Center after the Staples franchise known all around the US. Other sponsors can be TV stations like Comcast Sportsnet known in Philly as the channel of Philly teams. On the inside, sponsors get teams in an area that they know will help market their product and will help them make money.
  • Adidas is the main sponsor of the NBA for the next 11 years. So that means that everything the NBA players wear uniform wise is made by Adidas. They are not only the sponsor for the NBA but they are also the sponsor for the WNBA and the D-League. (Developmental League) Contract is with the NBA, WNBA and the D-League
  • Can show positive and negative things that the players are doing. Provides the fan with pregame or postgame interviews and behind the scene action All countries have their icon or favorite player that they look up to, therefore the NBA broadcast in all of those languages for the fan to enjoy the game in. Coverage Different languages and media names and owners
  • The NBA broadcast in almost every language in the world. The media for fans is basically video games, and the TV networks that broadcast NBA game. Fans are able to play with their favorite player in the video games, while watching their favorite player play on TV.
  • Promotions are for teams to sell more tickets for that game hoping that the fans will have a great experience and come back for another game. The amount of money spent on the promotion or give away is nowhere close to the amount of money the organization will make from that night. Bobcats Had bring a turkey to the stadium get as many tickets as you want for that game A broadcaster I met said that the economy is really taking a toll on the Bobcats organization. He said that before he was with the Raptors he worked for the Bobcats and he left because he saw them going nowhere. He took a job with the Raptors and they sold their house in Charlotte and no house on that street has sold since, do to the economy. This is an example of how the economy can even hurt the big sports organizations.
  • Over the past ten years the NBA ticket sales have risen very much. The average ticket for a first level seat is about $130.00. The better the team the more people will come to the game without worrying about the price of a ticket, causing that team to do very well financially. The team that is in last place don’t have that benefit. They have the die hearts and they will support their team no matter what but they can do all that at a lower ticket price because their team is the worst in the league.
  • About 3 years ago a fight broke out between teams and the player entered the crowd fighting the fans. These are the kind of fines/suspensions that can get a player kick out of the league for being dumb. Many of the players in the NBA think that they can do whatever because they are getting paid. Well that’s not the cause. Many players end up getting fined or getting suspended for a long period of time because they run their mouths or they do something they shouldn’t have. Fines come from the commissioner but it depends on the severity.
  • Having legends in the NBA Business can help players see that they can help other like these men are doing once their career ends playing basketball. Some players in the NBA today think that they can’t get hurt or they are too good. Well these legends can be there to mentor them through the NBA, and make them into mature men and hopefully these young men can follow in the greats foot steps to help younger men when they get to the pro level.
  • Picture http://cell.phoneevents.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/pair-tickets-21.gif Information http://www.bizmology.com/2009/09/02/marketing-efforts-of-some-nba-teams-develop-during-off-season/ Depending on the team, their status in the league and their reputation among the fans the marketing from each team is different. Some teams just market what you see on TV and don’t have any special offers. Even though every team tries to show their fans thanks by somehow having a promotion or marketing more to show that they do care that the fans are their watching their team perform on the highest stage. New Jersey gave away free jerseys this was to seek interest in the fans This was only offered for 10 games and only 5 marquee games EX of Marquee games is the LA Lakers and the Cleveland Cavaliers
  • “Team” Can refer to a sporting team or a business team or partners In the picture the “Team” is both sports players and coaches, as well as business men and partners. Shown in the picture are the players, coaches and trainers. This is like a business in the way that the trainers get the players in playing shape for a game, the coach coaches the players to perform, the players play for the coach and the final outcome reflects the entire business or team.
  • All of these Awards are given away at the end of the year to the player that best fits the award category for that year and the entire year. Other awards given out during the year are All-Star, All-Star game MVP Award, Rookie Challenge MVP, Three Point Contest winner, and NBA Slam Dunk Contest winner.
  • This part of the NBA is related to a business because people transfer companies. Every year the NBA sets a trade deadline with a time and no trades can be made after this date, but players can be picked up via free agency or waivers.
  • First step in a team knowing when they pick and if they need to make any kind of moves. Whether it be by trade or that was the pick that you were granted.
  • The draft is the only way players from around the world can make it into the NBA. Even if you don’t get drafted you become a free agent and any team can pick you up. This can only happen if the player files for the draft. This years projected 1 st overall pick is a freshman from Kentucky, John Wall. Players now a days have to go to 1 year of college before they can file for the NBA Draft. The last time a high school player was drafted first overall was Lebron James. Players in today’s day and age are definitely good enough to get drafted right out of high school. I feel as though if you are that good then you can wait a couple more years to file for the draft. These athletes need a degree they can fall back on and have any knowledge of putting more away and saving, they mind as well be working at McDonald’s in downtown LA. Players move all around the draft board Teams pick player off needs not off the best available player Number one overall is paid the most and then the salaries decrease as the draft goes on
  • Any college player can enter the draft, but they must play at least one year of college basketball. Foreign players can enter the draft too. They can enter whenever they feel it is the right time. They mainly enter when they are in-between 18 and 21 years of age. Da’Sean Butler Was projected in the 2 nd round and is now projected undrafted
  • Samuel Dalembert went back to Haiti because he is from there and he helped families get food and shelter. Every NBA team has a different way they impact the community and help the children in the community - Read to achieve is an example for the entire league
  • Every team does some kind of community service. The NBA makes it part of their mission to help the community all around the globe as much as possible. Some players also make their own community service project and help their own charities.
  • http://www.nba.com/careers/excutives/stern.html
  • Year round Nation program that reaches 50 million children a year. More than 200,000 books are donated
  • This program shows people, the fans, the importance of recycling. The hope is that fans teach their kids to recycle and the chain keeps going through their children's children. This is not just going on in the NBA. Other sports leagues are teaming up to teach kids the importance of recycling.
  • For my application I interned with Maureen Coyle the VP for Communication of the NBA. I went to games in Philly and in New York, unfortunately you are not allowed to film behind the scenes without permission. I was going to go to a game in Denver with her, but there was a problem with the local news stations putting camera’s on the side of the backboards. This kind of media is not allowed. However, I was allowed to take pictures behind the scenes but photography is not allowed in the locker rooms before games. I met a couple of people. I met Matt Devlin the Toronto Raptors broadcaster, Jim Lambumbard, the PR director for the Raptors, and a couple of players from different teams. I asked them some questions about what their part in the business is and how they help their organization make money but also how they help the fans have fun at a game. Toronto Raptors Players I met Andrea Bargnani Chris Bosh Hedo Turkogulu

Transcript

  • 1. The Business Aspects of the NBA Tom Foy Ms. Oren Period 1
  • 2. Overview
    • PowerPoint
      • Look at all the aspects of a Sports Business
      • Break down the income of teams and players
    • Application
    • Class Activity
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Personal Relevance
    • I hope to one day be a General Manager or a sports agent of a major sports organization whether it be in the NFL, MLB, or NBA.
  • 4. Audience Relevance
  • 5. Thesis
    • Beginning as a made up game at a YMCA, basketball and the NBA have evolved into a complex organization involving players, owners, sponsors, and the media in a huge money-making enterprise.
  • 6. History of the NBA (Past)
    • Origins of the Game
      • Based off 13 rules
    • Creator
      • Dr. James Naismith
    ( http://www.nba.com/history/thegame_index.html )
  • 7. History of the NBA (Now)
    • All 13 rules have been modified
    • 24 second shot clock is still in effect
      • To keep the game:
        • Exciting
        • Offensive showcase every game
    ( http://www.nba.com/history/thegame_index.html )
  • 8. Commissioner
    • Holds the highest power
      • David Stern
        • Fourth Commissioner
        • Very strict and demanding job
        • Lawyer
  • 9. Ownership
    • Controls:
      • Pricing
      • Player salary’s
      • On court presentations
    • Has to meet salary cap
    • Luxury tax payment
    • Highest ranking woman
      • Susan O’Malley
    http://www.insidehoops.com/nba-owners.shtml
  • 10. Stadiums
    • Sometimes owned by the NBA team
    • Rent is paid to the Owner of the Stadium
    • Companies inside the Stadium
    (Coyle)
  • 11. Halfway Attendance
    • Bulls 2009-2010
        • Avg. 20,705
          • Wins/Lost
            • 31/29
    • Nets 2009-2010
        • Avg. 12,905
          • Wins/Lost
            • 6/53
    www.espn.com/attendance
  • 12. Final Attendance Numbers
    • Bulls 2009-2010
      • Average 20,725
        • Win/Lost
          • 41/41
    • Nets 2009-2010
      • Average 13,103
        • Win/Lost
          • 12/70
    http://www.nba.com/standings/team_record_comparison/conferenceNew_Std_Div.html
  • 13. Attendance continued
    • One player can make the attendance go up
      • Allen Iverson
    www.nba.com
  • 14. Salary Cap
    • Luxury tax on all NBA teams
    • All teams have the same cap no matter how much more the owners have
    • Trades
    (Devlin)
  • 15. Average Salary
    • 2005-06
      • 5 million dollars
    • 2006-07
      • 5.215 million dollars
    • 2007-08
      • 5.356 million dollars
    • 2008-09
      • 5.585 million dollars
    http://members.cox.net/lmcoon/salarycap.htm#Q24
  • 16. Average Salary cont.
    • 2009-2010
      • 5.854 million dollars
    • Highest paid player
      • Tracy McGrady
  • 17. 2004-2005 Salary Breakdown http://www.swivel.com/charts/2642-NBA-Team-Salaries-2004-2005-
  • 18.  
  • 19. 2009-2010 NBA Salary Cap
    • Any team that goes over the cap
      • Has to pay $1 for every $1 that the team goes over
    • Luxury Tax
      • Last Season
        • $71.2 Million
      • This Year
        • NA
    http://withleather.uproxx.com/2009/07/nba-salary-cap-lowered-for-2009-2010
  • 20. Foreign Players
    • The NBA has expanded Internationally
    • Total of 86 International players on only 30 teams
    ( http://www.nba.com/players/int_players_0607.html )
  • 21. Most Popular Foreign Players
    • Tony Parker
      • 2007 NBA Finals MVP
      • NBA All-Star three times
      • All-NBA Third Team
  • 22. Foreign Players Cont.
    • Yao Ming
      • Member of the China National team
      • Tallest player in the NBA
        • 7ft 6in
      • NBA All-Star 7 times
      • All-NBA team 5 times
  • 23. Influence on the World
  • 24. Merchandising
    • One of the key factors for any sports team
    • Jerseys
    • Sneakers
    • Allen Iverson (AI)
          • Reebok
    http://www.footballfanatics.com/NBA
  • 25. Sponsors
    • Source of some income for the league
    • Have to pay a price to post their name with the NBA logo
    • Sponsors change from stadium to stadium
    http://nbahoopsonline.com/Articles/2007-08/NBArevinuesharing.html
  • 26. Sponsors inside and outside
    • Outside the Wachovia Center
    • Inside the Wachovia Center
  • 27.  
  • 28. Adidas
    • Signed an 11 year contract
    • Replaced Reebok’s contract
    • Contract started at the beginning of this past season
    http://sports.espn.go.com/nba/news/story?id=2404020
  • 29. Media
    • Has a huge effect on the league
    • Shows the fans the games of their favorite players
    • Shows interviews
    • Coverage from around the world
    (Coyle)
  • 30. Media for the Fans
    • Video Games
    • NBA 2K
    • NBA Jam
    • NBA Live
    • NBA Street
    • NBA 10
    • NBA Hang time
    • NBA Ballers
    • Online web feeds
    • NBA.TV
    • Television
    • ABC
    • CBS
    • ESPN
    • NBA TV
    • NBC
    • TNT
    • Local TV Networks
    http://hoopedia.nba.com/index.php?title=NBA_Technology_History
  • 31. Promotions
    • This is based on the team and what they feel is right for their fans
    • Better teams many have more or less promotions
    • Charlotte Bobcats
        • Low fan base
        • Fighting the economy to stay afloat
    (Devlin)
  • 32. Ticket Sales
    • Depends on the team/organization
      • Ex. Bobcats low pricing
        • $130.00
          • Center Court
      • Cavaliers
        • $160.00
          • Center Court
    • Better teams support the lower teams
    • ( http://www.nba.com/cavaliers/tickets/ )
    • ( http://www.nba.com/bobcats/bobcats_tickets_landing_page.html )
  • 33. Fines/ Suspensions
    • Happens when:
      • Players fight
      • Get Technical fouls
      • Get thrown out of games
      • Enter the crowd
        • For any reason
    • Come from NBA Commissioner or team
  • 34. “ Legends in Business”
    • This was created to share its knowledge and expertise in career development and emphasize the importance of diversity in the work place
    • “ The Team”
      • Julius Erving
      • Dominique Wilkins
      • Clyde Drexler
      • Jamal Mashburn
      • Dave Bing
    http://www.nba.com/careers/legends_in_business.html
  • 35. Marketing
    • New Jersey Nets
      • Free Jersey’s
        • Seek interest to the fans
    • Dallas Mavericks
      • Free ticket to All-Star game
        • With purchase of full-season ticket package
  • 36. Basics of a “Team”
  • 37. Awards
    • After each season these awards are given out
      • The Sixth Man Award
      • The Most Improved Player Award
      • The Rookie of the Year Award
      • Defensive Player of the Year
      • Coach of the Year
      • MVP (Most Valuable Player)
      • Executive of the Year
      • All-NBA Team
      • All-Defensive Team
      • All-Rookie Team
  • 38. Transactions
    • The biggest part of the NBA
    • Beginning process for putting a winning team
    • Takes place throughout the entire season
        • Trade dead line
          • This year was Feb. 18 at 3 pm
    http://www.nba.com/news/transactions/2010.trade.deadline.tracker/index.html
  • 39.  
  • 40. The Lottery http://blogs.suntimes.com/sportsprose/nba-draft-lottery.jpg
  • 41. The Draft
    • Players move up and down draft boards
      • Draft is only 2 rounds
    • Players from US colleges and all around the world are drafted
    • Highest draft pick is paid the most
  • 42. The Draft
    • Injures during the season effect a teams draft board
      • College Example from this year’s Final Four
        • Da’Sean Butler from West Virginia
    www.espn.com
  • 43. Community Service
    • NBA Cares
      • Is the service the NBA supplies to community
    • Different lines of service
      • Players have their own community service
      • Foreign players go back to help their countries in every way
  • 44. Community Service
    • League wide
    • Worldwide
      • All over
        • Africa
        • Asia
        • Europe
        • North America
    • All US Cities
      • New Orleans was the biggest project for the league
    http://www.nba.com/allstar2008/nba_cares/
  • 45. Community Outreach
    • NBA players also support
      • Volunteerism
      • Child Abuse Prevention Programs
      • Hunger Relief
      • HIV/AIDS Awareness
      • Special Olympics
  • 46. Read to Achieve
    • Shows kids the importance of education
    • Education is everything
  • 47. Recycling Program
    • Every NBA Stadium
    • Work with the city
    http://www.nba.com/dleague/dleague/read_to_achieve_index.html
  • 48. Application
    • NBA games
    • Compared the business before and after
    • Took pictures
    • Met Public Relations directors, Broadcasters, players, writers, and interns
  • 49. Class Activity
    • Make your own Jersey
  • 50. Conclusion
    • The NBA is a huge business with many opportunities. Whether you want to work behind the scenes, volunteer, or become the Commissioner you must work long hours, like traveling, and get along with a diverse group of people.
  • 51. Works Cited
    • http://i.cdn.turner.com/si/2010/writers/frank_hughes/03/08/john.wall/john-wall-hughes.jpg
    • http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/images/stories/large/2010/04/03/DSeanButler98234022.jpg
    • http://v3.kevincarrollkatalyst.com/images/uploads/nba_green_2_thumb.jpg
    • http://netsarescorching.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/ping-pong.jpg
    • http://aaunews.org/news/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/2009-nba-mock-draft.bmp
    • http://bgchhalepono.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/adidas_logo.jpg
  • 52. Works Cited
    • http://www.tsu.edu/Images/media/center/MEDIA_6_2-11-06.jpg
    • http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v503/nhoj_schmeitz/benwallacebrawl.jpg
    • http://sports.espn.go.com/photo/2006/0513/nba_a_nash_395.jpg
    • http://cdn.bleacherreport.net/images_root/slides/photos/000/173/932/96329227.jpg.16054_display_image.jpg
    • http://beta.images.theglobeandmail.com/archive/00484/Stern13_484922gm-a.jpg
    • http://retrosport.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/james-naismith.jpg
  • 53. Works Cited
    • http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4038/4169802901_e088234e61.jpg
    • http://howtowatchsports.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/salarycap1big-300x269.jpg
    • http://www.enbajerseys.com/site/images/jersey1.jpg
    • http://media.mcclatchydc.com/smedia/2007/10/30/17/295-20071030-NBA-players-origin.large.prod_affiliate.91.jpg
  • 54. Works Cited
    • Badenhausen, Kurt, and Michael K. Ozanian. “The Business of Basketball.” Editorial. Forbes.com . N.p., 3 Dec. 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. <http://www.forbes.com/‌2008/‌12/‌03/‌business-basketball-nba-biz-sports-nba08-cz_kb_mo_cs_1203intro.html>.
    • Berri, David J. “A Simple Model of Worker Productivity in the National Basketball Association.” The Business of Sports . By David J. Berri, et al. Ed. Brad R. Humphreys and Dennis R. Howard. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008. 1-40. Print.
    • Brock, Katherine Cromer. “New Stadium Gears Up For NBA All-Star Game.” Dallas Business Journal (May 2009): n. pag. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. <http://washington.bizjournals.com/‌dallas/‌stories/‌2009/‌06/‌01>.
    • Jeanrenaud, Claude, and Stefan Kesenne. “Sports and the Media: An Overview.” The Economics of Sports and the Media . By Bill Gerrard, et al. Ed. Claude Jeanrenaud and Stefan Kesenne. Northampton, Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2006. 1-26. Print.
  • 55. Works Cited
    • Kaplan, Daniel, and John Lombardo. “NBA Securing $175M for Clubs.” Editorial. Street & Smith’s Sports Business Journal . N.p., 16 Feb. 2009. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. <http://www.sportsbusinessjournal.com/‌article/‌61537>. In this article, the authors use information based off the league and based off their numbers.
    • Martzke, Rudy. “Mavs Boss: NBA Gains From Bryant.” USA Today 5 Aug. 2003: n. pag. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. <http://wf2dnvr17.webfeat.org/‌mil7N1437/‌url=http://web.ebschost>.
    • Vollrath, Amanda. “New NBA Dress Code Too Strict at Best, Racist at Worst.” The Dog Street Journal (Nov. 2005): n. pag. Web. 15 Nov. 2009. <http://www.dogstreetjournal.com/‌story/‌2842>.
  • 56. Works Cited
    • Coyle, Maureen. Personal interview. 8 Jan. 2010.
    • Devlin, Matthew. Personal interview. 8 Jan. 2010.
    • http://product.images.prosportsmemorabilia.com/61-07/61-07780-F.jpg
    • http://image.made-in-china.com/2f0j00JMrERPCKZGcs/NBA-Jerseys-01-.jpg