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Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
Quant Vs Qual Research
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Quant Vs Qual Research

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  • 1. Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Methods
  • 2. Two Approaches to Research <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes numbers, measurements, control, and experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the traditional scientific research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes natural settings, observations, verbal narratives, and interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged from sociology </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Goals <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test hypothesis (theory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistically describe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outsider meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe multiple realities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture naturally occurring behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insider meaning </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Design <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predetermined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolving (emerging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Sample <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposeful </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Data <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s own words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Methods <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quasi-experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corr. /Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex Post Facto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Protocol Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Mixed Methods <ul><li>Involve different combination of quantitative and qualitative methods at the level of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A combination of questionnaire and interview. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. History of Mixed Methods <ul><li>Over the past 15 years, mixed methods have been used as a third approach in research methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly introduced in the 1970s with the introduction of the concept of “triangulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using different methods and data sources </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Typology of Mixed Methods <ul><li>Notations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ QUAL’ or ‘qual’ stand for qualitative method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ QUAN’ or ‘quan’ stand for quantitative method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital letters denote priority or increased weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowercase letters denote lower priority or weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A plus sign (+) represents a concurrent data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An arrow (  ) represents a sequential collection of data </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Nine possible combinations <ul><li>QUAL + QUAN </li></ul><ul><li>QUAL + quan </li></ul><ul><li>QUAN + qual </li></ul><ul><li>QUAL  QUAN </li></ul><ul><li>QUAN  QUAL </li></ul>6. QUAL  quan 7. Qual  QUAN 8. QUAN  qual 9. quan  QUAL
  • 12. Which Approach is Best? <ul><li>The problem you are studying determines which approach to take. </li></ul><ul><li>One is not better than the other. </li></ul>
  • 13. Which Would You Select? <ul><li>Research problem: Error correction: Yes or no? </li></ul><ul><li>Get with a partner and quickly design a study to investigate this problem. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide whether to approach this problem quantitatively or qualitatively or mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell What you would do and Why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages of your approach </li></ul></ul>
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