The Scientific Method

                                                                            Dr. Ibrahim Ghazi



  ...
The Scientific Method
                       The scientific method is a process for
                         experimentati...
Steps in the development of a research project
                     1 - Selecting a Research Topic
                      s...
Determining Topic Relevance:
                      This step can be accomplished by answering
                      eight ...
2 - Reviewing the Literature

                                ØResearchers who conduct studies
                           ...
Before any project is attempted, researchers
                          ask the following questions:
                      ...
3 - Stating a Hypothesis or Research Question

                              After a general research area has been
      ...
4 - Research and Experimental Design

                        Ø The approach selected by the researcher
                  ...
There are four characteristics of research
                     design that should be noted if a study is to
             ...
5 - Data Collection , Analysis and Interpretation

                      Ø The time and effort required for data analysis ...
6. Draw Your Conclusion:

                      This is your opportunity to explain
                         the meaning o...
7. Write a report for your research


                              Since you are performing
                            a...
8 - Presenting Results
                            Ø The format used in presenting results
                              d...
The scientific method is a way to ask and
                        answer scientific questions by making
                  ...
١٥                                              Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi


PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactor...
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2 the scientific method

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The scintific method course

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2 the scientific method

  1. 1. The Scientific Method Dr. Ibrahim Ghazi Lecture No. 2 ١ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  2. 2. The Scientific Method The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to answer questions and explore observations. Scientists use an experiment to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. ٢ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  3. 3. Steps in the development of a research project 1 - Selecting a Research Topic selecting a topic is a concern for many beginning researchers, especially for those who write research papers and Dissertations Sources of Research Topics 1 - Magazines and Periodicals 2 - Research Summaries 3 - Everyday Situations 4 - Archive Data ٣ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  4. 4. Determining Topic Relevance: This step can be accomplished by answering eight basic questions: Ques on 1: Is the Topic Too Broad? Ques on 2: Can the Problem Really Be Investigated? Ques on 3 : Are the Data Susceptible to Analysis? Ques on 4 : Is the Problem Significant ? Ques on 5 : Can the Results of the Study Be Generalized? Ques on 6 : What Costs and Time are Involved in the Analysis? Ques on 7 : Is the Planned Approach Appropriate to the Project? Ques on 8 : Is There Any Potential Harm to the Subjects? ٤ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  5. 5. 2 - Reviewing the Literature ØResearchers who conduct studies under the guidelines of scientific research never begin a research project without first consulting available literature. ØThe review provides information about what was done, how it was done, and what results were generated. ٥ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  6. 6. Before any project is attempted, researchers ask the following questions: 1. What type of research has been done in your topic area? 2. What has been found in previous studies? 3. What sugges ons do other researchers make for further study? 4. What has not been inves gated? 5. How can the proposed study add to our knowledge of the area? 6. What research methods were used in previous studies? Answers to these questions will usually help define a specific hypothesis or research question ٦ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  7. 7. 3 - Stating a Hypothesis or Research Question After a general research area has been identified and the existing literature reviewed, the researcher must state the problem as a workable hypothesis or research question. A hypothesis is a formal statement regarding the relationship between variables, and it is tested directly. The predicted relationship between the variables is either true or false. ٧ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  8. 8. 4 - Research and Experimental Design Ø The approach selected by the researcher depends on the goals and purpose of the study Ø The terms research design and experimental design have become interchangeable to refer to the process involved in planning a research project. ٨ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  9. 9. There are four characteristics of research design that should be noted if a study is to produce reliable and valid results: 1. Clear cause-and-effect relationships 2. valid measurements 3. a sample should be large enough to allow detection of minor effects or changes 4. Realism ٩ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  10. 10. 5 - Data Collection , Analysis and Interpretation Ø The time and effort required for data analysis and interpretation depends on the study's purpose and the methodology used. Ø Every analysis should be carefully planned and performed according to guidelines designed for that analysis . Ø Once the computations have been completed, the researcher must "step back" and consider what has been discovered. Ø Researchers must determine through analysis whether their work is valid internally and externally ١٠ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  11. 11. 6. Draw Your Conclusion: This is your opportunity to explain the meaning of your results. v Did your experiment support your hypothesis? v Does the additional research need to be conducted? v How did your experiment address your initial question and purpose? ١١ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  12. 12. 7. Write a report for your research Since you are performing an experiment for the research project, you will write a report and prepare a display board so that others can share in your discoveries. ١٢ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  13. 13. 8 - Presenting Results Ø The format used in presenting results depends on the purpose of the study. study Ø The Research is for the publication in the academic journals follows a format prescribed by each journal Ø All presentations of results need to be written in a clear and concise manner appropriate to both the research question and the individuals who will read the report. ١٣ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  14. 14. The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments. The steps of the scientific method are to: o Ask a Question o Do Background Research o Form a Hypothesis o Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment o Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion o Communicate Your Results ١٤ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
  15. 15. ١٥ Dr.Ibrahim Ghazi PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com
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