Running head: ALCOHOL ABUSE 1
Adolescent Alcohol Abuse
ALCOHOL ABUSE 2
This is the abstract, which is typed in block format with no indentation. It is a brief summation
of your paper and should be 120 words or less. It should be accurate and concise. Your abstract
should also be written in a self-contained way so people reading only your abstract would fully
understand the content and the implications of your paper. It may be helpful to write this section
last when you have collected all the information in your paper. See section 2.04 APA for helpful
tips and for more information on writing abstracts.
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Adolescent Alcohol Abuse
Adolescent alcohol abuse is caused by several influences upon a young person’s life.
Examples would include but not limited to issues at school, dysfunctional home, peer pressure,
low self esteem issues, misbehaving, mischief, neglect from parents and other authoritative
figures and other drug use (Guo et al, 2001). More and more adolescents and teens are
consuming alcohol illegally in the 21st century (Parents anti-drug, 2010). Alcohol is a depressant
that absorbs rapidly into the bloodstream causing dangerous behaviors. In children under 21 the
damages are inevitable due to the fact that adolescent’s brains are still developing (Parents anti-
According to the CDC alcohol drinking is bad for a youth’s health. “Studies have shown
that alcohol use by youth and young adults increases the risk of both fatal and nonfatal injuries
(National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2004). Research has also shown that
youth who use alcohol before the age of 15 are five times more likely to become alcohol
dependent than adults who begin drinking at age 21 (Department of Health and human services,
2007). ” The health risk effects of alcohol consumed by the underage can cause liver, heart, and
brain damage. Other health hazards of alcohol abuse contribute to adolescents exposing
themselves to weakening their immune systems, skin damage, and gaining weight through
consumption (The Bacchus Network, 2010). Alcohol has yeast, sugar, corn, rye, grain, and
another chemical called ethanol in it and through a fermenting process drinking alcohol is born
(Dowshen, 2007). According to Bacchus 2010, adolescents who drink do not realize the
damaging effect of what they are doing to their liver, heart, and brain. The damages done to
liver can include a fatty liver, which fat develops on and in the liver. Alcohol hepatitis of the
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liver this is when inflammation, scarring and hardening of the liver can occur from alcohol
abuse. And lastly cirrhosis of the liver is “by altering the liver’s ability to metabolize some
carcinogenic substances into harmless compounds or to disable certain existing carcinogens,
alcohol’s effects may influence liver cancer (2010).”
Alcohol and the heart and its damaging effects can cause a rise in the triglycerides this is
fat in the blood that causes high cholesterol which causes heart attacks. Alcohol abuse and the
brain, alcohol can cause the brain to have poor decision-making skills and chemical imbalances
(The Bacchus Network, 2010).
What is unacceptable is that adolescents are surrounded by issues of all sorts. They lack
the love and direction in the home because of what their parents lacked so it is passed on (Miller
et al, 2007). Neglect and not being able to identify underage drinking, neglect, compromising,
lack of education for parents, teachers, not reaching out and helping the situation be made a
reality is an issue for public health professionals. What also is unacceptable is that children
gaining access to use and abuse alcohol undetected (Guo et al, 2001).
Adolescent alcohol abuse is socially unacceptable a study was conducted on the
moderating effects of alcohol use between boys and girls and peer influence of the use of alcohol
(Marchal & Chassin, 2000). A group of participants were used in a subsample of 454 children
of alcoholic parents and matched community controls of the ages 10 1/2 to 15 ½ (Marshal &
Chassin, 2000). The results found were that the parents used constant and persistent support and
discipline as a buffer in their children’s live to resist peer influences of consuming alcohol.
The peer effects were different for the girls in which the girls responded faster in resisting
peer influences whereas the boys responded to the support and discipline of their parents as a
threat to their self-governing or independency (Marshal & Chassin, 2000).
ALCOHOL ABUSE 5
Level 1 Heading
This will be the beginning of the body of your essay. Even though it has a new heading,
you want to make sure you connect this to your previous section so your reader can follow you
and better understand your hard work. Remember to make sure your first sentence in each
paragraph both transitions from your previous paragraph and summarizes the main point in your
paragraph. Stick to one topic per paragraph, and when you see yourself drifting to another idea,
make sure you break into a new paragraph. Try to avoid long paragraphs to avoid losing your
reader and to hold his or her attention--it’s much better to have many shorter paragraphs than
few long ones. Think: new idea, new paragraph.
Another Level 1 Heading
Here’s another Level 1 heading. Again, the topic sentence of this section should explain
how this is related or a result of what’s been discussed in the previous section. You’ll also want
to consider using transitions between your sentences as well. Below are a few examples of how
to transition from one statement to another (or in some cases, one piece of literature to another):
1. Many music teachers at Olson Junior High are concerned about losing their jobs (J.
Thompson, personal communication, July 3, 2004). This is not surprising considering the state’s
recent financial cutbacks of fine arts programs (Pennsylvania Educational System, 2004).
2. Obesity affects as much as 17% of the total population of children (Johnson &
Hammer, 2003). This increase of obesity leads to other chronic health problems, some short term
and some long term (Christianson, 2004).
For more examples, see some of our transitions handouts on our website.
Level 2 Heading
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The Level 2 heading here implies that we are in a subsection of the previous section.
Using headings are a great way to organize your paper and increase its readability, so be sure to
review heading rules on APA 3.31 and 3.32 in order to format them correctly. For shorter
papers, using one or two levels is all that is needed. You would use Level 1 (centered, bold font
with both uppercase and lowercase) and Level 2 (left aligned, bold, both uppercase and
Level 3 heading. The number of headings you need in a particular paper is not set, but
for longer papers, you may need another heading level. You would then use Level 3 (indented,
bold, lowercase paragraph heading).
One crucial area in APA is learning how to cite in your academic work. You really want
to make sure you cite your work throughout your paper to avoid plagiarism. This is critical: you
need to give credit to your sources and avoid copying other’s work at all costs. Look at APA
starting at 6.01 for guidelines on citing your work in your text.
Level 1 Heading
APA can seem a bit tricky to master, but it’s really fairly straightforward once you get
the hang of it. There are also plenty of sources to help you—don’t be afraid to ask!
And so forth until the conclusion…..
Level 1 Heading
Your conclusion section should recap the major points you have made in your work.
However, perhaps more importantly, it should also interpret what you have written and what it
means in the bigger picture. In your concluding remarks, think big! Some questions to ask
yourself include: What do you want to happen with the information you’ve provided? What do
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you want to change? What is your ultimate goal in using this information? What would it mean
if the suggestions in your paper were taken and used?
ALCOHOL ABUSE 8
Parents, the anti-drug. Alcohol. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from
Guo, J., Hawkins, J.D., Hill, K.G. and Abbott, R.D. (2001). Childhood and adolescent
of alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on alcohol 62, 754-
National research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2004). Reducing underaged drinking: a
collective responsibility committee on developing a strategy to reduce and prevent underage
drinking. Division of behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.:
The Natioanl academies Press.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2007). The surgeon general’s call to action to
prevent and reduce underage drinking. Rockville, M.D. Retrieved May 11, 2010 from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Alcohol and public health. Retrieved May
11, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm#14.
Miller, J.W., Naimi, T.S., Brewer, R.D., & Jones, S.E. (2007). Binge drinking and associated
health risk behaviors among high school students. Journal of Pediatrics. 119, 76-85.
Marshal, M.P. & Chassin, L. (2000). Peer influence on adolescent alcohol use: the moderating
role of parental support and discipline. Arizona State University, 4(2), 80-88 DOI:
Dowshen, S., & Shatz, E. (2007). Kids Health: alcohol. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from
The Bacchus Network. Health education: alcohol abuse and your health. Retrieved May 16,
2010 from http://www.bacchusgamma.org/alcohol-health.asp