Sanitized Knowledge Transfer Deliverable:Rapid Process Change Tutorial

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  • IBM Confidential
  • Sanitized Knowledge Transfer Deliverable:Rapid Process Change Tutorial

    1. 1. RAPID PROCESS CHANGE TUTORIAL
    2. 2. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    3. 3. Course Objectives <ul><li>Learn what makes Process Change efforts successful </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarize participants with the Rapid Process Change approach to prepare for rapid benefits realization </li></ul><ul><li>Learn useful tools and techniques to leverage Rapid Process Change for related WS3 efforts (BPR / OD In a Box) </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how Rapid Process Change can be applied long term in this company </li></ul><ul><li>Share any comparable ideas and experiences </li></ul>Introduction
    4. 4. Many approaches can be used to improve processes <ul><li>Straightforward identification and elimination of low value tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for very rapid task simplification and company buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Savings are short lived unless supported by process changes </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to GE WorkOut process </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of work components to determine which tasks are “non-value added” vs. customer requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Combines remaining work into “full jobs”, freeing up people </li></ul><ul><li>Savings are short lived unless supported by process changes </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to AVA </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly redesign critical processes with users/process managers, guided by facilitated issue identification </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on key process, system and organization issues </li></ul><ul><li>Targets critical processes rather than complete process or strategy </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. IBM Rapid Process Change (RPC) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of key change levers and redesign of broad spectrum of strategy, product, process, organization and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Significant improvement among all key change levers </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy and costly; organization may not retain focus & will to change </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. any full BPR method, such as IBM’s Change Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Develop future company leadership through in-depth training in process change and leadership behavior change methods </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing improvement of results </li></ul><ul><li>Requires full commitment of top management </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. GE 6 Sigma </li></ul>Non-Value Added Analysis Rapid Process Change Full Process Redesign Leadership Development Task Elimination Approach Benefit Risk Example Introduction
    5. 5. <ul><li>Three different approaches that have each delivered value in different situations. Although one may meet most needs, best practice is to tailor the approach to meet the specific program objectives and organization culture </li></ul>Process Improvement Landscape Top- Down, Cost Driven Change (Strategic Profit Improvement) Long Term, Continuous Process Improvement (Six Sigma) Issue Driven, Process-Based Change (Rapid Process Change) <ul><li>Focus resources on critical activities </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down analysis of revenues, costs, & operational efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>End-to-end approach to process review & operational improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Position for future growth (strategic) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires top executive mandate / support due to the magnitude of change </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on reduction of process variance (sigma) </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for on-going improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down cultural shift </li></ul><ul><li>Links operational improvements to financial drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on achieving tangible operating improvement results in an accelerated timeframe </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages continuous improvement by providing training for internal resources </li></ul><ul><li>Drives speed-to-benefit of actual change vs. theoretical recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Provides front-to-back evaluation module to estimate value creation </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient approach to identify broken or missing processes and analyze corresponding root causes </li></ul><ul><li>Requires strong sponsor support and dedicated team </li></ul>Rapid Process Change <ul><li>Data driven change </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term strategic review of revenues, costs and value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Requires long-term commitment of executive management </li></ul>6 Sigma SPI RPC Six Sigma Operational Improvement Solutions Introduction
    6. 6. Rapid Process Change Overview Stakeholder(s) review: Recommended Improvements RPC Key Outcomes and Deliverables: Stage 1: Project team formed & plan developed Stage 2: Process definitions completed & issues with process, root causes and opportunities identified Stage 3: Opportunities evaluated & prioritized, selected and documented Stage 4: Develop and implement selected improvement opportunities Stage 5: Sustain implementation of selected improvement opportunities Stakeholder(s) review: Issues and Opportunities Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Change & Transition Management Project Management Introduction <ul><li>Rapid Process Change is an issues based approach to rapidly deliver process, organizational and systems improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>The RPC approach consists of five stages. Each of the 5 stages has distinct outcomes and deliverables which are reviewed and agreed to by the Client Process Stakeholder(s). </li></ul>
    7. 7. Client Process Owner Discussion 1 Sustain Improvements The focus of the first discussion is on identifying the core , or mission critical, process(es) and understanding the issues, root causes and opportunities. Discussion 1 Discussion 2 Discussion 3 Primary Output: Process Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Primary Output: Evaluated Opportunities Primary Output: Prioritized Implementation Solutions for Development Assess Processes
    8. 8. Rapid Process Change can significantly increase the productivity of existing resources 100% 80% x% Productive Return Effort (Resources, $) Focus resources on value-added work Drive up effectiveness (yield) <ul><li>Why RPC? </li></ul><ul><li>Current performance may be less than it could be because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some activities do not support core business objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some efforts don’t yield high returns in core business objective areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving processes to eliminate waste and increase alignment and focus will improve results without adding additional resources </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement needs to start with an understanding of the processes </li></ul>Introduction
    9. 9. RPC builds enduring, reusable skills <ul><li>Four generations of projects form the core of RPC’s training cycle : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation 1: Proof of concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation 2: Perform with guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation 3: Lead with guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation 4: Lead with no guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RPC’s training approach is unique in that : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is highly participative during the project (side-by-side IBM Business Consulting and client resources) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It involves continuous instruction of internal resources to achieve mastery knowledge of the process improvement methodology </li></ul></ul>The RPC “Generational” Model RPC Methodology 1 st generation 2 nd generation 3 rd generation 4 th generation RPC builds strong internal skills that are critical to ensuring sustainable change and ongoing business value creation Introduction RPC Training Cycle Proof of Concept LEAD with NO guidance Perform with guidance LEAD with guidance
    10. 10. RPC’s Value Proposition <ul><li>RPC’s value proposition is multifaceted touching several efficiency and effectiveness dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational improvement benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human capital efficiency benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System improvement identification </li></ul></ul>Cost Savings Revenue Enhancements Process Effectiveness Savings Process Efficiency Savings Headcount Reduction Improved Available Capacity Improved Employee Morale Quality-Conscious Culture Financial benefits Human capital efficiency benefits Operational improvement benefits Cultural benefits RPC’s Value Proposition Systems improvement benefits RPC’s value proposition Systems Benefits Introduction
    11. 11. The RPC Methodology (Isbank Version) <ul><li>The RPC approach consists of five stages supported by ongoing project and change management activities and relies on interactive discussion (normally these would be full User Team Workshops) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions are used to ensure alignment and buy-in for the results from each stage. If the processes are extremely complex, or if key information is not readily available, additional workshops may be required. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective project, change and transition management ensures the benefits realized from RPC effort are sustainable. </li></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Change & Transition Management Project Management Discussion 1 Primary Output: Process Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Discussion 2 Primary Output: Evaluated Opportunities Discussion 3 Primary Output: Prioritized implementation solutions for development Introduction
    12. 12. For an RPC engagement to be successful, the initial Stakeholder(s) discussion must consider all of the components of the operating context Return on Investment Project Management & Scope Sustainability <ul><li>Will the focus be on cost reduction, revenue enhancement, or efficiency & effectiveness improvement (or combination of all)? </li></ul><ul><li>What level of ROI is expected and over what period of time? </li></ul><ul><li>How rapidly do results need to be delivered to keep stakeholders engaged? </li></ul><ul><li>How will alignment on focus areas and measurement methods be achieved? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is developing an ongoing operational improvement capability and competency within Intel? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is operational improvement to the long term success of Intel? </li></ul><ul><li>How important is the ability to measure success on an ongoing basis? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this operational improvement project part of a larger improvement program? Is it important that the programs be linked? </li></ul><ul><li>How many different processes are under consideration (what is the scope)? </li></ul><ul><li>How many of the processes under review are manual vs. system supported? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this program building on existing efforts? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the existing or potential boundary conditions for this program? </li></ul>Implementation / Change Management <ul><li>What level of commitment (time, effort) is available from project participants? </li></ul><ul><li>What conditions exist that may put this program at risk? </li></ul><ul><li>How much executive buy-in and sponsorship is available for this program? </li></ul><ul><li>What is client’s experience with programs that require change adoption? </li></ul>Components of the Operating Context Introduction
    13. 13. Rapid Process Change – Summary Key Points Outputs <ul><li>Structured & proven approach </li></ul><ul><li>Rethinking operations </li></ul><ul><li>Step change vs. incremental change </li></ul><ul><li>Performance increase in focus area </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits Measurement & Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Set Training Program </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with TQM and other management techniques </li></ul>Rapid Process Change is an overarching framework intended to drive increased business performance in a compressed timeframe. <ul><li>Rationale for Change (process gaps, best practices / benchmarks) </li></ul><ul><li>Key Benefits for the Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation & Sustainability Approaches (where possible) </li></ul>Introduction
    14. 14. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    15. 15. Stakeholder Requirements Key Concepts <ul><li>Visible and frequent support for the Rapid Process Change effort in their Department </li></ul><ul><li>Active involvement in setting the direction and priorities </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clears the Path” to eliminate obstacles, resolve issues, minimize risks </li></ul><ul><li>Participation at some level in the details of the effort </li></ul><ul><li>Support in granting resources (e.g., people, capital, time) </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance with overcoming organizational barriers </li></ul>Successful Rapid Process Change efforts begin with key Stakeholder leadership: Leadership implies an involvement that requires communication and visible commitment more than it requires major blocks of time. Key Point
    16. 16. Process View Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 M a n u f a c t u r i n g M a r k e t i n g R & D M a n u f a c t u r i n g M a r k e t i n g Order Management Resource Planning New Product Development R & D Functions drive the business Processes are acknowledged but functions dominate A process view drives Rapid Process Change Successful Rapid Process Change requires cross-functional process views. Key Concepts
    17. 17. External Focus <ul><li>The value provided by each business process is driven by customer and supplier needs. </li></ul><ul><li>The key is to determine what is critical to provide to customers/suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective customer segmentation can dramatically change the focus of the business. </li></ul>Successful Rapid Process Change efforts focus on the external environment, both with customers / suppliers and best practices. Customers / Suppliers Best Practices <ul><li>Best practices / benchmarking is a tool to help understand how other companies achieve superior performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices help identify gaps in performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking assists with forecasting the impact of improvement on overall performance. </li></ul>Key Concepts
    18. 18. Factors in Successful Process Change <ul><li>Leadership driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly articulate and communicate vision and requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of urgency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment of appropriate people to team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-functional process views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective project management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Externally focused </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve customer (Receiver) and supplier (Input) relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defined success factors </li></ul><ul><li>Re-skill employees </li></ul>Key Concepts
    19. 19. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    20. 20. Rapid Process Change – Isbank WS3 Approach Overview Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Change & Transition Management Project Management Discussion 1 Primary Output: Process Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Discussion 2 Discussion 3 Approach Overview The RPC Method follows a structured 5 stage approach that identifies issues and root causes. Next, improvement opportunities are evaluated, prioritized and selected. Three discussions are used to ensure alignment and buy-in for the results from each step. Supporting the approach are effective project and transition management. Primary Output: Prioritized Implementation Solutions for Development Primary Output: Evaluated Opportunities
    21. 21. Stage 1: Mobilize Team The Mobilize Team stage identifies current processes and activities. This makes tangible “what people do” and how they use resources. <ul><li>Establish process team roles & train team on Rapid Process Change approach </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain background on processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How process is managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People / departments involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance measures </li></ul></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Approach Overview
    22. 22. Stage 2: Assess Processes The Assess Processes stage focuses on assessing processes to identify improvement opportunities. Employee involvement ensures realism and buy-in. <ul><li>Evaluate processes (suppliers, inputs, customers, outputs) with select employees through RPC </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify select best practices / benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Identify issues with process and improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps between current process and customer / supplier requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other opportunities </li></ul></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Approach Overview
    23. 23. Stage 3: Evaluate Opportunities In this stage, each opportunity is evaluated and prioritized based upon supporting rationales, financial & qualitative benefits, and risks & resources required to implement. <ul><li>Evaluate improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop supporting rationale - process gaps, proven practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop cost / benefit analysis for improvement opportunities requiring an investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess risks (difficulty to implement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify resources required (people, organization, systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prioritize improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify prioritization criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select Opportunities to recommend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document improvement opportunities and identify high-level implementation approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present findings to Process Owner / Stakeholder </li></ul></ul>Systems People Organization Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Approach Overview LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE World Class Performance Gap Actual Over Time Quality Cost Time Opportunities
    24. 24. Stage 4: Implement Improvements <ul><li>Develop implementation plans for improvements selected for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Design new processes as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Develop performance measures to track results </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Communications Plan and share organizational changes to employees </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Training Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Stakeholder and employees </li></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Deliver In this stage, each chosen opportunity has a detailed plan which serves as a guide and a tracking mechanism to monitor implementation progress and results. Approach Overview Implementation Plan Step Tasks Resp. Start End Status
    25. 25. Stage 5: Sustain Improvements The final stage of the approach entails sustaining the priority improvements. Plan <ul><li>Develop a Sustainability Plan, Service Level </li></ul><ul><li>Agreements, & iterative RPC cycles for process improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify accountability and on-going sponsorship of key processes </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and document how key metrics will be established, collected and reported </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and document how the organization will manage ongoing education and communication methods </li></ul><ul><li>Assist Stakeholders in developing “checkpoint” process </li></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Check-point Approach Overview
    26. 26. RPC project lengths vary RPC Stages: Minimum: <ul><li>Participants already trained in RPC </li></ul><ul><li>Background information readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal best practices / benchmarking research </li></ul><ul><li>Process owners, suppliers, and customers accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to prioritize </li></ul><ul><li>Quick hits </li></ul><ul><li>Simple task elimination </li></ul>Maximum: <ul><li>Participants require RPC training </li></ul><ul><li>Background information not documented / updated </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to prioritize </li></ul><ul><li>Full process redesign </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership development </li></ul><ul><li>Some best practices / benchmarking research </li></ul><ul><li>Process owners, suppliers, and customers difficult to coordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Rigorous, extensive cost / benefit analyses, risks and resources required </li></ul><ul><li>Many opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Back of the envelope cost / benefit analyses, risks and resources required </li></ul><ul><li>Few opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal need to develop ongoing skills and capability </li></ul><ul><li>Already have robust measurement system </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to develop: ongoing operational improvement capability & skills AND ability to measure success on a ‘going basis’ </li></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team The length of RPC projects depends on complexity of the processes in scope, previous work done, and implementation. Approach Overview
    27. 27. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    28. 28. Stage 1: Mobilize Team Mobilize Team The Mobilize Team stage identifies current processes and activities. This makes tangible “what people do” and how they use resources. <ul><li>Establish process team roles & train team on Rapid Process Change approach </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain background on processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How process is managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People / departments involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance measures </li></ul></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team
    29. 29. Interview with Process Change Champion <ul><li>Obtain perspective on process issues and assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Set project scope and schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Set objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Select team </li></ul><ul><li>Identify stakeholder expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Develop communication strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Determine “kick-off” approach </li></ul>Conduct interview with the Process Change Champion to: Mobilize Team
    30. 30. Target areas for evaluation/prioritization <ul><li>RPC targets areas that are characterized by “waste” </li></ul><ul><li>Seven key wastes have been identified as high value add candidates for RPC : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waiting time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion (1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A case in point : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client requested an RPC initiative to achieve improved diagnosis of user errors and minimize defect-free product returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM BCS was hired to remove low-value-added work, enhance operational performance, streamline end-to-end processes and reduce costs related to erroneous product returns </li></ul></ul>All waste cannot be eliminated by using only one RPC project – many projects coordinated at the program level address multiple forms of waste Key Point Mobilize Team (1) Refers to movement of people (2) Refers to movement of goods NOTES
    31. 31. Scope Determination Processes that are not delivering the desired results (e.g., high Cost of Quality, sub-par performance) Good processes that have not been implemented well Processes which may no longer be aligned with strategies or customer requirements Candidates for Rapid Process Change There are four types of processes that may be good candidates for Rapid Process Change: Mission-critical processes (high importance relative to other processes) Mobilize Team
    32. 32. Set Objectives <ul><li>Once the scope has been determined, the Team Lead should develop a statement that summarizes the objective of the RPC effort. The objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a goal and guides the team throughout the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not fixed and may evolve during the early phases of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires defining both measures and targets for judging the progress and success of the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify and remove the inefficiencies delaying product launches </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the issues related to knowledge transfer and develop a process that provides training to the right people at the right time </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate duplicate efforts between groups and develop efficient work processes and knowledge/work sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce by 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Increase by 10-20% </li></ul><ul><li>100% salespeople within 3 weeks of product launch </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce costs in each by 10%. </li></ul><ul><li><1 in the first quarter </li></ul><ul><li>0 in the second quarter </li></ul>Sample Project Objectives Sample Project Targets Gathering hard data allows the team to measure the impact and success of recommendations, however set time/resource limits on data collection Key Points Set metrics based on the business issues – how will you measure the success of the project? What will the benefits be? <ul><li>Launch timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental revenues (price , time in market) </li></ul><ul><li>Percent salespeople trained on new product </li></ul><ul><li>Average time between training and launch </li></ul><ul><li>Operating costs for each group </li></ul><ul><li># of duplicated processes </li></ul>Sample Project Measures Mobilize Team
    33. 33. Project Request Form (as required) <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Broad impact to company/Leverage </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities required </li></ul><ul><li>Project deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Project timing </li></ul><ul><li>Resources proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting plan </li></ul><ul><li>Expected benefits (financial and operational) </li></ul><ul><li>Expected costs </li></ul><ul><li>Project assumptions and risks </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership and escalation </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Checkpoints </li></ul>Checkpoint When a RPC Program is operating across an organization, the Project Request form should be completed by the sponsor and/or the team lead and approved by the Program Office Required Information The Project Request Form gives the team lead a structured way to perform rigorous planning before actually diving too deeply into an actual RPC project. It also serves as a vehicle to synchronize the team lead and the project sponsor’s thinking as well as to eliminate wasted effort on projects that won’t deliver significant returns. Mobilize Team
    34. 34. Setting Expectations with Team Members <ul><li>Establishing expectations among the RPC team members has proven to be a critical issue for RPC teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set meeting dates, times, durations – hold team meetings at a regularly scheduled time and days every week to minimize confusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approximate non-meeting time that will be expected of each team member through the course of the project – team members ~5-10hrs/week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of involvement – team membership extends beyond the 8-10 week project length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Champion, team leads and process owners will continue to be involved indefinitely in sustainability evaluations and ongoing improvement of the target process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What types of information will each member be responsible for providing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership of the team’s results and ongoing championing of the process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of both interim deliverables for use by the team and potentially final deliverables for presentation to the executive sponsors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of 360 evaluations among team members </li></ul></ul></ul>Mobilize Team
    35. 35. Obtain Background on Processes <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Gain an understanding of the current state of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Define the objectives of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct interview with process owner </li></ul><ul><li>How process is performing / managed </li></ul><ul><li>How was process designed to perform / be managed </li></ul><ul><li>People / departments involved </li></ul><ul><li>Key activities </li></ul><ul><li>Performance measures </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Process owner interview output </li></ul>Mobilize Team
    36. 36. Discussion 1 – Issues and Opportunities Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team <ul><li>At this point the team is ready to hold the 1 st discussion. The goals of this workshop are to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finalize the objectives of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and gain agreement to process issues and root causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify opportunities </li></ul></ul>Discussion 1 Discussion 2 Discussion 3 Primary Output: Process Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Primary Output: Evaluated Opportunities Primary Output: Prioritized Implementation Solutions for Development Mobilize Team
    37. 37. Team Mobilization Final Checklist <ul><li>Prior to entering the Assess stage, ensure that project fundamentals have been set-up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Process Lead role is assigned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members from all relevant groups across the process’ span of influence are assigned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crisp definition of the high-level issue and a bounded scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A summary project plan with key phases (e.g., Mobilize , Assess Process… ), activities (e.g., interview customer service representatives, collect secondary data), and identified responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A scope that allows for completion of the first 4 phases in 6-10 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An understanding of the roles and responsibilities of all team members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications to the Stakeholders about the project (through a meeting and / or memos) </li></ul></ul>Mobilize Team
    38. 38. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    39. 39. Stage 2: Assess Processes Assess Processes <ul><li>Evaluate processes (suppliers, inputs, customers, outputs) with select employees through RPC workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Identify select best practices / benchmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Identify issues with process and improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps between current process and customer / supplier requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other opportunities </li></ul></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team The Assess Processes stage focuses on assessing processes to identify improvement opportunities. Employee involvement ensures realism and buy-in
    40. 40. Evaluate Processes through RPC Discussions <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and document the process </li></ul><ul><li>Identify issues, root causes and improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct RPC discussions with owners, customers and suppliers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify process suppliers, inputs, customers and outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the process steps which convert inputs to outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify performance measures for each process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess cycle time and transaction volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarize process information in Process Template (see BPR “In a Box”) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop process map (as necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Capture issues and root causes </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Process template </li></ul><ul><li>Process map (as necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Issue and root cause analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement opportunities </li></ul>Assess Processes
    41. 41. Guide to Conducting RPC Discussions The following three steps can be used as a guide to facilitate workshops. Plan the RPC Discussion Conduct the Discussion Summarize the Discussion <ul><ul><li>Gather data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review available background information, including any current process documentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide advance notice to participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topics to be covered and documents / reports to be collected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time needed for the meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use standard format (key points, potential opportunities, follow-up items) to document results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify issues and potential root causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain purpose of meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how the information will be used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence events (e.g., easy to difficult, neutral to sensitive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage the conversations </li></ul></ul>Assess Processes
    42. 42. RPC Discussion 1 – Defining the Process (SIPOC) Suppliers Customers Inputs Outputs Major Process Steps 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. Cycle Time: Performance Measures: Transaction Volumes: Process Name: Purpose: Systems & Info Resources Assess Processes
    43. 43. Process Owner Interview Guide- Jung Pyo <ul><li>BASELINING THE ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVEMENT PLANNING EFFORT WITHIN A SIPOC CONTEXT </li></ul>Mobilize Team
    44. 44. Key Deliverable: BPR In a Box Process Template Later, the process template, the first Artifact in the BPR In a Box kit will be used to document critical process information and help identify potential process gaps. Assess Processes
    45. 45. Identify Issues, Root Causes and Improvement Opportunities <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Identify contributing issues, root causes and improvement opportunities to simplify, streamline and eliminate work </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement processes with additional recommendations to improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Hold discussions to brainstorm issues, assess gaps between current processes and customer / supplier requirements, and identify improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesize root causes and develop new approaches to address key issues </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of issues, root causes and opportunities </li></ul>Assess Processes
    46. 46. Key Deliverable: Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Summary This template from the BPR in an Box can be used to document issues and improvement opportunities. Discussion 1 Focus Assess Processes
    47. 47. Tool: Drilling Down via Questioning Probing: Further investigating the contributing issues involves understanding the relationships between the symptoms and the likely root causes. When we hear... … and focus on potential root causes Something always goes wrong <ul><li>Process variability is high </li></ul><ul><li>Process is not capable of meeting goals </li></ul>The inputs are not right, on-time <ul><li>Inputs are not consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs are not well managed </li></ul>We need more training <ul><li>Lack of specific skills are impacting performance </li></ul><ul><li>On the job training may be substituting for process controls </li></ul>My people are busy, but nothing gets done <ul><li>Non value-added handoffs and rework exist </li></ul>We should ask additional questions... <ul><li>What are the types of problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think they occur? </li></ul><ul><li>What types of errors are occurring? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you believe is the cause of these problems? </li></ul><ul><li>What skill do you train for? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people learn the processes that they perform? </li></ul><ul><li>What are people doing? </li></ul>Illustrative Assess Processes
    48. 48. Preliminary Baseline Metrics Targets <ul><li>Is it currently measured? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we quickly establish a baseline of current performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we make high-level estimates? </li></ul>Once issues are identified, a preliminary baseline is needed. This will allow the project team to measure the magnitude of improvement for new solutions. Targets for the Metrics <ul><li>Can we leverage external benchmarks? </li></ul><ul><li>What should our reach targets be? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the time frame for hitting the targets? </li></ul>Baseline Metrics (for key processes) Key Points The purpose is to establish the relative magnitude of the issues and to allow for evaluation of the magnitude and direction of improvements attributable to the implemented solutions A consistent method of estimation should be used to establish the baseline, to evaluate implemented solutions and to measure progress against targets Checkpoint The Baselines and Targets must be vetted by the project sponsor. Are they based on the right measures? Are the targets too easy to meet? Do they match with the goals of the project? Assess Processes
    49. 49. Tool: Generation of Improvement Opportunities Objective: Improve functional performance Reduction of services / outputs More rational generation of services outputs Reduce content Reduce quality Reduce frequency Eliminate Substitute / combine Defer More efficient organizational allocation More streamlined work processes Fulfillment of necessary preconditions Centralize Decentralize to business units Contract out/bring in-house Standardize Balance workload / combine activities Improve data processing support Modify inputs Automate / de-automate Develop organizational aids Increase / decrease skill level of staff Increase incentives Change process flow Improvement opportunities can be generated by systematically thinking through the options for each activity that must be performed in a process. Illustrative Assess Processes
    50. 50. Improvement Opportunities from Process Redesign Principles Improvement ideas can also come from comparing current processes to the Process Redesign Principles: <ul><li>Demand - Pull Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull Signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Batches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-up Reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Customer / Supplier Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy Elimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal & External Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste Elimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waiting Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material Handling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organize Around Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-functional Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Complete Teams </li></ul></ul>Assess Processes
    51. 51. Identify Select Proven Practices / Benchmarks <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Identify proven practices employed by leading companies or internally which can be implemented to improve processes </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct secondary research to identify external proven practices </li></ul><ul><li>Identify internal proven practices </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize ideas generated from proven practices / benchmarks to add to opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Document proven practices </li></ul>Assess Processes
    52. 52. Discussion 2 Sustain Improvements Discussion 1 Discussion 2 Primary Output: Process Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Discussion 3 Primary Output: Evaluated Opportunities Primary Output: Prioritized Implementation Solutions for Development Assess Processes The The focus of the first half of the Discussion 2 is on generating additional opportunities. From this list, opportunities can be compared and evaluated.
    53. 53. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    54. 54. Stage 3: Evaluate Opportunities In this stage, each opportunity is evaluated and prioritized based upon supporting rationales, financial & qualitative benefits, and risks & resources required to implement. <ul><li>Evaluate improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop supporting rationale - process gaps, proven practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop cost / benefit analysis for improvement opportunities requiring an investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess risks (difficulty to implement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify resources required (people, organization, systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prioritize improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify prioritization criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select Opportunities to recommend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document improvement opportunities and identify high-level implementation approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present findings to Process Stakeholders </li></ul></ul>Systems People Organization Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Evaluate Opportunities LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE World Class Performance Gap Actual Over Time Quality Cost Time Opportunities
    55. 55. Evaluate Improvement Opportunities <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Assess each opportunity for expected return, risks and resources required </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate qualitative & quantitative benefits, payback and costs </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate resources required (people, organization, systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Determine potential risks (difficulty to implement) </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity Evaluation template </li></ul>Evaluate Opportunities
    56. 56. Discussion 2 Sustain Improvements The focus of the second half of Workshop 2 is on comparing and evaluating opportunities to be implemented. Discussion 1 Primary Output: Process Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Discussion 2 Discussion 3 Primary Output: Evaluated Opportunities Primary Output: Prioritized Implementation Solutions for Development Evaluate Opportunities
    57. 57. Key Deliverable: Opportunity Evaluation Template The other half of this template from the BPR in an Box can be used to capture benefits, risks and resources required for each issue and associated opportunity. Discussion 2 Focus Evaluate Opportunities
    58. 58. Opportunity Evaluation Criteria The following are examples of the potential evaluation criteria. Criteria <ul><li>Financial benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Quality improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Time savings </li></ul><ul><li>Increased customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Set-up cost </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Administration / maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Systems </li></ul>Benefits Costs Resources Required Types Risks <ul><li>Project Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Future Problems/Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Concerns </li></ul>Evaluate Opportunities
    59. 59. Review Various Drivers of Criteria If a “Financial Benefit” is being used, think about what drives this benefit Types of Financial Benefits <ul><li>Incremental FTEs </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Travel expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Employee overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Network availability </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity due to network availability </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity reduces need to hire new managers </li></ul>Cost Savings Revenue Enhancement Cost Avoidance Examples - Potential Drivers Illustrative Evaluate Opportunities
    60. 60. Evaluate Opportunities – Key Takeaways <ul><ul><li>Develop evaluation criteria that is most closely aligned with your overall project objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As solutions are evaluated, document the amount of time and the costs that potentially can be saved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking short-cuts in this step will lead to confusion and misunderstandings later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t let the team get stalled by focusing only on tools – instead focus primarily on the opportunities while using the tools to help develop and document them </li></ul></ul>Evaluate Opportunities
    61. 61. Rapid Process Change Overview Sustain Improvements At the end of the Evaluate Step, the findings are presented to the Stakeholder(s) Stakeholder(s) review: Recommended Improvements Stakeholder(s) review: Issues and Opportunities Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team RPC Key Outcomes and Deliverables: Stage 1: Project team formed & plan developed Stage 2: Process definitions completed & issues with process, root causes and opportunities identified Stage 3: Opportunities evaluated & prioritized, selected and documented Stage 4: Develop and implement selected improvement opportunities Stage 5: Sustain implementation of selected improvement opportunities Evaluate Opportunities
    62. 62. Prioritize Improvement Opportunities <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Focus resources on a select set of initiatives that are of highest priority to the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Agree upon prioritization criteria (i.e., benefit, risks) </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct RPC workshop to review comprehensive list of opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize the opportunities according to the criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Select opportunities to recommend for action based on priority, resources and organization objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities prioritized & recommended actions identified </li></ul>Evaluate Opportunities
    63. 63. Discussion 3 Sustain Improvements The focus of the third discussion is on prioritizing and selecting opportunities to pursue. From the prioritized list, solutions are selected for implementation. Discussion 1 Primary Output: Process Issues, Root Causes and Opportunities Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Discussion 2 Discussion 3 Primary Output: Evaluated Opportunities Primary Output: Prioritized Implementation Solutions for Development Evaluate Opportunities
    64. 64. Prioritization Framework Opportunities with service improvements and quantifiable financial benefits are plotted proportionally Return Increased Efficiency and Effectiveness High Low Low High Risk Take Action Quickly Capture Opportunity as Resources Allow Do not Pursue, or Pursue Last Rigorous Focus of Attention And Resources To Ensure Success All opportunities are plotted based on the project team’s assessment Improvement opportunities can be evaluated in terms of expected returns and risks. This evaluation, highlights the challenges which drive risk management and implementation planning. Evaluate Opportunities
    65. 65. Considering the Solutions <ul><li>Before making final choices, consider if solutions can be moved on the matrix. </li></ul>High High Low Low High impact, high risk Low impact, high risk Low impact, low risk High impact, low risk Are there ways to move some of these solutions to the right? What barriers can be removed? Can the sponsor or other stakeholders help? Are there ways to make these low impact solutions have more impact? Can they be leveraged by multiple organizations? Can the solutions be bigger than originally planned? Solution A Solution B Bubble size can be used as a third variable. In this case, it represents “Level of Effort Required”. Key Point The two axes and the bubble sizes can be changed to other variables if they are more relevant for the project (Take Action Quickly) (Focus of Attention) (Do not Pursue) (Capture Opportunity) Return Increased Efficiency and Effectiveness Risk Evaluate Opportunities
    66. 66. Document Improvement Opportunities and Identify Implementation Approach <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Build case for gaining commitment and resources to pursue opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify high-level implementation approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Document improvement opportunities and rationale for change </li></ul><ul><li>For each recommendation, identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion dates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement Opportunity Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation Template </li></ul>Evaluate Opportunities
    67. 67. High-Level Implementation Approach Possible Implementation Approaches This framework divides improvement opportunities into four categories which drive the implementation approach. <ul><li>Use decision-making authority to quickly implement improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain buy-in for improvement opportunity from leadership of all affected functional areas </li></ul><ul><li>Secure additional resources if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Consider organizational and operational impacts of implementing improvement opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Do not pursue, investigate further or pursue in a limited fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Use management discretion to determine whether implementing the improvement opportunity will yield sufficient value to justify allocation of resources </li></ul>Take Action Quickly Capture Opportunity as Resources Allow Do Not Pursue, or Pursue Last Rigorous Focus of Attention & Resources To Ensure Success Take Action Quickly Capture Opportunity as Resources Allow Do Not Pursue, or Pursue Last Take Action Quickly Do Not Pursue, or Pursue Last Rigorous Focus of Attention & Resources To Ensure Success Take Action Quickly Capture Opportunity as Resources Allow Do Not Pursue, or Pursue Last Rigorous Focus of Attention & Resources To Ensure Success Rigorous Focus of Attention & Resources To Ensure Success Capture Opportunity as Resources Allow Evaluate Opportunities
    68. 68. Deliverable – Improvement Opportunity Case Template 1 The first opportunity template provides qualitative support for the recommended opportunity. This includes benefits, best practices and performance measures. Evaluate Opportunities Improvement Opportunity: <ul><li>Key Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Expected Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Design Factors / Best Practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Measures: </li></ul><ul><li>Key Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Expected Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Design Factors / Best Practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Measures: </li></ul>
    69. 69. Deliverable – Improvement Opportunity Case Template 2 The second opportunity template provides quantitative support for the recommended opportunity. This includes total cost and benefit breakdown. Use only if applicable Evaluate Opportunities Total Costs $ Sources of Benefit Cash Flow Increase Total: $ Revenue Enhancement Cost Avoidance Total: $ Total: $ Net Return $ Total Benefits $ Total: $ Total: $ Total: $ Sources of Costs Incremental FTEs Expenses Capital <ul><li>One-time </li></ul><ul><li>On-going </li></ul>Financial Benefits : <ul><li>Anticipated Risks: </li></ul><ul><li>Of Implementing: </li></ul><ul><li>Of Not Implementing: </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Approach: </li></ul><ul><li>One-time </li></ul><ul><li>On-going </li></ul><ul><li>One-time </li></ul><ul><li>On-going </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Savings (P&L) </li></ul><ul><li>Working Capital </li></ul>Improvement Opportunity:
    70. 70. Deliverable – Recommendation Template <ul><li>For a recommended solution, the Recommendation Template is another way of aggregating key information in order to communicate it to the sponsor and the team. </li></ul>The team lead must communicate different aspects of the solution to the sponsor and can use the Recommendation Template as an aid Check-point Evaluate Opportunities Recommendation A brief, descriptive statement Benefits/Results What are the measurable benefits/results? How do they tie into the organization’s objectives? Risks What are the potential negative impacts? Critical Success Factors What has to happen for the plan to be successful? Barriers What is preventing us from accomplishing these changes and meeting the objective?: Enablers How do we break down the barrier impeding us from meeting the objective? Resources Requirements What are the resource requirements needed to implement the recommendation? Action Plan What steps must be taken in order to implement the plan? Metrics What are the performance and sustainability metrics that will be used to measure success and longevity Internal Controls What is the potential adverse affect on the internal control environment?: Team: Recommendation #:
    71. 71. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    72. 72. Stage 4: Implement Improvements <ul><li>Develop implementation plans for improvements selected for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Design new processes as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Develop performance measures to track results </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Communications Plan and share organizational changes to employees </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Training Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and reward employees </li></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Deliver In this stage, each chosen opportunity has a detailed plan which serves as a guide and a tracking mechanism to monitor implementation progress and results. Implement Improvements Implementation Plan Step Tasks Resp. Start End Status
    73. 73. Develop Detailed Implementation Plan <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a detailed plan which serves as a guide and a tracking mechanism for recommendation implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks </li></ul><ul><li>For each recommendation, identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major tasks: What, To Whom, When, By Whom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The person responsible for that task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task start and completion dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliverable for each task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables include </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed plan outlining the prioritized steps, responsibility, timing and status </li></ul><ul><li>Checkpoints & reporting process for implementation phase </li></ul>You’ve put a lot of work into the project by this phase—maintain your momentum and implement the solution to realize benefits! Key Point Implement Improvements
    74. 74. Change Elements In An Implementation Plan Are improvements carried out at the right level, with staff personnel acting as coaches and counselors? Are personnel from other functional areas included in the process? Does the plan ensure continuity from one year to the next, or is it focused on the current situation and the development of goals and actions for the immediate future? Has senior management adequately communicated its vision of corporate goals to the business areas responsible for actually implementing the improvements? Is leadership sufficiently committed to the process to free up the personnel needed to implement the improvements? Does the plan facilitate and encourage sharing of insights between participants? Does the plan allow for revision of the improvements prior to adoption? Has a logical, hierarchical outline been established for the completed improvements, such that participants have a clear picture of the end product? Has a format for the necessary analyses been established and communicated to participants? Do procedures exist to track progress and resource consumption of improvements? Role Definition: Company-Wide Involvement: Continuity: Goal-Setting: Commitment: Participant Interaction: Opportunity for Revision: Structure and Format: Post-Auditing: Implementation plans should address these change management best practices Implement Improvements
    75. 75. Deliverable - Implementation Plan (BPR in a Box) Status Complete Complete Complete Underway Underway Underway Complete Underway Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Provide ongoing expert billing assistance <ul><li>Follow-up as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to “billing hotline” status </li></ul><ul><li>Develop advanced training </li></ul>T. Lewis T. Lewis T. Lewis The plan should also include steps, tasks, responsibilities, timing and deliverables. Sample Plan - Fix Billing Errors Step Develop basic training for consistent and correct procedures Tasks <ul><li>Identify billing expert to be training coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain draft procedure manual from S. Pass </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate time required to complete manual and develop billing training material </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct one-on-one sessions with each billing person to determine training needs </li></ul><ul><li>Revise billing procedures manual </li></ul><ul><li>Develop billing training program </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute manual for study by all billing personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Develop contracts training for billing personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Hold session to train personnel </li></ul>Responsible P. Barry T. Lewis T. Lewis T. Lewis T. Lewis T. Lewis T. Lewis K. Schafer T. Lewis Start 1-Jun 1-Jun 1-Jun 28-Jun 30-Jun 30-Jun 14-Jul 1-Aug 2-Sep End 5-Jun 8-Jun 16-Jun 9-Jul 14-Jul 21-Jul 14-Jul 21-Aug 2-Sep Track performance <ul><li>Generate daily audit reports to T. Lewis </li></ul><ul><li>Balance accounts to go forward </li></ul><ul><li>Use daily audit reports on an ongoing basis </li></ul><ul><li>Define department measures, establish baselines & targets </li></ul><ul><li>Notify account managers to forward all billing complaints to Billing Supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Document each error, responsibility, and action to address </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up as necessary </li></ul>D. King D. King D. King M. Wood P. Harris T. Lewis T. Lewis 14-Jun 21-Jun 10-Jun 28-Jun 19-Jul 18-Jun 16-Jul Ongoing 16-Jul 9-Jul Ongoing Ongoing Deliverable Individual selected Manual on hand Estimate to complete Sessions conducted Manual completed Program developed Manual distributed Program developed Sessions conducted Report to T. Lewis Accounts balanced Accounts balanced Measures by region Communications sent Completed form Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Training program Ongoing Ongoing Ongoing Implement Improvements
    76. 76. Key Questions – Implementation Plan <ul><li>Review your project plan and answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which phases or tasks do you think are too short? Are there any that seem too long? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is anything missing from the plan? What would you add? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which tasks and milestones do you think will be the most contentious within the project team? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do you think the sponsor’s help will be needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What could derail the timing of the project? What effects would this have on the final results? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What could go wrong with this plan? </li></ul></ul>Review the Rollout and Sustainability plans with the project sponsor—the team lead and sponsor should test for any holes in the plan, risks to implementation, or barriers to rollout Check-point Implement Improvements
    77. 77. Design of New Processes - Redesign may be a First Step in Implementation <ul><li>One of the typical outcomes from the Prioritize Improvements step is the need to redesign a particular process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During the documentation of opportunities, specific issues to be “designed out” and specific other features to be “designed in” will have been identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other factors to consider when redesigning the process are: </li></ul></ul>Process Redesign Steps Process Definition Standards <ul><li>New Process Design: </li></ul><ul><li>Process Decomposition </li></ul><ul><li>Process Map </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & Responsibilities (RACI) </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul>Best Practices Benchmarking Process Owner Inputs Process Redesign Principles Issues & Opportunities with Current Process Implement Improvements
    78. 78. Design of New Processes – RACI Charts <ul><li>RACI: Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What benefits will RACI charts provide? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify roles and responsibilities across each process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the functional groups that are responsible, accountable, consulted and informed for each of the processes mapped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote cross-functional collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure parties that need to be informed or consulted are clear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt constructive discussion and decisions related to roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul></ul>Make sure these roles are understood and clear before beginning the activity. Make modifications if necessary Key Points Implement Improvements Has the duty and the obligation to do the work or otherwise ensure that the work is completed . Also, has a duty to exercise independent judgment to raise appropriate issues Has the authority to decide (or approve) and is the recipient of any consequences (There can only be one “A” per process step) Must be given the opportunity to influence plans and decisions prior to finalization by the “Responsible” party Is informed of progress, key decisions and deliverables by the “Responsible” party Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed
    79. 79. Develop Performance Measures <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Define fact-based measures and monitor them to track progress toward achieving desired results </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks include: </li></ul><ul><li>Define key metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Collect information to form baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Establish performance targets </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables include: </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Targets </li></ul>Implement Improvements
    80. 80. Develop Performance Measures – Defining Metrics <ul><li>Establishing baselines </li></ul><ul><li>Setting targets for the metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing a method of measuring metrics and comparing against baseline and targets </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing on formulas (preferably during process mapping stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping in mind that the initial numbers can be rough, but they must be able to measure directional changes (improvement or decline in effectiveness) </li></ul>Performance Sustainability What it measures Considerations The results the client is achieving due to the redesigned processes The degree to which the organization is following the redesigned processes Implement Improvements
    81. 81. Develop Performance Measures – Example Performance Metrics with Targets <ul><li>Performance Metrics (by category) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer/Market: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure = Errors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target = Reduce number of errors by 50% by next year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure = Turnaround time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target = Improve average turnaround time by 50% by Q2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure = Accuracy of product cost estimate defined at project commitment checkpoint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target = +/- 10% accuracy at each subsequent checkpoint throughout the product lifecycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure = Accuracy of R&D investment estimate defined at project commitment checkpoint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target = +/- 10% accuracy at each subsequent checkpoint throughout the development lifecycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure = Reduction of critical issues that need immediate attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target = Critical errors account for only 1% of all changes made as of Q2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure = Number of publishers who subscribe to the notification service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target = 15 subscribers by end of fiscal year and 5 more added per quarter </li></ul></ul></ul>Implement Improvements
    82. 82. Develop Performance Measures – Example Sustainability Metrics <ul><li>Sustainability Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of groups within the product category that are using the process regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of groups within the product category that are using the process as documented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of days after arrival in a relevant position in the product category before a new individual receives appropriate process training </li></ul></ul>Implement Improvements
    83. 83. Communicate Organizational Changes <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a plan to share changes to the organization and communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify, analyze and segment key stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Develop time phased communications strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Implement communications strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Training Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Service Level Agreements (SLA’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Communications about changes and timeframe to the organization </li></ul>Implement Improvements
    84. 84. Deliverable - Communication Plan <ul><li>Communication is a critical element to ensure buy-in from the organization and to initiate the RPC project with the entire organization. Consider the following areas when formulating your Communication plan: </li></ul>Memos (written, email) HOW MESSAGE IS DELIVERED FROM WHOM and STATUS MESSAGE and FREQUENCY Meetings Key Stakeholders Responsibilities <ul><li>Team Assignments—once </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule and Logistics –prior to each event </li></ul><ul><li>Issues—as they are identified </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions Required— As required </li></ul><ul><li>Status—weekly </li></ul><ul><li>Results—once </li></ul>Project Team Steering Committee Project Sponsors TO WHOM and ROLE The impact of each message can be increased by planning appropriate delivery, e.g., by a top executive or with prominence on the client intranet. Key Point Implement Improvements Memo
    85. 85. Deliverable - Communication Plan, Sample Implement Improvements
    86. 86. Training Plan <ul><li>Key considerations when developing a training plan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the different audiences that need training on the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What types of training does each audience require? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will deliver the training? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many people will get trained? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are the attendees? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When will it be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long will it be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of delivery method(s) will be used? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will it be held? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the cost of the training? </li></ul></ul>The training program can be informal and small or formal and large, depending on the training needs Key Point Implement Improvements
    87. 87. Deliverable - Training Plan, Sample Implement Improvements
    88. 88. Integrating RPC Efforts with Reward System <ul><li>Match financial and non-financial incentives to performance measures </li></ul><ul><li>Determine “weights” of measures for each incentive </li></ul><ul><li>Reward both individual and team performance (e.g. measures that cross functional areas) </li></ul>Assess Current Incentives / Rewards Identify Gaps Between Measures and Incentives / Rewards Develop Links Between Measures and Incentives / Rewards Implement Incentives / Rewards Activity <ul><li>Identify the incentives and / or rewards which are used to motivate or reinforce RPC efforts in the functional areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay increases, bonuses, other variable pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotions or assignments to more desirable, challenging projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other non-financial rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine the performance measures that are currently tracked and rewarded </li></ul><ul><li>Identify gaps where desired behaviors and performance measures are neither tracked nor rewarded </li></ul><ul><li>Identify incentives or rewards that are used to reward behaviors that are no longer desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate incentives or rewards that reward undesirable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Develop incentives to reward the performance measures </li></ul><ul><li>Refine and finalize rewards </li></ul>Recognizing and rewarding employees for RPC efforts can be done by integrating performance measures with reward systems. Tasks Implement Improvements
    89. 89. Stage 5: Sustain Improvements The final stage of the approach entails sustaining the priority improvements. Plan <ul><li>Develop a Sustainability Plan and Service Level Agreements for process improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify accountability and on-going sponsorship of key processes </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and document how key metrics will be established, collected and reported </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and document how the organization will manage ongoing education and communication methods </li></ul><ul><li>Establish 3 and 6 month ‘Checkpoints’ with Sponsor and Key Stakeholders </li></ul>Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Check-point Sustain Improvements
    90. 90. Sustainability plan <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that reinvented processes are used,maintained and having the targeted business impact per established targets </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify accountability and ongoing sponsorship for the key processes </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how metrics will be established, collected and reported </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the organization will create and manage ongoing education and communication vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Documented assumptions critical for success </li></ul><ul><li>Documented risks to sustainability and risk mitigation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Documented ongoing implementation steps </li></ul>Sustain Improvements
    91. 91. Sustainability evaluation & performance base lining <ul><li>Sustainability evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each RPC project has a sustainability plan that monitors transition to steady state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sustainability evaluation measures post-project results using metrics that are organized around outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is placed on measuring waste elimination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The metric selection approach deployed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews metrics prior to initiation of measurement to “focus on what matters” and reduce risk / “fire drills” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cascades metrics upstream of each process to ensure they provide trail to RPC purpose and consistency </li></ul></ul>Sustain Improvements Review & Cascade Metrics Measure & Compile Results Align Metric w/ Process Report Results REFINE Review & Cascade Metrics Measure & Compile Results Align Metric w/ Process Report Results Ongoing performance measurement (2nd, 3rd & 4th generations) Base lining : 1st generation sustainability evaluation Sustainability Evaluation Cycle Sustainability Evaluation Cycle RPC Performance Base Lining
    92. 92. 3- and 6-month Checkpoints <ul><li>Using the metrics and targets defined by the project team to measure performance (business impact) and sustainability of the redesigned processes </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing results to baselines and targets </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for and measuring new processes </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting on the results </li></ul><ul><li>Making adjustments to the processes based analysis of the metrics </li></ul>Performance Sustainability Metrics Steps The results client is achieving due to the redesigned processes The degree to which the organization is following the redesigned processes The team lead and sponsor must agree to the metrics used to measure performance and sustainability. They should revisit these metrics at 3 months and 6 months to assess the success of their recommendations. Check-point After the processes are rolled out, Owners should conduct 3- and 6-month checkpoints with appropriate stakeholders. These should evaluate use and impact of the solution developed and rolled out by the team Sustain Improvements
    93. 93. Develop Service Level Agreements (SLAs) <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>A service level agreement (SLA) is a written document that outlines expected standards of implementation as well as helps clarify roles and responsibilities across various groups within the client’s organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Skills sets required </li></ul><ul><li>Processes and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Escalation process for conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>SLA review and feedback process </li></ul><ul><li>Performance metrics </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables : </li></ul><ul><li>Written document agreed to by client’s key stakeholders and those groups involved in the implementation pf the service level agreement. </li></ul>Don’t try to create SLAs for everything—only create them for key hand-offs identified by process mapping or RACI charts where service delivery needs to be negotiated Potential Pitfall Sustain Improvements
    94. 94. Course Topics <ul><li>1 Section 1: Introduction & Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>2 Section 2: Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Section 3: Approach Overview </li></ul><ul><li>4 Section 4: Mobilize Team </li></ul><ul><li>5 Section 5: Assess Process </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6: Evaluate Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7: Implement Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8: Sustain Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Section 9: Wrap-up </li></ul>RPC Course
    95. 95. Critical Success Factors for RPC <ul><li>The following CSFs will need to be met for the team to be successful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work across the functional & organizational silos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperate across the Back- and Front-ends to achieve results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop end-to-end solutions and define tasks and relationships between organizations to improve operating efficiencies and reduce organizational tension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote active transition leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set a strong mandate for change, participate visibly in project kick-off, maintain awareness of project progress, and act as a role model for Back-end/Front-end participation to motivate team members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide team members with decision-making authority, leadership opportunities, and coaching to develop future change leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require accountability for measurable results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold team members responsible for deadlines and project outcomes to achieve the best results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate performance metrics, targets, and sustainability measures into process rollouts to ensure ongoing accountability </li></ul></ul></ul>Wrap-up
    96. 96. Leveraging Other Efforts <ul><li>Finally, RPC is not about delivering projects in isolation. It is designed to be a program that allows teams to leverage the work of other groups </li></ul><ul><li>Look to other RPC projects for sample deliverables, proven practices and new ideas for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Submit your work products to the appropriate repositories for use by future projects </li></ul>Wrap-up
    97. 97. RPC relies on standardized tools to drive the project Document business case for recommended improvements Sustain Improvements Implement Improvements Evaluate Opportunities Assess Processes Mobilize Team Stage Checklist Example Templates Process Template Issues and Opportunities Opportunity Evaluation Template Implementation Plan Determine Schedule Communication to Organization / Dept Send communication to the organization / department Establish process team and conduct training Obtain background information on process Evaluate processes (complete process template) Identify issues and improvement opportunities Identify select best practices / benchmarks Memo Identify benefits, risks, resources required Develop quantitative cost / benefit analysis Prioritize opportunities using return / risk matrix Identify high-level implementation approach Complete Opportunity Evaluation template Present improvement opportunities to Steering Team Complete detailed implementation plan Allocate resources for implementation Communicate changes and timeframe to organization Determine scope and schedule Activity 1 Activity 2 Process Step Issue Opportunity Step Tasks Resp. Start End Deliver Status Process Map RPC ‘Generational’ Model RPC Methodology 1 st generation 2 nd generation 3 rd generation 4 th generation RPC Training Cycle Proof of Concept Proof of Concept LEAD with NO guidance LEAD with NO guidance Training Cycle Proof of Concept Proof of Concept LEAD with NO guidance LEAD with NO guidance Perform with guidance Perform with guidance Develop a Sustainability Plan 3 month –6 month Check Wrap-up Return / Risk Matrix Return Risk Issue Opport. Benefits Risks Resources Improvement Opportunity Templates Improvement Opportunity: Key Evidence: Qualitative Benefits: Perform with guidance LEAD with guidance LEAD with guidance LEAD with guidance

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