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Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
Leva5723chap13
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Leva5723chap13

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  • 1.  
  • 2. <ul><li>I. Causes of the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>II. The Lutheran Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>III. The Diversity of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>IV. The Catholic Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>V. The Reformation in the Arts </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>I. Causes of the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>A. Fractures in the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Babylonian Captivity (1305-1378) </li></ul><ul><li>Great Schism (1378-1417) </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Constance, 1414-1417 </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Basel, 1431-1449 </li></ul><ul><li>Eugeneus IV (1431-1447) </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Devotion </li></ul><ul><li>Brethren of the Common Life </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation of Christ , 1441 </li></ul>B. Print Revolution Gutenberg Bible Universities proliferate libraries, silent reading Martin Luther 300,000 copies of his writings C. The Northern Renaissance and the Christian Humanists The Bible and philology Desiderius Erasmus (c.1469-1536) Handbook for the Militant Christian The Praise of Folly , 1514 Thomas More (1478-1535) Utopia , 1516
  • 4. <ul><li>II. The Lutheran Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Break with Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther (1483-1546) </li></ul><ul><li>monk </li></ul><ul><li>professor </li></ul><ul><li>Justification by faith </li></ul><ul><li>Free will </li></ul><ul><li>Ninety-Five Theses </li></ul><ul><li>Leo X, new St. Peter&apos;s </li></ul><ul><li>Albrecht of Mainz, bishop </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of Indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>John Tetzel (1470-1519) </li></ul><ul><li>Theses printed, circulated </li></ul><ul><li>1519, debate at Leipzig </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Eck </li></ul><ul><li>Writings </li></ul><ul><li>German </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of a Christian , 1520 </li></ul><ul><li>To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation , 1520 </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>II. The Lutheran Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Break with Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Diet of Worms, 1521 </li></ul><ul><li>Charles V (1519-1558) </li></ul><ul><li>ordered to recant </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Lutheran Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>improved role at first </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants&apos; Revolt, 1524-1526 </li></ul><ul><li>Luther&apos;s Against the Thieving, Murdering Hordes of Peasants , 1525 </li></ul><ul><li>Schmalkaldic League, 1531 </li></ul><ul><li>1552, Charles V defeated by Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Peace of Augsburg, 1555 </li></ul><ul><li>cuius region, eius religio </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>III. The Diversity of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Diet of Speyer, 1529 </li></ul><ul><li>Magisterial Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>official </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>A. Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>13 cantons </li></ul><ul><li>Zurich </li></ul><ul><li>Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) </li></ul><ul><li>church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Philip of Hesse (1504-1567) </li></ul><ul><li>1529, Marburg Colloquy </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva </li></ul><ul><li>John Calvin (1509-1564) </li></ul><ul><li>1533, exiled from France </li></ul><ul><li>City council and clergy </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination </li></ul><ul><li>the Elect </li></ul><ul><li>Institutes of the Christian Religion , 1535 </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>III. The Diversity of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>B. Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Tudor dynasty, from 1485 </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII (1509-1547) </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine of Aragon </li></ul><ul><li>Mary </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Boleyn </li></ul><ul><li>Clement VII (1523-1534) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Cromwell (c. 1485-1540) </li></ul><ul><li>1534, Acts of Supremacy and Succession </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Starkey (c.1499-1538) </li></ul><ul><li>Apologist </li></ul><ul><li>John Fisher (c.1469-1535), Thomas More </li></ul><ul><li>executed </li></ul><ul><li>Edward VI (1547-1553) </li></ul><ul><li>minor </li></ul><ul><li>Reform progresses </li></ul>(B. Britain) Mary I (1553-1558) return to Catholicism Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Elizabethan Settlement, 1559-1563 Anglican Church 39 Articles, 1571 William Cecil (1520-1598) Richard Hooker (1553-1600) Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity Scotland Mary Stuart (1542-1587) 1561, returns to Scotland Church of Scotland John Knox (1514-1572) Book of Common Order , 1564
  • 8. <ul><li>III. The Diversity of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Radical Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Anabaptists </li></ul><ul><li>adult baptism </li></ul><ul><li>social reform </li></ul><ul><li>proscribed </li></ul><ul><li>Münster, 1534-1535 </li></ul><ul><li>John of Leiden </li></ul><ul><li>Menno Simons (1496-1561) </li></ul><ul><li>Mennonites </li></ul><ul><li>protects Anabaptists </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritualists </li></ul><ul><li>Caspar Schwenckfeld (1490-1561) </li></ul><ul><li>Society of Friends (Quakers) </li></ul><ul><li>Unitarians </li></ul><ul><li>Faustus Socinus (1539-1604) </li></ul><ul><li>Christ as man </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Servetus (1511-1553) </li></ul>D. Eastern Europe Toleration Bohemia Husites Hungary Transylvania István Báthory (1571-1586) Unitarians permitted, 1572 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Sigismund August (1548-1572) great toleration
  • 9. <ul><li>IV. The Catholic Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>A. Religious Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>1534, Parisian students </li></ul><ul><li>1540, Society of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Ignatius Loyala (1491-1556) </li></ul><ul><li> elected General </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Exercises , 1548 </li></ul><ul><li>Colleges </li></ul><ul><li>372 by 1615 </li></ul><ul><li>Teresa of Avila (1515-1582) </li></ul><ul><li>Autobiography , 1611 </li></ul><ul><li>Interior Castle , 1588 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Paul III (1534-1549) </li></ul><ul><li>Holy Office of the Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Index of Forbidden Books </li></ul><ul><li>C. Council of Trent, 1545-1563 </li></ul><ul><li>seminaries </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>V. The Reformation in the Arts </li></ul><ul><li>A. Iconoclasm </li></ul><ul><li>B. Counter Reformation Art </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo The Last Judgment , 1534-1541 </li></ul><ul><li>C. Sacred Music </li></ul><ul><li>&amp;quot;A Mighty Fortress is Our God“ </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) </li></ul><ul><li>Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525-1594) </li></ul>

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