Tobi Fadiran's hydrogen energy Virtual Abstract (Independent Research)


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  • You ought to edit the last bullet… “Scientists should put every effort towards consistent hydrogen energy research” or something…. Additionally….include some stuff about how the hydrogen has got to be produced without the aid of electricity… cuz using it to generate hydrogen…to generate electricity is a waste of time, energy, and money. Just use the electricity directly.
  • Mention how things like HYDRIDE STORAGE MATERIAL and CARBON NANOTUBES (CARBON ADSORPTION, PHYSISORPTION) are the answer(?) to our hydrogen storage problems: Hydrogen is the lightest gas, so it’s hard handle – a gallon = .6 pounds (!!) and it can only exist as a liquid at -423 degrees Farenheit (convert to Celcius) at normal atmospheric pressure conditions. We can take advantage of the expanded surface area of say, carbon storage materials….
  • Tobi Fadiran's hydrogen energy Virtual Abstract (Independent Research)

    1. 1. The H 2 Energy Revolution Tobi Fadiran Advisor: Ross Brindle, VP, Energetics Independent Research Glenelg High School Listen & Learn
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Clicking the home button will bring up the title slide </li></ul><ul><li>Use the left and right arrows on your keyboard to proceed to the next slide or return to the previous slide </li></ul><ul><li>Most slides, like this one, have a Listen & Learn button in the bottom right-hand corner. Click on it to hear the text read-aloud and sometimes elaborated upon </li></ul><ul><li>Anything highlighted and underlined is hyperlinked: click on these to learn more </li></ul>Listen & Learn Listen & Learn
    3. 3. Contents <ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Research Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
    4. 4. Purpose <ul><li>To learn to distinguish between the facts from the puffery when it comes to hydrogen energy </li></ul><ul><li>To educate my peers so they may do the same </li></ul><ul><li>Improve research and research paper writing skills </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    5. 5. Background <ul><li>It’s a well-known fact that oil supply will eventually lose sight of demand, and sooner than we think. One author predicts total depletion of conventional oil reserves by 2044 (1)! </li></ul><ul><li>We need energy alternatives , and hydrogen energy is one of the options scientists are looking into. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the world, is an energy carrier (like electricity); therefore, it must be extracted from source feedstock (2) </li></ul><ul><li>To classify hydrogen energy as renewable, we have to use renewable energy to extract the hydrogen from renewable sources and generate more energy from hydrogen conversion to electricity than spent in hydrogen manufacture. </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    6. 6. Thesis <ul><li>The realization of commercially viable hydrogen energy technologies is very promising, but faraway; for now it is more worthwhile to concentrate the most funding and scientific attention on more advanced alternative energy technologies while focusing hydrogen energy research on biophotolysis (production), carbon adsorption and physisorption (storage), and fuel cells (conversion). </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    7. 7. Research Summary The State of the Art Research & Development Deciding Factors Developmental Timetable Conclusion Contents
    8. 8. The State of the Art <ul><li>Five components make up today’s hydrogen industry : </li></ul><ul><li>Production includes all sectors having to do with the extraction of hydrogen for any purpose and is composed of a diversity of technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery is the transfer of hydrogen from the production sites to distribution facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Storage is the “confinement of hydrogen for delivery, conversion, and use.” </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion is the utilization of hydrogen for electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>End-use utilizes hydrogen in final energy applications, like as an additive in fuels or in conversion (3). </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    9. 9. This is one possible scenario for a renewable hydrogen energy system. I wouldn’t invest in the development of this kind of a system though, because it starts with using electricity generated by other alternative energy technologies. We might as well use that electricity directly. The Renewable Hydrogen Energy System (4) Contents
    10. 10. Production <ul><li>This aspect of the industry includes an array of very different technologies, including fermentation, bioph otol ysis (5), steam methane reformation (SMR ) (6), coal gasification (7), biomass gasi ficati on (8), liquid fuel reformation (9), and high temperature water-splitting (10). </li></ul>Listen & Learn Listen & Learn Contents
    11. 11. Delivery <ul><li>The delivery sector is responsible for the transfer of manufactured hydrogen to end-use systems (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Pipelines distribute about 17% of the hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>made for sale in the U.S. (3). </li></ul><ul><li>Tube trailers transport compressed gas </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid hydrogen is transported in cylinders , </li></ul><ul><li>on trucks etc. </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    12. 12. Storage <ul><li>Hydrogen can be stored as a compressed gas or as a liquid, in cylindrical tanks, but it is very difficult to handle because it’s so light. It is more practically compounded in hydride storage material, or stored via carbon adsorption , where the hydrogen is collected in a thin layer over the expanded surface area of extremely porous carbon, p hysiso rption (non-carbon), or in glass microspheres . </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    13. 13. Conversion <ul><li>In fuel cells , hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>is oxidized to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity => </li></ul><ul><li>The USDOE’s fuel cell tech program page (13) sums up the current state of fuel cell technology. </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    14. 14. End-use <ul><li>Today, most of the hydrogen produced is used for fuel refining (14) and the manufacture of chemicals. A hydrogen energy economy would also utilize hydrogen for: </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation (on-board fuel cells in cars, buses, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>and Stationary Energy Generators (Large-scale fuel cells) </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    15. 15. Research & Development <ul><li>Here are some of the institutions currently involved in in-depth hydrogen energy related research </li></ul><ul><li>The US Dept. of Energy ( DOE )(15) established three “ cente rs of excellence ,” (16) (one of which NREL directs) to run R&D on hydrogen storage. It also funds H 2 pr odu ction research (17). </li></ul><ul><li>National Renewable Energy Laboratory ( NREL )(18): Carries out research in the basic sciences , including biological, biomolecular and chemical science; they deal in just about everything having to do with hydrogen energy, in addition to conducting research on other alternative energy technologies (19). </li></ul><ul><li>The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) (20): Has several fact sheets regarding hydrogen energy. It promotes renewable resources and encourages decreased petroleum consumption. </li></ul>Contents
    16. 16. Research & Development cont. <ul><li>H yvolu tion is the collaborative effort of research institutes, universities, and corporations from ten European countries. The goal of this project is to “develop a blue-print for decentral hydrogen production process using local biomass” (21). </li></ul><ul><li>The Research T riangle Institute (RTI International) (22) is involved in hydrogen production, isolation, purification, and storage research </li></ul>Contents
    17. 17. Deciding Factors Listen & Learn Certain economic, political, and social circumstances might increase demand for H2 energy as a part of the U.S.’s energy portfolio (“For”) and others might decrease it (“Against”), while others might do both at the same time (“For & Against). Contents <ul><li>Imported oil is readily available right now </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers want to buy green but also want to buy cheap, imported oil is cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of H 2 infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>The technology is way behind those associated with other alternative energy options </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual inconsistency in energy policy (because it allows for policy to support or oppose H2 energy research) </li></ul><ul><li>Over-reliance on oil imports </li></ul><ul><li>Health of the environment; climate change; air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth </li></ul>For & Against Against For
    18. 18. Developmental Timetable <ul><li>Professionals estimate it will take anywhere from 20 to 50 years to advance hydrogen energy technologies to the level of commercial viability necessary to transition to a hydrogen economy (1). </li></ul><ul><li>The fiercest opponents say the scientists will never develop the technologies to that point (1). </li></ul><ul><li>If ever, whenever (and however) we get there, it isn’t likely that these technologies will take over the energy economy; they’ll just be one of several energy options, though hopefully a substantial contributor to the industry </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    19. 19. Conclusion: Part 1 <ul><li>It’s true that fuel cells and even the most promising hydrogen production methods lag behind most other alternative energy technologies (solar, wind, nuclear etc.), and won’t catch up anytime soon. However, if there’s a possibility that scientists might maximize the production ability and efficiency of biophotolysis, conversion in fuel cells and adsorption/physisorption capacity so as to contribute even a fraction of the energy economy and detract from the amount of energy related waste generated every year, they ought to try. </li></ul>Listen & Learn Contents
    20. 20. Conclusion: Part 2 <ul><li>When it comes to H2 energy research, scientists should focus specifically on </li></ul><ul><li>biophotolysis because it extracts hydrogen from water, the most generous renewable resource, without the direct input of any energy generated on our part (as opposed to electrolysis) </li></ul><ul><li>carbon adsorption and physisorption because storing H2 as a liquid or gas necessitates handling large, pressurized, cryogenic (liquid) cylinders, which, besides being a hassle, can be a a safety issue (a ruptured cylinder could produce a huge explosion) </li></ul><ul><li>fuel cells because they are the most efficient means of hydrogen-to-electricity conversion available today </li></ul>Contents Listen & Learn
    21. 21. Acknowledgements <ul><li>I would like to acknowledge my advisor, Mr. Ross Brindle, my parents, and my Independent Research Instructor, Mr. Charles Ashcraft for their help finding access to necessary resources putting my research together for presentation. </li></ul>Contents
    22. 22. References <ul><li>You can find all the sources I referenced and all the links I included in this presentation here . </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for viewing! </li></ul>Contents