Representation of Social Groups in U.S. and International Media Kent Wilkinson Regents Professor in Hispanic and Internati...
Outline for Today’s Session <ul><li>Discuss concept of social representation in media  </li></ul><ul><li>Brief history of ...
Key Concepts <ul><li>Representation  - The process by which a constructed media text stands for, symbolizes, describes or ...
Key Concepts: Cognition <ul><li>In order to make sense of a complex world, people tend to form mental categories in which ...
Stereotyping <ul><li>Stereotype  – a schema for people we perceive as belonging to a social group. </li></ul><ul><li>Stere...
Representations of Non-Whites in the 19 th  century U.S. <ul><li>Native Americans as ‘noble savages’ and impediments to We...
African Americans <ul><li>Often occupy comedic roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Whites played black characters in minstrel shows o...
Hispanics <ul><li>Negative portrayals of Mexicans in Hollywood  ‘greaser’ films of the early 20 th  century. </li></ul><ul...
Hispanics <ul><li>Ramirez-Berg identified these film stereotypes of Hispanic  wo men : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Halfb...
Asian Americans <ul><li>Waves of immigration in the late 19 th  and early 20 th  centuries turned a largely positive image...
Ethnic-oriented Media <ul><li>Vehicles to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform and entertain specific populations in their own la...
A Brief History of the Sports Team Mascot Issue  <ul><ul><li>1969  - Native American activists pressure  Dartmouth College...
A Brief History of the Sports Team Mascot Issue  <ul><li>1992  – NFL Super Bowl between Buffalo Bills and Washington Redsk...
How Mascot Defenders and  Opponents Differ <ul><li>Mascot Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Mascots  honor  Native Americans </l...
Cartoonists’ Editorials from http://aistm.org/cartoons.htm
The Third World on TV News:  Western Ways of Seeing the ‘Other’ <ul><li>2 dimensions of “Ways of Seeing”: </li></ul><ul><u...
The Third World on TV News:  Western Ways of Seeing the ‘Other’ <ul><li>Motifs and Sub-Motifs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major ...
Dahlgren & Chakarapani’s model <ul><ul><li>What “ways of seeing” the U.S. do people in Spain (or other nations) through vi...
Entertainment Media <ul><li>Narrative Utility of Stereotyping  – fitting characters into established categories is efficie...
Representation of Arabs/Muslims <ul><li>In  Reel Bad Arabs   (2001/2009)  Jack G. Shaheen identified 5 archetypes of Arabs...
Representation of Arabs/Muslims
Representation of Arabs/Muslims <ul><li>Recall the controversy over the cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad published by the ...
Closing Thoughts <ul><li>Avenues for positive change in international media representations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoura...
<ul><li>Thank you for your </li></ul><ul><li>kind attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a great afternoon. </li></ul>
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Wilkinson U Navarra Day2

749 views
695 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
749
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Wilkinson U Navarra Day2

  1. 1. Representation of Social Groups in U.S. and International Media Kent Wilkinson Regents Professor in Hispanic and International Communication Texas Tech University Universidad de Navarra Lecture – Day Two, April 13, 2010
  2. 2. Outline for Today’s Session <ul><li>Discuss concept of social representation in media </li></ul><ul><li>Brief history of representation of African Americans, Asians and Hispanics in U.S. media </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of ethnic-oriented media and the Native American sports names issue </li></ul><ul><li>Break </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss select student homework submissions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on media representation of diverse cultures in international news and entertainment programming. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine representation of Arabs/Muslims in Western media. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Concepts <ul><li>Representation - The process by which a constructed media text stands for, symbolizes, describes or represents people, places, events or ideas that are real and have an existence outside the text. ( The Language of Media Literacy: A Glossary of Terms ) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Annihilation – a concept drawing a close relationship between media representation and social power: those groups that are underrepresented or invisible in media are devalued in society. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Key Concepts: Cognition <ul><li>In order to make sense of a complex world, people tend to form mental categories in which to organize information (called ‘ schema ’ by some cognitive psychologists). </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, race and gender are common categories used to cognitively organize information about other people. </li></ul><ul><li>The media reinforce such categories by asking audiences to draw from generalized information to fill in the background on characters, social groups appearing in the news, entertainment content, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>When generalizations are overly simplistic or exaggerated they become stereotypes . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stereotyping <ul><li>Stereotype – a schema for people we perceive as belonging to a social group. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes can go beyond telling us who others are, they can tell us why they are that way. </li></ul><ul><li>“… the cultural stereotype seems to play an important role in how we process information about people from various groups regardless of whether we endorse it.” (R.A. Lind, 2004, p. 15) </li></ul><ul><li>People’s attributions about others’ behaviors are biased in favor of their ingroups. Thus members of dominant social groups support their own superiority and reinforce the subordinate position of minority groups. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Representations of Non-Whites in the 19 th century U.S. <ul><li>Native Americans as ‘noble savages’ and impediments to Western expansion of Anglo Americans. (Manifest Destiny) </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks treated as property, inferior beings, and morally ‘tainted.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanics portrayed as unclean, lazy, untrustworthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian immigration caused fear of ‘Yellow Peril;’ image of Chinese shifts from positive (hardworking, thrifty, honest) to negative (immoral, deceitful). </li></ul>
  7. 7. African Americans <ul><li>Often occupy comedic roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Whites played black characters in minstrel shows of early 20 th century. (“blackface”) </li></ul><ul><li>Black men often portrayed as shifty, lazy, clownish. </li></ul><ul><li>Black women often portrayed in one of two roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sapphire – the ‘Mammy” figure. Overweight, dark-skinned, asexual, bossy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jezebel – Loose, sexually-aggressive woman who uses sex to manipulate men. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video: “Small Steps: Big Screen” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hispanics <ul><li>Negative portrayals of Mexicans in Hollywood ‘greaser’ films of the early 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramirez-Berg identified these film stereotypes of Hispanic men : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>El Bandido - treacherous, shifty, emotional, irrational, dishonest, violent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buffoon - simple-minded, language-challenged, overly-emotional. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin Lover - dashing, magnetic male ‘Other;’ suave, sensual, sexually-dangerous </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hispanics <ul><li>Ramirez-Berg identified these film stereotypes of Hispanic wo men : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Halfbreed Harlot - lusty, hot-tempered, dishonest, “a slave to her passions.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Female Clown - the male buffoon’s female counterpart; negates the Harlot’s overt sexual threat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Dark Lady - mysterious, virginal, aloof, circumspect; intriguing to Anglo men. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Video: “Fools Rush In” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Asian Americans <ul><li>Waves of immigration in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries turned a largely positive image negative. </li></ul><ul><li>World War II and the communist revolution in China led to increased suspicion of Japanese and Chinese in 1940s. (Japanese internment camps) </li></ul><ul><li>Since World War II, Asian Americans have been stereotyped as a “model minority:” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardworking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrifty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The model minority stereotype masks less successful Asian Americans as well as anti-Asian discrimination. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethnic-oriented Media <ul><li>Vehicles to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform and entertain specific populations in their own languages and cultural terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize a population politically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter negative representations in mainstream media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the “Ethnic Media in America” report indicates, ethnic media are growing quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Census Bureau projections for 2050: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Hispanic Whites 52.8% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics 24.3% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blacks 13.2% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asian/Pacific Islander 8.9% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Indian/Eskimo 8% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. A Brief History of the Sports Team Mascot Issue <ul><ul><li>1969 - Native American activists pressure Dartmouth College to change &quot;Indians&quot; nickname to &quot;Big Green.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970 - Protests against the Cleveland Indians’ use of &quot;Chief Wahoo&quot; mascot </li></ul><ul><li>1972 - Petition by American Indian students at Stanford University lead the school to drop &quot;Indian&quot; sports team nickname and logos. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1989 - Charlene Teters, a Native American graduate student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, initiates efforts to eliminate that school's &quot;Chief Illiniwek&quot; mascot. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. A Brief History of the Sports Team Mascot Issue <ul><li>1992 – NFL Super Bowl between Buffalo Bills and Washington Redskins drew ~2,000 protesters </li></ul><ul><li>1995 – MLB World Series between Atlanta Braves and Cleveland Indians is called “World Series of Racism” by protesters and their supporters </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - Jay Rosenstein's documentary &quot;In Whose Honor&quot; is aired nationally on the Public Broadcasting System TV show &quot;Point of View.“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 - National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) determines that &quot;Indian mascots that promote Indian caricatures and mimic ceremonial rites do not comply with the NCAA's commitment to ethnic student welfare.“ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How Mascot Defenders and Opponents Differ <ul><li>Mascot Defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Mascots honor Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Stress text (honor and intention) </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate argument from other social/historical factors </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the importance of symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Deflect and deny the importance of race </li></ul><ul><li>Mascot Opponents </li></ul><ul><li>Mascots denigrate Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Stress context (history and racism) </li></ul><ul><li>Make connections to other social/historical factors </li></ul><ul><li>See symbols as powerful cultural forms </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight the importance of race </li></ul>From: Miller, Jackson B. (1999). “Indians,” “Braves” and “Redskins”: A performative struggle for control of an image. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 85 , 188-202.
  15. 15. Cartoonists’ Editorials from http://aistm.org/cartoons.htm
  16. 16. The Third World on TV News: Western Ways of Seeing the ‘Other’ <ul><li>2 dimensions of “Ways of Seeing”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the world as depicted in TV news reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the negotiated relationship between a medium and its audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dahlgren and Chakarapani’s goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reveal how U.S. TV network news creates the Third World for its viewers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand how the audience makes meaning by interpreting news reports </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Third World on TV News: Western Ways of Seeing the ‘Other’ <ul><li>Motifs and Sub-Motifs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major themes and sub-themes the Western TV news uses in covering people, events and processes in the ‘Third World’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bi-polar Opposites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concept borrowed from structural anthropology (Claude Levi Strauss) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we understand others through their difference from us (and vice versa) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dispositional Orientation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Western viewers’ attitude toward the Third World as evoked by frames used in TV news reports </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Dahlgren & Chakarapani’s model <ul><ul><li>What “ways of seeing” the U.S. do people in Spain (or other nations) through viewing local/national news reports about the U.S.? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Entertainment Media <ul><li>Narrative Utility of Stereotyping – fitting characters into established categories is efficient, having explain their traits is not. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology, the set of beliefs that guides a culture, is often reflected in, and sometimes influenced by, media content. Ideology is often “naturalized.” </li></ul><ul><li>Viewers learn about society’s rules, norms and power structures (partly) through film. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender inequality is prevalent in film narratives. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Representation of Arabs/Muslims <ul><li>In Reel Bad Arabs (2001/2009) Jack G. Shaheen identified 5 archetypes of Arabs in Western media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Villains - greasy womanizers hell-bent on destruction and violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheikhs - “stooges-in-sheets, slovenly, hook-nosed potentates intent on capturing pale-faced blondes for their harem” (p. 25) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maidens - bosomy bellydancers, Beasts of Burden, shapeless bundles of black, serpents and vampires, or bombers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptians – deceitful, caricatured from mummies to Pharaohs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestinians – terrorists; never portrayed as victims or as innocents who suffer under Israeli occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shaheen reminds us that only about 12% of Muslims are Arabs. http://www.poptheology.com/2009/11/reel-bad-arabs/ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Representation of Arabs/Muslims
  22. 22. Representation of Arabs/Muslims <ul><li>Recall the controversy over the cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad published by the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten in September 2005 (self-censorship v. open criticism of Islam) </li></ul><ul><li>Other controversies regarding Muslims in Europe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ban on minarets in Switzerland (Nov. 2009 referendum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rioting by Muslim youth in France in 2005 after two men’s deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh killed in 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic scarf (hijab) conflict in France (since 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These incidents, others, and the War on Terror since 9/11 have intensified tensions between Islam and the West. Can media help ease tensions? If so, how? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Closing Thoughts <ul><li>Avenues for positive change in international media representations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage/Teach Critical Thinking – the ability to examine issues rationally, logically and coherently by providing adequate responses to key questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy - active support of an idea or cause, etc.; the deliberate process of influencing those who make policy decisions. (ex: Native Amer. mascots issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach Media Literacy – the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate media messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing media that is representative of and relevant to non-dominant, non-mainstream communities, experience and goals. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Thank you for your </li></ul><ul><li>kind attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a great afternoon. </li></ul>

×