Introduction To Photography (Wset)


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Introduction To Photography (Wset)

  1. 1. An Introduction to Photography<br />
  2. 2. So you want to win the competition? How do you do it?<br />Go out and take pictures!<br />The best way to learn photography is through trial and error!<br />See what you think is best!<br />But since you’re here why don’t we go through some basic rules of photography to get you going?<br />
  3. 3. Issue of Lighting<br />Photography is all about light<br />But the camera sees light differently from us<br />Need to understand this difference, and adjust light that enters camera (exposure)<br />
  4. 4. Exposure<br />Exposure the most important technical aspect of photography<br />This is controlled by 3 variables- Aperture, Shutter speed and ISO (sensitivity)<br />The scene modes on your camera just plays around with different combinations of these!<br />You can do it yourself through Shutter Priority (S), Aperture Priority (P) and full manual (M)<br />
  5. 5. What is correct exposure?<br />There’s no such thing!<br />Technically, correct exposure means all light values fall within the range that your camera sensor (or film) can capture.<br />Which works fine, but it might not give you the look you’re trying to achieve.<br />
  6. 6. Exposure effects<br />High key image<br />Low key image<br />‘normal’ exposure<br />
  7. 7. Wow that’s so cool, how can I do that?<br />Take your camera out of green auto mode, put it into P mode.<br />This allows you to use exposure compensation<br />You can underexpose your pictures by dialling in – compensation, and + for overexposure.<br />How much to set? That’s up to you! Try starting with +/- 1EV.<br />Also useful if you think your images just look under/overexposed.<br />
  8. 8. Other uses for exposure com.<br />‘Black cat in coal cellar’<br />Sunny, snowy landscape<br />Your camera will get fooled more often than you think!<br />
  9. 9. Shutter Speed<br />‘the amount of time that the shutter is open’<br />This can typically range from 1/1000 of a second to 2 seconds<br />More light reaches the sensor if the shutter is longer <br />Usually keep this as high as possible to “freeze” the image<br />
  10. 10. However<br />You can use slower shutter speeds to create cool effects<br />
  11. 11. Examples<br />Long shutter speed – capturing motion<br />Short shutter speed - Freezing the moment<br />
  12. 12. Aperture<br />‘the size of the opening in the lens when a picture is taken’<br />Measured in ‘f-stops’ or f/number – for example f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6,f/8,f/22 etc. <br />Moving from one f-stop to the next doubles or halves the size of the aperture<br />
  13. 13. Some more things<br />The aperture scale is the ‘wrong’ way around:<br />Larger number means smaller size hole<br />Landscape photography usually needs a small aperture (big number) so that the whole scene is in focus<br />Less light gets in with large apertures (small numbers) so slower shutter speeds will be needed and vice versa<br />
  14. 14. Effects of aperture<br />The size of the aperture affects the how much of the picture will be in focus – Depth of Field<br />f/32<br />f/5<br />
  15. 15. ISO<br />‘The sensitivity of the image sensor’<br />Typical values: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600<br />Higher ISO means more sensitive – so can take pictures in lower light<br />However high ISO also means more grain (degradation of image quality)<br />So if you have lots of light or your shooting on a tripod always use a low ISO<br />
  16. 16. Examples<br />Low ISO always yields best image quality, use when maximum detail is required, such as portraiture, landscape, etc.<br />Picture taken in the studio at ISO 200<br /> Detailed crop<br />
  17. 17. Examples<br /><ul><li>Image quality degrades progressively as ISO is increased, however, it is indispensible in certain situations, such as concerts, sports, where a high shutter speed is important
  18. 18. Decide for yourself the maximum ISO you would happily use.</li></ul>Taken at ISO 3200<br />
  19. 19. Composition<br />Getting the technical things right with photography is trivial, but getting nice looking pictures isn’t!<br />Some rules that you can follow when it comes to composition, but rules are there to be broken! So don’t follow it blindly....<br />Subject bang in the middle usually doesn’t look good though!<br />
  20. 20. Rule of thirds<br />Placing your subject off centre, by about 1/3 of the way usually looks good.<br />Your eyes are naturally drawn to these positions.<br />
  21. 21. Portraits<br />Can be very powerful in portraits<br />
  22. 22. Other compositions<br />Don’t be afraid to break these rules too!<br />Very centered<br />Very off centered<br />
  23. 23. Leading lines<br />Use lines and vanishing point to guide the viewer<br />
  24. 24. Perspective<br />Wideangle lens exaggerates perspective, while telephoto compresses it.<br />Telephoto compression<br />Wideangle perspective exaggeration<br />
  25. 25. Flash<br />Do your images turn out like this?<br />
  26. 26. Flash Diffusion<br />All done with a piece of paper!<br />
  27. 27. Quick Fire Tips for Portraits<br />Alter Your Perspective<br />Photo by striatic<br />
  28. 28. Experiment with Lighting<br />Photo by Bukutgirl<br />
  29. 29. Take a Series of Shots<br />Image by diyosa<br />Switch your camera into ‘burst’ or ‘continuous shooting’ mode and fire off more than one shot at a time<br />
  30. 30. Be careful about wide-angle<br />Photo by DannyDoo<br />
  31. 31. Watch for backgrounds<br />Portrait by akbar1947<br />Photo by paulbence<br />
  32. 32. Conclusion<br />So much to explore with photography, go out and have fun!<br />Practice and experimentation makes perfect! Develop your own style!<br />
  33. 33. Questions? <br />