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Parts Of Speech And Sentence Structure Notes
 

Parts Of Speech And Sentence Structure Notes

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Parts Of Speech And Sentence Structure Notes Parts Of Speech And Sentence Structure Notes Presentation Transcript

  • Parts of Speech and Sentence Structure Notes
  • Parts of Speech Definitions
    • Nouns- name persons, places, or things; may performing different ways such as sentence subjects, verbals, objects,and so on; may be proper or common
    • Proper: Names (Atlanta, GA; Microsoft)
    • Common: chair, table, she, girl, it
  • Pronouns
    • Substitutes for nouns, so they also name persons, places, and/or things (he, she, it, they, we, etc.
    • *Be careful– THEIR is a pronoun. There is not– it’s directional; They’re is not either, it’s a contraction for “they are.”
  • Verbs
    • Tell what the person, place or thing is doing in a sentence; may be action or non action (passive) in nature.
    • Active- run, jump, play, squeeze, give, assign
    • Passive includes state of being verbs such as am, is, are, was, were, have, has, had, be, been, etc.
  • Adjectives
    • Define or modify the meaning of a noun or prounoun; they tell what kind ( brown eyes), which one, ( that girl), or how many ( dozen donuts)
  • Adverbs
    • Define or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs; they tell how (walked slowly ), where (walked there ), when (walked then ), and to what extent (walked far ). Adverbs often end in the suffix –ly ( hurriedly, anxiously, eagerly, absolutely )
  • Prepositions
    • Related a noun or pronoun to some other word in a sentence; they also introduce phrases, and they may be singular or compound ( of, under, over, on, to ).
    • *Be careful- to is directional therefore it is a pronoun. Too is to an extent—not a pronoun. Two is a number therefore it can be a noun or an adjective.
  • Conjunctions
    • These are “connectors” or words that join one part of a sentence to another; these include coordinating conjunctions ( fanboys ), correlative conjunctions ( either, or ) and subordinating conjunctions ( although, since, because )
  • Interjections
    • Express powerful emotions such as hate, disgust, happiness, grief, surprise, an thus are followed by an exclamation mark ( Ugh!, Hurry!, Look Out! )
  • Helping Verbs
    • The following are helping verbs and can not be forgotten as the WHOLE VERB.
    • Am, are, can, could, do, does, did, has, have, had, be, been, being, is, may, might, must, shall, should, was, were, will, would
  • State of being verbs
    • The following are “state of being” verbs and can stand alone as the verb itself.
    • Am, are, is, was, were, have, has, had, be, being, been
    • Example: The dog was in the house.
  • Sentence formula Key
    • S= subject (nouns/pronouns)
    • V= verb (action)
    • I= independent clause (simple sentence)
    • c = coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS)
    • D= dependent clause (phrase that can not stand alone)
  • Simple Sentence
    • A sentence that has one independent clause.
    • Independent clause: a group of words that makes a statement and has a subject and a predicate
    • Subject: noun that the subject is about
    • Predicate: shows the action or state of being of the subject of the sentence
  • Simple sentence formulas
    • SV
    • SSV
    • SVV
    • SSVV
    • The duck swam.
    • Tom and Susan fight a lot.
    • Books are heavy and cost quite a bit.
    • Walls and windows protect and give us structure.
  • Helping verbs
    • Am, are, can, could, do, does, did, has, have, had, be, being, been, is, may, might, shall, should, was, were, will, would
  • Review Assessment- What is the formula?
    • James is in his bedroom sleeping.
    • Cut it out and paste it onto your paper.
    • The colorful birds and the horses were put away during the storm.
    • Help me with my work.
    • I need the camera and the zoom lens.
    • Caroline and Cynthia made the basketball team.
  • Check your answers!
    • James is in his bedroom sleeping. (sv)
    • Cut it out and paste it onto your paper. (svv)
    • The colorful birds and the horses were put away during the storm. (ssv)
    • Help me with my work. (sv)
    • I need the camera and the zoom lens. (sv)
    • Caroline and Cynthia made the basketball team. (ssv)
  • Independent practice
    • Please write a sentence for each of the formulas on your green sheet of paper.
    • Remember to keep the sentences simple.
  • Compound Sentence
    • Has two or more independent clauses.
    • Coordinating conjunction: a word that is used with a comma to join two independent clauses
    • Compound sentence formulas – I,cI and I;I
  • Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS)
    • ,for
    • ,and
    • ,nor
    • ,but
    • ,or
    • ,yet
    • ,so
  • Examples
    • I,cI:
    • The students finished class, and they went to lunch.
    • Kevin did not want to hurt Kathy’s feelings, so he said nothing about her mistake.
    • I want to see my sister soon, for she has been in Switzerland for two years
  • Examples, cont’d.
    • I;I
    • Susan loves to swim; her brother likes to dive.
    • Jason was highly respected; he was always such a responsible person.
    • The meeting was over; it was already midnight.
  • Review Assessment-What is the formula?
    • The artist was at the fair, but she did not bring her work to be sold.
    • The storm was near, yet we didn’t get any rain.
    • Please figure out what you’re ordering; the waiter is on his way over.
    • I’d like you to move, so please choose another seat.
  • Review Assessment Cont’d
    • The book is on the shelf; please get it for me.
    • I don’t want to go swimming, nor do I want to ride on the boat.
    • The campus is closed; you’ll have to get your binder tomorrow.
    • The Olympic hopefuls were practicing, for they wanted to be chosen to represent the United States.
  • Check your answers!
    • The artist was at the fair, but she did not bring her work to be sold. (I,cI)
    • The storm was near, yet we didn’t get any rain. (I,cI)
    • Please figure out what you’re ordering; the waiter is on his way over. (I;I)
    • I’d like you to move, so please choose another seat. (I,cI)
  • Check your answers!
    • The book is on the shelf; please get it for me. (I;I)
    • I don’t want to go swimming, nor do I want to ride on the boat. (I,cI)
    • The campus is closed; you’ll have to get your binder tomorrow. (I;I)
    • The Olympic hopefuls were practicing, for they wanted to be chosen to represent the United States. (I,cI)
  • Independent Practice
    • Please write a sentence for each of the formulas.
  • Complex Sentence
    • Has one dependent clause and one or more independent clauses as well as a subordinating conjunction
    • Dependent clause: is a group of words with a subject and a verb that can not stand alone.
    • Subordinating conjunctions: are words that show the relationship of the dependent clause to the independent clause.
  • List of Subordinating Conjunctions
    • After, although, as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order that, just as, like, once, provided, rather than
    • So that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, while
    • Choose your favorite five to memorize; highlight them in your notes!
  • Complex Sentence Formulas
    • D, I
    • ID
  • Complex Sentence Examples
    • D,I
    • When I get to Phoenix, you will be sleeping.
    • After the players practiced, they went out for pizza.
    • Until the storm is over, we will not know about the damage.
  • Complex Sentence Examples Cont’d
    • ID
    • You will be sleeping when I get to Phoenix.
    • The players went out for a pizza after they practiced.
    • We will not know about the damage until the storm is over.
  • Review Assessment-What is the formula?
    • Provided you have done all of your work, you may use the computers for personal use.
    • You are looking at me as though you think I’m guilty.
    • Unless you comply with the laws of the road, you may possibly get a ticket.
    • Camping can be fun if you are prepared.
  • Review Assessment-What is the formula?
    • Since I’ve begun to clean the pool, there’s no way you can go swimming.
    • I’d like to go shopping whenever I get my refund check.
    • You may go to your friend’s house as long as there are parents home.
    • Even though you are talented, there’s no way you can win the competition.
  • Check your answers!
    • Provided you have done all of your work, you may use the computers for personal use. (D,I)
    • You are looking at me as though you think I’m guilty. (ID)
    • Unless you comply with the laws of the road, you may possibly get a ticket. (D,I)
    • Camping can be fun if you are prepared. (ID)
  • Check your answers, cont’d.
    • Since I’ve begun to clean the pool, there’s no way you can go swimming. (D,I)
    • I’d like to go shopping whenever I get my refund check. (ID)
    • You may go to your friend’s house as long as there are parents home. (ID)
    • Even though you are talented, there’s no way you can win the competition. (D,I)
  • Independent Practice
    • Please write a sentence for each formula.
  • Compound-Complex Sentences
    • Have two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
    • You are combining the idea of the compound sentence and adding a dependent clause to the sentence at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end.
    • Break the sentence out into parts; there should be three total.
  • Compound-Complex Formulas
    • D,I,cI
    • D,I;I
    • ID,cI
    • ID;I
    • I,cID
    • I;ID
  • Compound-Complex Sentence Examples
    • D,I,cI: When you are ready, I will call the store, and we can talk to Reed.
    • D,I;I: Before the trick-or-treaters came, Jill made candied apples; they were delicious.
    • ID,cI: Jean had a headache after the party was over, so Paul cleaned up the house.
    • ID;I: Jennifer calls Chris whenever she feels sad; he cheers her up.
  • Compound-Complex Examples, cont’d.
    • I,cID: Jean had a headache, so Paul cleaned up the house after the party was over.
    • I;ID: The move was entertaining; there were many special effects because it was directed by George Lucas.
  • Review Assessment-What is the formula?
    • Even if you were to sell your car, there’s no way you’ll be able to afford the house; it’s just too expensive.
    • Just as you were leaving the house, Susan called, and she said to pick her up at noon.
    • Stop at the store, and pick up bread because I used the last of it.
  • Review Assessment-What is the formula?
    • If you are afraid, you shouldn’t go on the roller coaster, but you meet up with us when we exit the ride.
    • I’d like to see your work because it’s always neat, and I would like to used it as an example of a quality assignment.
    • We went on the boat; it began to rain just as we started back to the dock.
  • Review Assessment-What is the formula?
    • While we were at the doctor’s office, I saw James; he broke his leg last week.
    • I need to talk to you;I’ll have to do it whenever I return from my meeting.
    • Provided you are unhappy, I’d like to help; would you like to see the guidance counselor?
  • Check your answers!
    • Even if you were to sell your car, there’s no way you’ll be able to afford the house; it’s just too expensive. (D,I;I)
    • Just as you were leaving the house, Susan called, and she said to pick her up at noon. (D,I,cI)
    • Stop at the store, and pick up bread because I used the last of it. (I,cID)
  • Check your answers, cont’d!
    • If you are afraid, you shouldn’t go on the roller coaster, but you meet up with us when we exit the ride. (D,I,cI)
    • I’d like to see your work because it’s always neat, and I would like to used it as an example of a quality assignment. (ID,cI)
    • We went on the boat; it began to rain just as we started back to the dock. (I;ID0
  • Check your answers, cont’d!
    • While we were at the doctor’s office, I saw James; he broke his leg last week. (D,I;I)
    • I need to talk to you; I’ll have to do it whenever I return from my meeting. (I;ID)
    • Provided you are unhappy, I’d like to help; would you like to see the guidance counselor? (D,I;I)
  • Independent practice
    • Please write a sentence for each of the formulas.
  • Independent Practice
    • Write a paragraph beginning with a simple sentence, add a compound sentence, then a complex sentence, and last a compound-complex sentence.
    • The topic is explain what you did during summer break.
    • Use your highligters– highlight the simple sentence in pink, the compound sentence in green, the complex sentence in blue, and the compound-complex sentence in yellow.