Today’s manager lives in a world of rapid change, and yet
the rate of change is likely to increase in the years
ahead. Unless he can keep up with this change, he’s
likely to find himself obsolete – perhaps unpromotable
or even unemployable.
Ernest Dale 1966
3. General Manager
The effective general manager is a specialist, and a team player.
He/She depends on a painstakingly detailed knowledge of the
industry, technology, product, market and competitors –
knowledge that takes years to develop. Equally important are
the large, informal networks of cooperative relationships that
help him/her to make crucial decisions. It is people –
sometimes hundreds of them, from colleagues and customers
to bosses and subordinates - who keep the manager in touch
with a mass of complex information. Outsiders, no matter
how talented or well trained, rarely do as well.
4. GREATER MANAGEMENT
1. Lead to better performance by enabling the manager
to increase the output and quality of the work group.
3. Help the manager better understand the objectives
and functions of the company as a whole and the
thinking of his/her superiors. As a result he/she will
be able to ‘talk the language’ of higher managers and
gain a better hearing for recommendations and
• Promote a better understanding of the way in which
the managers’ group fits in with other groups, make
his/her a more effective team worker and one whom
other managers will respect and like to work with.
5. Management/Leadership Development
Management ability is the single most important determinant of
Management development can take place both on and off the
People learn by doing their jobs.
Performance feedback (appraisal)
Solving daily problems.
Taskforces, Teams, Meetings.
Self-development/reading make suitable materials available. (resource centre)
The entrepreneurial society of to-day demands that individuals
take responsibility for their own self development and their own
6. BUSINESS FUNCTIONS
Planning/Business Planning/Corporate Planning
Research and Development
Finance and Accounting
Marketing(Marketing, Sales & Distribution)
Personnel / Human resources
Legal, Patents, Trademarks, Taxes, Insurance
Management Information Systems
7. Management / Leadership
What is a manager?
Getting things done
economically by D.I.Y.
8. Management / Leadership
9. Management Priorities
(The Three priorities of management)
Making thing’s happen –
Work using time efficiently
What has to be done.
When it must be done by.
What quality is
What resources are How best to use their Providing
available. time and abilities. leadership –
Getting value for
money – using How to use for best What motivates them. getting effective
resources How to coordinate
Is any avoidable waste
economically. going on.
Decisions Decisions Decisions
10. Delegating the Decision - Making
Without this the
manager can’t delegate
lr esp The subordinates
is stil acceptance of a duty to
na ger take care of a specific
m a area of work
Decision The manager must give delegation doesn’t
Making this away exist.
Th The subordinates right
an to have his decisions
ag acted on without
er Without this the
re manager is dumping not
The managers right to
know how his subordinate
is using his authority
11. Management Skills
1. Technical Skills
The understanding of and ability to perform specific tasks:
Selling Marketing Accounting
Engineering Purchasing Surgery
Mastery of methods, techniques and tools/equipment
Specialized knowledge and analytical ability.
12. Management Skills
1. Human Skills (Emotional Intelligence)
Refers to the capacity for recognising our own feelings and those of
others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions in
ourselves and in our relationships.
Being able to monitor and regulate one’s own and others feelings and
to use feelings to guide thought and actions.
The ability to work with and through other people and to work
effectively as a group member.
Ability to motivate, facilitate, nurture, coach, coordinate, lead,
communicate and resolve conflicts, ability to bring out the best in
Emotional competencies play a far greater role in superior job
performance than do cognitive ability and technical expertise.(Pure
intellect and expertise)
13. Emotional Competencies
• Self – Awareness “Know Thyself”
Having a deep understanding of our emotions, strengths,
weaknesses and needs.
Being aware of both our mood and our thoughts about that
Recognising one’s emotions and their effects.
Accurate self – assessments: Knowing one’s strengths and
A strong sence of one’s self- worth and capabilities.
Knowing when to ask for help.
14. Emotional Competencies
1. Self – Regulation / Control
Keeping disruptive emotions and impusles in check.
Remaining calm despite provocation.
Taking responsibility for personal performance.
Hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives.
Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity.
Flexibility in handling change.
Being comfortable with novel ideas, approaches and new
15. Emotional Competencies
1. Self – Motivation
Desire to achieve for the sake of achievement.
Striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence.
Commitment to the goals of the organisation.
Initiative / readiness to act on opportunities.
Optimism : Persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles
16. Emotional Competencies
Awareness of others’ feelings, needs and concerns.
Understanding others: Sensing others’ feelings and
perspectives and taking an active interest in their concerns.
Service orientation: Anticipating, recognising and meeting
Political awareness: Reading a groups’ emotional currents
and power relationships.
Developing others: Sensing others’ development needs and
bolstering their abilities.
17. Emotional Competencies
1. Social Skill (Social Intelligence)
The degree to which we ‘get along with’ and relate to other
people around us.
Ability to induce desirable responses in others.
Friendliness with a purpose : moving people in the direction
Ability for finding common ground with all kinds of people.
Ability for building rapport.
Ability to use tact and diplomacy.
Establishing effective working relationships, based on
18. Emotional Competencies
Interacting with people effectively to maintain long-term
Assessing and understanding other people and their concerns.
Awareness of the likely impact of actions on others; adjusting style as
Influence : Using effective tactics for persuasion.
Communication: Listening openly and sending convincing messages.
Conflict-Management: Negotiating and resolving disagreements.
Collaboration and Cooperation: Working with others towards shared
19. Emotional Competencies
Building Bonds: Nurturing relationships.
Team Capabilities: Working in teams.
Leadership: Inspiring and guiding individuals and groups.
Change Catalyst: Initiating or managing change.
Networking: Making connections.
Social Graces: Showing appreciation / saying thanks /
21. Emotional Intelligence
Qualities and Characteristics of Social Skill/Social Intelligence
3. The confidence to be yourself.
5. An abiding interest in other people.
7. Respect for others.
9. Empathy and the ability to read and use body language to do this.
11. Awareness of when it is appropriate to speak and when to listen.
13. A positive attitude.
15. A life vision – to know where you are going.
22. Management Skills
1. Conceptual Skills
The ability to see the organisation as a whole and the
relationship among its parts.
Big – picture thinking.
Ability to think strategically.
Ability to take the broad, long-term view.
24. The Four Management Functions (PLOC)
(The management process)
Select goals and ways to attain them.
Use influence to motivate employees.
Assign responsibility for task accomplishment.
Monitor activities and make corrections.
25. Management Functions / Activities
“Planning is the basic process we use to select our goals and
determine how to achieve them.”
“Planning is looking ahead and making provisions for the
“Begin with setting goals/objectives/targets and include
specifying the steps needed to reach them.”
Scheduling the tasks.
“Deciding what to do and how to achieve it.”
Understanding the scope of what you want to get done.
Every manager should set objectives and plan how to reach
Where are we now?
Where do we want to go? Goals/objectives/targets.
How do we get there? Strategy.
26. Management Functions / Activities
Dividing the work into tasks/duties that can be
handled by one person and providing means of
Grouping activities together.
Defining jobs – allocating work.
Organising to accomplish tasks.
Who reports to whom.
27. Management Functions / Activities
Ability to interact with others, both within and outside
organisations; plays a critical role in our effectiveness as a
The communication process contains:
Action by the receiver.
28. Improving Communication Skills
1. Don’t oversell an idea.
2. Don’t give up too soon. Persistence pays off.
3. Watch your timing. Choose the right moment to put your
4. Plan carefully before you write or speak.
5. Keep language simple and to the point.
6. Use sketches or diagrams that help make a report or talk
more interesting and its meaning clearer.
7. Anticipate objections by the other person.
8. Invite participation.
9. Learn to listen intently as you converse.
10. Leave enough time for discussion.
“If people around you do not understand you, fall down before them
and beg their forgiveness; for in truth you are to blame”
29. Management Functions / Activities
Creativity, New Idea, New Approach, New Thinking , New
Invention, Novel Idea, Fresh Idea, Innovation, Change.
Looking for new, better ways of doing things.It may mean
discarding old procedures that no longer are needed.
Creativity is thinking up new ideas and discovering new
Innovation is using these new and sometimes old ideas /
things in the market place.
Sees beyond existing work practices and develops new
ways of doing own job.
Prepared to challenge existing positions, put forward own
30. Management Functions / Activities
Representing and supporting the views and decisions of
management to own subordinates and the views and feelings
of subordinates to management.
Representing the interests of the department to other
departments and outside contacts.
Representing the company to the outside world.
Checking on progress to determine whether plans are being
Knowing what’s going on.
If performance is falling short of what is necessary to fulfil
the goals, the managter must take steps to correct the
What’s motivating to somebody, is what’s motivating to
31. Management Functions / Activities
Filling positions with the most qualified people available.
Recruitment, selection, training/development, rewarding
Appraising peoples capacity to improve.
Creating opportunities for learning.
Setting standards of performance.
Creating vision, culture, values etc.
Motivating employees to perform at a high level.
Problem solving and decision making.
32. Management Functions / Activities
Ensuring that the diverse activities of the organisation are
channelled towards the accomplishment of the stated
Telling people what to do.
Seeing that they do it to the best of their ability.
Leading them towards the right goals by the right route.
Never satisfied with present performance.
Always trying to do things better.
Aware of principles and skills.
Willing to experiment.
34. Top Ten Tips for Managers
Agree job requirements with your superior.
Identify key result areas for the position.
New product introductions
35. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Set standards of performance by which success can be
Goals for each KRA
Agree jointly / motivation
Examples of goals:
Increase sales of product x by 10% 2006
Recruit new sales person before end March 2006
Achieve FDA approval within specified period
Adopt new procedure in line with FDA requirements within
Process for the periodic review of performance eg.
Quarterly reviews throughout the year
36. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Be effective and efficient.
(Managing you time)
Effective: Do the right things.
The key to effectiveness as a manager is to spend your time on your key
You can only be effective if you are clear about the things which are
important to success in your work.
Efficient: Do things right.
It involves amongst other things making the best use of your time.
Use some form of time managemnt system.
Distinguish between urgent and important tasks.
Spend most time on your priorities.
Develop plans for dealing with time-wasters.
37. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Let your team determine your leadership style.
when your group is inexperiencied and uncertain.
make the decision yourself and simply inform.
when your group needs guidance but must be brought along
with the decision.
make the decision yourself and sell it to them.
when the group may have important information which should
be taken into account.
Obtain their opinions before making a decision yourself.
when they are just as able to make the decision as you are.
involve them in the decision making process.
Leave the decision to your work group.
38. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Accept personal responsibility for the performance of
your staff. (Managing performance)
Agree key result areas and standards of performance.
Make sure you delegate effectively.
Monitor performance on a regular basis.
Ensure regular feedback to let people know how they are doing.
Recognise and reward that performance.
Be positive in addressing performance problems.
39. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Say thanks with impact.
Identify the behaviours you wish to reinforce.
Get timing right depending on the task and the need of the
40. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Use informal rewards.
You may have little control over the formal rewards structures but
that should not stop you doing things that are within your
control. The size of the reward is not as important as the fact
that it is given.
Recognition – spend more time with them.
Provide personal development
Give additional training.
41. Top Ten Tips For Managers
The manager must accept responsibility for bad as well as
It is a good rule for the manager to take responsibility for poor performance
until the contrary is proven.
Identify the performance gap
Analyse the cause of the problem:
The individual: - ability, training, personal problems, stress.
The work: - clarity of responsibility, overload, equipment, work methods,
The manager: - poor leadership, lack of feedback, lack of recognition,
42. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Work with your staff to help solve the problems.
Review the performance problem and agree the gap.
Identify the causes of the problem.
Agree action plans to resolve the problem.
Set a follow-up date to review progress
“I’ve spent 30 years going around factories. When you know
something’s wrong, nime times out of ten it is the management –
in truth because the people are not being led right. And bad
leaders invariably blame their people”
Sir. John Harvey – Jones
43. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Be prepared to break the mould.
People face and overcome a wide variety of problems everyday.
A machine breaks down, materials are late, a customer wants a
rush order. Companies survive because they have learned to
overcome problems. Very often they are not as good when they
face a new problem.
The real challenge in management is doing something new.
Get your people involved in creative problem solving.
Some techniques are required:
Brainstorming; the generation of as many ideas as possible by a
group operating to a fixed timeframe.
44. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Its OK for employees to air their grievances.
Make it easy for employees to raise issues with you and to go to
a higher authority if necessary to have them resolved.
Be open minded in considering their problems.
The way in which you handle the grievance is as important as the
Let the employee know that he/she is entitled to raise the
Look for mutually satisfactory ways to resolve the grievance.
If the grievance must be turned down, explain the reasons carefully
and check that the employee understands. Explain the next steps if
th employee wishes to bring the matter further.
45. Top Ten Tips For Managers
Use discipline as a last resort.
Conduct a full and fair investigation.
Make sure the penalty fits the crime.
Seek professional advice when handling dismissal.
46. Success as a Manager
Productive – getting things done.
Setting challenging goals for self and team.
Demonstrating technical competance.
Maintaining effective relationships with superiors,
colleagues and subordinates.
Fluency in expressing ideas.
Flexibility in dealing with different situations.
There is no best way to manage. The circumstances
dictate what needs to be done. The top ten tips
are intended to give you the manager a choice of
tools to bring with you on your assignment.
47. Top Ten Tips For Managers
1. Agree job requirements with your superior.
2. Be effective and efficient.
3. Let your team determine your leadership style.
4. Accept personal responsibility for the performance of your
5. Say thanks with impact.
6. Use informal rewards.
7. The manager must accept responsibility for bad as well as
8. Be prepared to break the mould.
9. Its OK for employees to air their grievances.
10. Use discipline as a last resort.
48. Leadership in the New Age
Support we here?
Where do Goals
we go for where are
help? we going?
What’s in it How are we
for us? doing?
The five leadership performance factors
How does the leader-manager influence results?
By the way he/she manages the five critical leadership
49. Lesson 1
“Being responsible sometimes means pissing
Good leadership involves responsibility to the welfare of the group,
which means that some people will get angry at your actions and
decisions. It’s inevitable, if you’re honorable. Trying to get
everyone to like you is a sign of mediocrity: you’ll avoid the
tough decisions, you’ll avoid confronting the people who need to
be confronted and you’ll avoid offering differential rewards
based on differential performance because some people might
get upset. Ironically, by procrastinating on the difficult
choices, by trying not to get anyone mad and by treating
everyone equally “nicely” regardless of their contributions, you’ll
simply ensure that the only people you’ll wind up angering are the
most creative and productive people in the organisation.
50. Lesson 2
“The day people stop bringing you their problems
is the day you have stopped leading them.
They have either lost confidence that you can
help them or concluded that you do not care.
Either case is a failure of leadership.”
Barriers to upward communication.
Asking for help seen as weakness or failure: corporate culture!
make themselves accessible and available.
Show concern even as they demand high standards.
Creates an environment where problem analysis replaces blame.
51. Lesson 3
“Don’t be buffaloed by experts.”
Small companies and start-ups don’t have the time for
analytically detached experts. The Chief Executive answers
the phone and drives the truck if necessary: everyone on the
payroll visibly produces and contributes to bottom-line results
or they’re history.
But as companies get bigger, they often forget who brought
them to the dance: things like all –hands involvement
informality, market intimacy, daring, risk, speed,agility.
Policies that emanate from ivory towers often have an adverse
impact on the people out in the field bringing in the revenues.
Real leaders are vigilant in the face of these trends.
52. Lesson 4
“Never neglect details. When everyone’s
mind is dulled or distracted the leader must
be doubly vigilant.”
Strategy equals execution. All the great ideas and visions in the
world are worthless if they can’t be implemented rapidly and
Good leaders delegate and empower others liberally, but they
pay attention to details, every day. Bad ones think they are
somehow above operational details.
Good leaders, even as they pay attention to details, they
continually encourage people to challenge the process.
53. Lesson 5
“You don’t know what you can get away with
until you try.”
You know the expression, “it’s easier to get forgiveness than
permission.” Well, it’s true. Good leaders don’t wait for official
blessing to try things out. They’re prudent, not reckless. But
they also realise a fact of life in most organisations: if you ask
enough people for permission, you’ll enevitably come up against
someone who believes his job is to say ”no.” So the moral is, don’t
ask. Less effective middle managers endorsed the sentiment, “If
I haven’t been told ‘yes,’ I can’t do it,” whereas the good ones
believed, “if I haven’t explicitly been told ‘no,’ I can.” There’s a
world of difference between these two points of view.
54. Lesson 6
“Keep looking below surface appearances.
Don’t shrink from doing so (just) because
you might not like what you find.”
“If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it “ is the slogan of the complacent, the
arrogant or the scared. It’s an excuse for inaction, a call to
non-arms. It’s a mind-set that assumes (or hopes) that today’s
realities will continue tomorrow in a tidy, linear and predicatble
fashion. Pure fantasy. In this sort of culture, you won’t find
people who pro-actively take steps to solve problems as they
emerge. Here’s a little tip: don’t invest in these companies.
55. Lesson 7
“Organisation doesn’t really accomplish
anything. Plans don’t accomplish anything,
either. Theories of management don’t
much matter. Endeavours succeed or fail
because of the people involved. Only by
attracting the best people will you
accomplish great deeds.”
In a knowledge-based economy, your best assets are people.
We’ve heard this expression so often that it’s become trite. But
how many leaders “walk the talk” with this stuff?
Leaders should immerse themselves in the goal of creating an
environment where the best, the brightest, the most creative
are attracted, retained and most importantly unleashed.
56. Lesson 8
“Fit no stereotypes. Don’t chase the latest
management fads. The situation dictates
which approach best accomplishes the
Flitting from fad to fad creates team confusion, reduces the
leader’s credibility, and drains organisational coffers. Blindly
following a particular fad generates rigidity in thought and
action. Sometimes speed to market is more important than total
quality. Sometimes an unapologetic directive is more
appropriate than participatory discussion. Some situations
require the leader to hover closely; others require long, loose
leashes. Leaders honour their core values, but they are flexible
in how they execute them. They understand that management
techniques are not magic mantras but simply tools to be reached
for at the right times.
57. Lesson 9
“Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier”
The ripple effect of a leader’s enthusiasm and optimism is
awesome. So is the impact of cynicism and pessimism. Leaders
who whine and blame engender those same behaviours among
their colleagues. I am not talking about stoically accepting
organisational stupidity and performance incompetence with a
“what, me worry?” smile. I am talking about a gung-ho attitude
that says “we can change things here, we can achieve awesome
goals, we can be the best.” Spare me the grim litany of the
“realist,” give me the unrealistic aspirations of the optimist any
58. Lesson 10
“Great leaders are almost always great
simplifiers, who can cut through argument,
debate and doubt, to offer a solution
everybody can understand.”
Effective leaders understand the KISS principle, KEEP IT SIMPLE,
STUPID. They articulate vivid, over-arching goals and values,
which they use to drive daily behaviours and choices among
competing alternatives. Their visions and priorities are lean and
compelling, not cluttered and buzzword-laden. Their decisions
are crisp and clear, not tentative and ambiguous. They convey an
unwavering firmness and consistency in their actions aligned
with the picture of the furture they paint. The result: clarity
of purpose, credibility of leadership, and integrity in
59. Lesson 11
Part 1: “Use the formula P=40 to 70, in
which P stands for the probability of
success and the numbers indicate the
percentage of information acquired.”
Part 11: “Once the information is in the 40
to 70 range, go with your gut.”
Don’t take action if you have only enough information to give you
less than a 40% chance of being right, but don’t wait until you
have enough facts to be 100 percent sure, because by then it is
almost always too late. Today, excessive delays in the name of
information-gathering breeds “analysis paralysis.”
Procrastination in the name of reducing risk actually increases
60. Lesson 12
“Command is lonely”
Harry Truman was right. Whether you’re a CEO or the temporary
head of a project team, the buck stops here. You can encourage
participative management and bottom-up employee involvement,
but ultimately the essence of leadership is the willingness to
make tough, unambiguous choices that will have an impact on the
fate of the organisation. I’ve seen too many non-leaders flinch
from this responsibility. Even as you create an informal, open,
collaborative corporate culture, prepare to be lonely.
61. “Leadership is the art of accomplishing
more than the science of management
says is possible.”
The key quality of leadership is the development of people.
Leadership: The articulation of a mission and the means
(resources and structure) to achieve it.
Leaders are responsible for creating;
The best strategy to achieve the vision.
The ideal environment for the strategy and the vision which ultimately
leads to the achievement of the vision.
Leaders project their ideas onto images that excite people.
Leaders relate to people in more intuitive and empathetic ways.
Shapes ideas instead of responding to them.
Defines the atmosphere in which the organisation will work.
Sets the tone of the organisation.
Infuses the whole organisation with energy and vision.
Gives the organisation direction and purpose.
Ensures that the organisation functions as an integrated unit.
Maintains a certain degree of alertness in the organisation.
Introduces change in such a way that the organisation adapts to
it without unnecessary disruption.
Ensures that everybody in the organisation is motivated and
Mobilises commitment; gets people signed on to the mission.
Creates and manages culture.
Ability to sence the future.
Understands the aspirations of followers.
Discerns the limits of possibilities.
Selects the lines of advance which hold the best promise of
Leadership permeates all activities.
Some activities concerned primarily with leadership;
64. What is Leadership?
Napoleon said:’I would rather have an army of rabbits led by a
lion than an army of lions led by a rabbit.’ The lion knows the
capability of his troops and can lead them accordingly.
‘..the behaviour of an individual when he is directing the activities of
a group toward a shared goal.’ (Hemphill and Coons, 1957)
‘..a social process in which one individual influences the behaviour of
others without the use or threat of violence.’ (buchanan and
‘..the ability to get things done – especially the ability to get people
working well as a team towards a common goal.’ (Adair, 1988)
‘..about getting extraordinary performance out of ordinary people.’
65. Leadership versus Management
One of the major differences between the leader and the manager
relates to their source of power.
Management power comes from organisational structure.
Leadership power comes from personal sources.
The managers position gives him or her the power to reward or punish
subordinates in order to influence their behaviour.
1. Legitimate power;
Formal management position with authority
2. Reward power;
Praise, attention, recognition
3. Coercive power;
Withdraw pay increases
66. Leadership versus Management
Personal power most often comes from internal resources,
such as a person’s special knowledge, skill or personality
characteristics. Personal power is the tool of the leader. People
follow a leader because of the respect, admiration or caring
they feel for the individual and his or her ideas.
1. Expert Power
2. Referent Power
Personality characteristics that command identification respect and
67. Different Qualities Attributed to
Leaders and Managers
Flexible Problem Solving
Initiates Change Position Power
People who do the right thing People who do things right.
Leaders have strategic vision
Managers instead use budgets and yearly plans.
68. Relationship between Leaders and Followers
Autocratic versus Democratic Leaders.
Leadership as a continuum reflecting different amounts of
69. Personal Characteristics of Leaders
Intelligence and Ability
fluency of speech
Personality Work-related characteristics
alertness achievement drive, desire to exce
originality, creativity drive for responsibility
personal integrity, ethical conduct responsibility in pursuit of goals
self confidence. task orientation.
Sociability, interpersonal skills ,
Ability to enlist cooperation
70. Understand Total
Provide opportunity objectives and strategy
Develop reward The Determine key
Chief Managerial tasks
Executive Determine methods
meaningful to tasks of co-ordination
and measures Between key tasks
measures of performance
71. Role of Chief Executive
Corporate culture overall character and mission.
Objectives and strategy.
Structure – organisation.
Coordination – synergy.
Network building and maintenace (networking).
Introduces change in such a way that the organisation
adapts to it without unnecessary disruption.
Manpower planning, training and development.
Represent the company.
Understand total situation.
Performance monitoring and control against plans.
72. The Chief Executive’s most Important
Task: To Select Effective People
We are “in good company” when we make this claim
“Around me there are eleven or twelve key people.
They have been remarkably stable over the years”
Michael Smurfit – Chairman and C.E.O. Jefferson Group plc.
“I suppose my biggest influence on Kerry Group PLC. is in picking the
right person for the job and persuading the managers around me
that they should give that a lot of attention”.
Denis Brosnan – Managing Director Kerry Group Plc.
“The key Role for the Chief Executive is to build a strong team
Niall Crowley – Chairman. A.I.B. plc.
73. General Managers
Typical Agendas Key Issues
Financial Organisation/ People
Long Run Kind of Business(es)
Long run return on investment/sales organisation and calibre of m
5 - 20 years To be in
Medium Run Specific Development of key manage
1 – 5 Years growth objectives
Market Selection ofand inventory objectives
share sales managers and commitments of
Short Run For quarter/year
74. The General Management Perspective
75. The Manager/Leader of Tommorrow…..
Communicates vision convincingly to staff.
Links salary to personal performance.
Ensures frequent contact with employees.
Delegates a considerable amount of responsibility.
Remains in close contact with important customers.
Promotes the internationalisation of the business.
Fires or moves employees at the right time.
Satisfying customer needs while at the same time satisfying
The uncovering and satisfaction of of consumer needs in order
to achieve optimum profitability.
Anticipating the needs and directing the flow of goods from
producers to consumers at a profit.
Planned organisation of resources for profit maximisation short
and long term.
The allocation of resources to achieve a sustainabe competitive
advantage in selected product markets.
Taking actions to create, grow, maintain or defend markets.
Satisfying the requirements of one’s customers at a profit.
Making the future happen.
Serving customer needs profitably.
The management activity which organises and directs all the
business activities involved in converting customer purchasing
power into effective demand for a specific product or service
and in moving the product from the manufacturer to the
consumer so as to achieve a profit target or some other
objective of the firm.
The right product at the right price at the right place at the
right time and making a profit.
The business activity that identifies an organisations’ customer
needs and wants, determines which target markets it can serve
best and designs appropriate products, services and programmes
to serve these markets.
The delivery of customer satisfaction at a profit.
The creation of customer satisfaction profitably, by building
valued relationships with customers.
Marketing remains the business activity that identifies an
organisations customers needs and wants, determines which
target markets it can serve best and designs appropriate
products, services and programmes to serve these markets.
However marketing is much more than an isolated business
function – it is a philosophy that guides the entire organisation.
The goal of marketing is to create customer satisfaction
profitably by building valued relationships with customers.
The marketing people cannot accomplish this goal by themselves.
They must work closely with other people in their company to
provide superior value to customers.
Thus, marketing calls upon everyone in the company to ‘think
customer’ and to do all that they can to help create and deliver
superior customer value and satisfaction.
80. MARKETING FUNCTIONS
Market Research and analysis
Marketing Communications Mix (Promotion
81. The Marketing Concept
Plant and machinery
New products and processes
Up to 1900: Demand > supply
Communication of availability
1900 – 1960:
Selling / promotion
Profits through sales volume
Consumer Emphasis/Marketing Concept
1960’s onwards: Supply > Demand
Market as starting point
Profits through customer satisfaction
Instead of making a product and then trying to persuade people to
buy it, it is better to first find out what the customer needs, and
then gear our assets to produce the product needed.
82. Marketing Instruments
The 4 P’s of marketing:
• Promotion (Communication)
• Place (Distribution)
Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue : all
other elements represent cost.
Price is also one of the most flexible elements of the marketing mix.
Unlike product features, channel commitments etc. price can be
Factors to consider when setting prices:
Aim to Maximise Profit
Costs (R&D, Manufactoring, Promotion, Distribution, etc)
Market and Demand
Advantages v Competitors
New Ideas Product Development
Improvements Line Extensions
Acceptable Formulation Easy Dosing
Positioning Life Cycles
86. Product Life – Cycle Strategies
1. Introduction Stage:
Rapid penetration strategy: - Heavy promotion spending
- Perhaps low price.
Slow market penetration strategy - Low promotion spend
- High Price
8. Growth Stage:
Profits increase as promotion is spread over a larger volume.
Add new product features
Enter new market segments
High promotion spend to capture a dominant position.
87. Product Life – Cycle Strategies
1. Maturity Stage:
At some stage a products sales growth will slow down or level off.
Product Managers should become offensive:
Market Development --- new segments (new uses) repositioning
Product Development ---new functions / features
Marketing Innovation ---change marketing – mix elements.
5. Decline Stage:
The company’s task during this stage is to identify the declining product
and decide whether it should be:
harvested for cash
88. “ Blockbusters are not discovered – They
Rapid uptake is driven by early spend.
High levels of early investment.
Early success is a key determinant of long
Kit Kat: Launched in 1935 ---- Rowntree.
Aero Launched in 1935 ----
Black Magic: Launched in 1933
Smarties: Launched in 1937.
(Marketing Communications Mix)
Personal Selling Advertising
Sales Promotion Public Relations
(short-term incentives) (favourable unpaid publicty)
91. Sales Promotion
Short-term incentives to encourage purchase or sales of a product.
Short-term incentives to encourage purchase or sales of a product.
Sales Promotion Tools;
Voucher with cost value
direct to consumers
93. The Marketing Mix
1. Goods and Service Mix
6. Distribution Mix
Availability By Channels of Distribution
10. Communication Mix
Selling -------- Personal
The Right Mix In Order To Generate The Optimum Profitability.
94. Goods and
= Services Mix
Pack Image Communica-
Name Service = tion Mix
97. What is Marketing
SATISFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS WHILST AT THE SAME TIME
SATISFYING CORPORATE NEEDS.
LONG TERM SELLING
ORGANISATION OF PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY
MAXIMISATION OF PROFIT – LONG TERM – SHORT TERM
CREATION OF DEMAND
MARKETING IS THE UNCOVERING AND SATISFACTION OF
CONSUMER NEEDS IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM
ANTICIPATING THE NEEDS AND DIRECTING THE FLOW OF
GOODS AND SERVICES FROM PRODUCERS TO CONSUMERS AT A
ORGANISATION OF RESOURCES FOR PROFIT
PLANNED ORGANISATION OF RESOURCES FOR PROFIT
- LONG AND SHORT TIME
99. Marketing Factors
CORPORATE IMAGE TARGET AUDIENCE
PROFIT CONTRIBUTION QUALITATIVE INFORMATION
PRIORITIES TRADING CONDITIONS
ECONOMICS OF SCALE
100. Marketing Plan
WHERE ARE WE NOW ---------------- THE MARKET
WHERE DO WE WANT TO GO --------- OBJECTIVES
HOW WILL WE GET THERE ---------- STRATEGY
“IF WE COULD FIRST KNOW WHERE WE ARE AND WHITHER WE ARE
TENDING TO GO, WE COULD BETTER JUDGE WHAT TO DO AND
HOW TO DO IT”
101. Marketing Plan
1. Market and product history.
3. Statement on current years objectives – whether achieved or
5. Analysis of current market situation in relation to the product
- market shares, trends, research findings etc. Analysis of
7. Marketing objectives for the coming year – target market
shares, target revenue and profit target.
9. Planned marketing mix (goods and services / distribution /
communications) in order to achiece the above target.
102. Marketing Plan
1. Marketing Background
Market analysis; share, size, trends, competitors (SWOT)
4. Marketing Objectives
Sales, MS, Earnings, Promotion expenditure budget.
7. Marketing Strategies
Brand Name / Packaging / Presentation
Comm. Strategies: direct selling, advert., direct mail, internet, literature, detail aids, samples,
product reminders, audio visual aids.
13. Agree With Top Management
15. Coordinate The Implementation Of Plan
17. Monitor and Control
103. PRODUCT POLICY
SALES FORCE POLICY
SALES PROMOTIONAL POLICY
104. Marketing Plan Outline
THE DISEASE AREA
1. MARKET VALUE
2. PRESCRIPTIONS / USAGE
5. PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY
3. PROMOTIONAL EXPENDITURE
4. MARKET SHARE
5. USAGE & AWARENESS
1. PRODUCT POSITIONING
3. PROMOTION (GENERAL)
4. PRE LAUNCH ACTIVITY
1. FIELD FORCE - DETAILING
2. PROMOTIONAL MATERIAL
3. DETAILING OBJECTIVES / SEQUENCE
4. JOURNAL / T.V. / RADIO ETC. ADVERTISING
5. OTHER PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY.
105. The Function of a
106. Market Research
PROMOTION MEDIA PLANNING
E N MARKETING TOOLS UTILISATION
S E M
SA AN PLANNING
PRINTED ADVERTISING MATERIAL
MA W PR
107. Function of a Marketing Department
WHERE ARE WE NOW MARKETING RESEARCH
(How did we get here)
WHERE ARE WE GOING MARKETING OBJECTIVES
HOW WILL WE GET THERE MARKETING STRATEGY
108. From Beginning To End
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - MARKET RESEARCH IMPUT
POTENTIAL EVALUATION - MARKET RESEARCH – GO
ECONOMIES OF SCALE
PRODUCTION - MARKETING OBJECTIVES
CUSTOMER INFORMED - ADVERTISING / PROMOTION
109. Where Are We Now
1. MARKETING RESEARCH
3. MARKET RESEARCH
5. MARKET ANALYSIS
7. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
11. PROMOTIONAL RESEARCH
13. COMPETITIVE RESEARCH
15. PRICING RESEARCH
17. PRODUCT USAGE RESEARCH
19. ATTITUDINAL RESEARCH.
110. Where Are We Going
1. OBJECTIVES - QUANTIFIABLE
4. STRATEGY - POLICY
6. PRODUCT PLANNING - LONG TERM
- SHORT TERM
9. PRIORITY SETTING
111. How Will We Get There
1. TACTICS - ACTIONABLE
B. SALES FORCE ACTIVITY
E. ADVERTISING - ABOVE LINE
H. PRICING TACTICS - DISCOUNTS / BONUSES
J. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
1. UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES
1. SALES FORCE
7. POINT OF SALE MATERIAL
9. DISCOUNTS / BONUSES
13. PUBLIC RELATIONS
15. GIVE AWAYS / GIMMICKS
17. SELLING AIDS
113. Marketing Research
MARKET RESEARCH - HISTORICAL
MARKETING RESEARCH - CURRENT
114. Quantitative Research
1. GOVERNMENT STATS.
3. TRADE PRESS
5. COMPANY REPORTS
9. INDUSTRY REPORTS
13. FIELD FORCE?
15. TELEPHONE ?
115. Quantitative Research
QUANTITATIVE IN NATURE - QUANTIFIABLE RESULTS
CATEGORISATION OF RESPONSES
116. Quantitative Market Research
1. YES / NO RESPONSE
3. LIMITED NUMBER OF POSSIBLE RESPONSES
5. PROMPTED / UNPROMPTED RESPONSES
7. NO INTERVIEWER SUBJECTIVE INTREPRETATION.
117. Quantitative Research Sampling
1. IDENTIFICATION OF UNIVERSE
3. UNIVERSE TO BE REPRESENTED
5. STRUCTURE OF SAMPLE
AGE / SEX
TYPE OF RESPONDENT
TYPE OF CUSTOMER
118. Quantitative Research
Historical In Nature
1. MEASUREMENT OF PRESENT OR PAST SITUATION
3. INFORMATION USED TO EXTRAPULATE INTO THE
5. REPORTS ARE OFTEN TOO LATE TO TAKE ACTION ON
BUT CAN BE USED FOR DECISION MAKING
7. INFORMATION MAY ALREADY BE OUT – OF – DATE.
119. Quantitative Research
Quantitive In Nature
1. RESULTS ARE QUANTIFIABLE
3. % ARE USED - PROBLEMS
(A) AVERAGE OF AVERAGE
(A) SIZE OF BASE
6. FIGURES CAN BE MISUSED
8. INTERPRETATION CRITICAL.
120. Quantitive Research Questionaires
3. PREDETERMINED RANGE OF RESPONSES
5. NO INTERVIEW BIAS
7. ALL RESPONDENTS ARE ASKED SAME QUESTIONS
9. OFTEN SYNDICATED WITH SPECIAL OPTIONS
11. DESIGN CRITICAL
13. CAN BE COMPUTERISED.
121. Qualitative Market Research
IN DEPTH INTERVIEWS
122. Group Discussions
IMPORTANCE OF MODERATOR
LEADING BUT NOT DOMINATING
TO HELP MODERATOR
IDEAL FOR CONCEPT TESTING
123. Group Discussions
SUBJECTIVE IN NATURE
RESULTS NOT QUANTIFIABLE
DIRECTIONAL INFORMATION RECEIVED
WILL HELP THE FORMULATION OF QUESTIONNAIRES
FOR QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
124. Market Segmentation And Targeting
Market Segmentation: Dividing a market into distinct group of
buyers with different needs, characterstics or behaviour, who
might require separate products or marketing mixes.
Market Targeting: The process of evaluating each market
segments’ attractiveness and selecting one or more segment to
Market Positioning: Arranging for a product to occupy a clear,
distinctive and desirable place relative to competing products in
the minds of target consumers. Formulating competitive
positioning for a product and a detailed marketing mix.
125. Market Segmentation
1. Geographic Segmentation
3. Demographic Segmetation
8. Behavioural Segmentation
10. Psychographic Segmentation
127. Personal Selling and Sales Management
The sales function is at the heart of successful marketing.
The primary job of the sales function is to achieve the company’s required sales
The Sales force is the core of the company’s marketing effort which in turn is the
central company activity.
Nature / Role of Personal Selling / Sales Force:
Key role in the marketing mix
Well – educated, well trained professionals
Build and maintain long-term relationships with customers
Work closely with customers to find solutions to their problems
Critical link between a company and its customers
Represent the company to customers and at the same time represent customers to the
Concerned with more than just producing sales!
(Market orientated rather than sales orientated to-day)
Look at sales data, measure market potential, gather market intelligence and help
develop marketing strategies and plans.
A market – orientated sales force works to produce customer satisfaction and
company profit. To accomplish these goals, the sales force needs skills in
marketing analysis and planning in addition to the traditional selling skills.
128. Some general comments on selling:
• Good sales people are born not made! Myth
“The ability to sell is not a gift, it’s a skill and skills can be learned.”
• Sales people are extroverts with the gift of the gab - they can make
small talk to anyone, they can sell to anybody even those who don’t
want to buy, and finally most people decide on cost anyway! Myth
Rubbish, buyers to-day are well informed. People don’t decide on price alone. They
decide on value for money.
5. Sales is a numbers game ---- Sales people forget this.
Research: as little as a 1/3 time spent actually selling.
7. Giving up too early --- a common failure. Go back more often.
8. Develop relationships but focus clearly on what they will deliver to
the bottom line.
9. There are always three sales to be made
the sales person
the credibility and reliability of the company behind them.
13. World –class salesperson:
Irrepressibly positive attitude
Totally sales driven
Competitive by nature
Know that both you and your product are world class
Know their customers business and sell through client knowledge
Good listening skills.
129. Rules in Selling (Carr Communications)
re based on relationships –customers buy from people
If you cost more than the competition, be able to explain what additional value yo
Customers buy from people they like and trust
Know how to negotiate
s trust, you have to show a real interest in their business
Know how to listen
, be well presented and bring well-presented notes, samples and documentation
If you promise it, deliver it when you promised (or b
re your product or service adds value to their business
Exceed customer expectations – again, and again, and
Explain this simply, clearly and If you get it wrong, admit it quickly and rescue sup
Believe in what you offer Follow through on every detail, no matter how sm
of the competition. Always. But know how youThank them for their business.
130. Steps In The Selling Process
7. Handling Objections
11. Follow – Up.
131. Managing The Sales Force
The high cost of the sales force calls for an effective sales
2. Setting Sales Force Objectives
3. Sales Force Architecture / Structure
How many different sales forces should we have?
How should they be structured and staffed?
What degree of specialisation is needed?
What resource levels should be dedicated to each?
Clear definition of the sales task is the right place to begin.
Key determinants of the sales tasks are:
1. Which customers?
2. Which products?
3. What specific activities are to be accomplished?
Major Driver: Size and variety of the product portfolio.
Trend: “General” selling (all-account sales) to “specialised” selling.
132. Managing The Sales Force
1. Competency Creation
a) Recruiting and Selecting
If you do not start with the right individual, it is very unlikely that training,
motivation etc. will turn that person into an outstanding performer.
To hold down the high costs of hiring the wrong people, sales people must be recruited
and selected carefully.
No magic list of traits:
High enthusiasm, persistence, initiative, self-confidence, self-motivated,
good communicater, excellent listener, disciplined, hard working, honest,
committed to sales as a way of life and have a strong customer orientation.
Look at the characteristicts of your most successful sales people for clues
to needed traits.
Selecting Procedure? interviewing / testing? Retention?
The sales force require ongoing training.
One – on – 0ne intensive coaching enhances other forms of training.
133. Managing The Sales Force
All sales people need supervision and many need continuous
encouragement in view of the many decisions they have to make and
the many frustrations they invariably face.
To what extent should sales management be involved in helping sales
people manage their territories?
Developing customer targets and call norms.
Using sale time efficiently. ( sales force automation system)
Sales force compensation (salary, bonuses, expenses and fringe benefits)
Personal acknowledgement / one – on – one recognition
(Sales people have an enormous need for feedback)
Sales task clarity is important as a motivational tool.
134. Managing The Sales Force
1. Evaluating / Measuring
Some important principles:
a) By and large, you get what you measure not what you expect.
Sales people will focus their efforts on those things that are
b) The measurement system must be tied to all the key variables
central to company targets eg. sales and profitability
c) A good system should also:
Learn what the customer needs
Learn the potential of the customer
Information on competitors – data from each sales person should be
d) Management must develop and communicate clear standards for
e) Management must gather well – rounded information about each
f) Sales people should receive constructive feedback that helps
them to improve performance.
135. Managing The Sales Force
Formal evaluation of performance
b) Comparing the sales performance of different sales people
can be misleading
Differences in territory potential
Levels of competition
d) Comparing current sales with past sales (better approach)
f) Sales Reports, Work Plans / Schedules, Territory
Improvement Plans, Expense Reports etc.
h) Qualitative Evaluation of Sales People.
Knowledge of the company, products, customers, competitors, tasks
Personal traits like manner, appearance, temperament etc.
Problems with motivation or compliance.
136. Creating Sales & Marketing Promotional
The right customer
The right channel
The right frequency
The right message
The right mix and sequence
The right level of resources
Many of these concepts overlap and are inter-dependant.
137. Giving Performance Feedback
Feedback answers the question “How are we doing?” It is simply
information about progress towards the accomplishment of goals.
Feedback is important because it enhances the effectiveness of goal
setting by providing the information needed to modify behaviour in
order to attain objectives.
Whether the news is good or bad people need to know how they are
doing; without feedback, good performance may even change for the
worse and poor performance may persist or get worse.
Feedback is easier and more productive in situations of high mutual
trust and confidence.
Positive feedback, catching people doing the right thing, is the most
powerful form of feedback.
At times it is necessary to provide corrective feedback. To be
effective such feedback should be early, private and constructive.
Don’t leave for the annual performance review.
138. Actions to Improve Sales
1. Strategic Sales Management:
Clear targets for salesforce. Which accounts? Which product? Specific
Customer selection / targeting.
Design of a salesforce structure/deployment.
Measurement system/reporting system
Training/coaching (improve quality of the people)
2. New Products.
3. Price Increases.
4. Promotional Schedule/Targeting products at different
5. Sales Promotion Tools.
6. Certain steps by individual area managers.
• Increased promotion investment
139. Actions to Improve Sales
1. Recognising opportunities as a constant journey
2. Products and Accounts Rationalisation.
3. Optimise operating processes.
• Exploit existing products (Maximise support to best
• Flat Markets; Sweat the products and take business from
• Lifelong/Continuous learning.
141. Sales Managers Accountability Checklist
Train and develop representatives.
Assist in their selection.
Review continuously the level of knowledge skills and
the attitude of representatives.
Planning (Sales Plan).
Direct and control allocated resources to ensure cost
effectiveness within allocated limits.
Provide relevant field intelligence and feedback to
Sales Meetings/Training Courses etc.
Cooperate with other departments.
142. Direct Marketing
Marketing through various media that interact directly with
customers, generally calling for the customer to make a direct
Direct marketing is non-public as the message is addressed to a specific
Direct marketing is immediate and customised.
Direct marketing is interactive.
direct mail marketing; post, fax mail, e-mail, voice mail.
telemarketing / telesales.
direct response television.
Advertising is the use of paid media to inform, persuade and
remind target audiences about its products or organisation.
Powerful promotion tool.
Important decisions in advertising.
1. Setting advertising objectives:
To inform (new product, new uses, price change ect.)
To persuade (brand preferance, switching, attributes)
1. Setting the advertising budget;
What is affordable?
Percentage of sales.
Competitors spending /noise in the market.
Objectives and tasks to be accomplished.
Stages in the product life cycle.
1. Creating the advertising message.
Identify target customer benefits
Develop a creative concept or ‘big idea’ that will bring the benefits to
life in a distinctive and memorable way.
“Have a break, have a Kit-Kat”
“Brain food-every Friday, The Economist”
1. Selecting advertising media.
Reach, frequency, impact.
Television, radio, newspapers, magazines etc.
1. Advertising evaluation
145. Public Relations (PR)
Building good relations with the companys’ various publics by
obtaining favourable publicity (free); building up a good
Old name for PR was publicity: activities to promote a company
or its products by planting news in media not paid for by the
PR is a broader concept that includes publicity and other
PR Tools ;
News (company, products, people)
Special Events (openings, news conferances, press tour).
Written Materials (annual reports, brochures, articles, newsletters etc.).
Corporate Identity Materials (logos, stationary, business cards etc.).
Company’s Web Site.
Public Service Activities (raising funds for worthy causes).
Marketing • Marketing Functions
1. Marketing Concept Marketing Research & Analysis
1. Marketing Functions Marketing Planning
Marketing Communications Mix (Promotions m
The Six Facets of
Marketing Sales Promotion
Drivers for Sales and