CompTIA Network+ ®
Certification Study Guide,
Glen E. Clarke
McGraw-Hill is an independent entity from CompTIA®. This publication and CD may
be used in assisting students to prepare for the CompTIA Network+ Exam. Neither
CompTIA nor McGraw-Hill warrants that use of this publication and CD will ensure
passing any exam. CompTIA and CompTIA Network+ are registered trademarks of
CompTIA in the United States and/or other countries.
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To my beautiful wife, Tanya, who continues to show amazing patience and support.
You are a true inspiration!
About the Author
Glen E. Clarke, MCSE/MCSD/MCDBA/MCT/CEH/SCNP/Security+/
Network+/A+, is an independent trainer and consultant, focusing on
network security and security auditing services. Glen spends most of
his time delivering certified courses on Windows Server, SQL Server,
Exchange Server, Visual Basic .NET, and ASP.NET. Glen also teaches a
number of security-related courses covering topics such as ethical hacking,
vulnerability testing, firewall design, and packet analysis topics.
Glen is an experienced author and technical editor whose published
work has been nominated for a referenceware excellence award in 2003 and
2004. Glen has worked on a number of certification titles, including topics
on A+ certification, Windows 2000/2003 certification, and Network+ and
When he’s not working, Glen loves to spend quality time with his wife,
Tanya, and their four children, Sara, Brendon, Ashlyn, and Rebecca. He
is an active member of High Technology Crime Investigation Association
(HTCIA). You can visit Glen online at www.gleneclarke.com, or contact
him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
About the technical editor
Dan Lachance is a Certified Novell Instructor (CNI), a Certified Novell
Engineer (CNE), a Certified Linux Professional (CLP), an IBM Certified
Instructor for Lotus Notes, and a Convergent Technology Professional
(CTP). Dan also holds the A+, Network+, and Security+ certifications
and is a technical trainer for Nexient Learning.
LearnKey provides self-paced learning content and multimedia delivery
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Contents At A GLAnCe
1 Basic Network Concepts ................................. 1
2 Network Protocols and Standards .......................... 71
3 Networking Components ................................ 115
4 TCP/IP Fundamentals ................................... 169
5 Subnetting and Routing ................................. 229
6 TCP/IP Utilities ....................................... 267
7 Wireless Networking .................................... 351
8 Remote Connectivity ................................... 387
9 Wide Area Network Technologies .......................... 437
10 Implementing a Network ................................ 469
11 Maintaining and Supporting a Network ...................... 533
12 Network Security ...................................... 597
13 Troubleshooting the Network ............................. 685
A About the CD ........................................ 743
Index ............................................... 747
I would like to thank the wonderful people at McGraw-Hill Professional, especially Timothy
Green and Meghan Riley for their extreme patience and support—you guys are a great team
to work with! I thank Timothy Green for giving me the opportunity to work with him once
again and for this project—it has been a phenomenal experience! Thank you to a close friend and
former coworker, Dan Lachance, for great feedback and encouraging ideas as the technical editor.
A special thank you to my wife, Tanya, who has been extremely supportive and
loving through the many hours of writing this book. I would also like to thank my
four children, Sara, Brendon, Ashlyn, and Rebecca for helping Daddy enjoy the
simple things—playing hockey, skating on the rink, dancing in the living room, and
chilling out during movie night! I love the time I spend with all four of you!
Thank you to my Mom and Dad for buying my first computer so that I could learn
about computers and excel with my studies—it was a huge help. Thanks!
T he objective of this study guide is to prepare you for the Network+ certification exam
by familiarizing you with the technology or body of knowledge tested on the exam.
Because the primary focus of the book is to help you pass the test, we don’t always
cover every aspect of the related technology. Some aspects of the technology are only covered to
the extent necessary to help you understand what you need to know to pass the exam, but we
hope this book will serve you as a valuable professional resource after your exam.
In this book
This book is organized in such a way as to serve as an in-depth review for the
Network+ certification exam for both experienced network professionals and
newcomers to the world of network technologies. Each chapter covers a major
aspect of the exam, with an emphasis on the “why” as well as the “how to” of
working with and supporting networking environments.
on the CD
For more information on the CD-ROM, please see the Appendix, “About the CD,”
at the back of the book.
exam readiness Checklist
At the end of the Introduction you will find an Exam Readiness Checklist. This table
has been constructed to allow you to cross-reference the official exam objectives
with the objectives as they are presented and covered in this book. The checklist
also allows you to gauge your level of expertise on each objective at the outset of
your studies. This should allow you to check your progress and make sure you spend
the time you need on more difficult or unfamiliar sections. References have been
provided for the objective exactly as the vendor presents it, the section of the study
guide that covers that objective, and a chapter and page reference.
xx Network+ Certification Study Guide
In every Chapter
We’ve created a set of chapter components that call your attention to important
items, reinforce important points, and provide helpful exam-taking hints. Take a
look at what you’ll find in every chapter:
n Every chapter begins with Certification Objectives—what you need to know
in order to pass the section on the exam dealing with the chapter topic.
The Objective headings identify the objectives within the chapter, so you’ll
always know an objective when you see it!
n Exam Watch notes call attention to information about, and potential pitfalls
in, the exam. These helpful hints are written by authors who have taken the
exams and received their certification—who better to tell you what to worry
about? They know what you’re about to go through!
n Step-by-Step Exercises are interspersed throughout the chapters and
included on the CD-ROM in LabBook.pdf. These are designed as hands-on
CertCam 1–1 exercises that give you a feel for the real-world experience you need to pass
the exam. They help you master skills that are likely to be an area of focus
on the exam. Don’t just read through the exercises; learning by doing is an
ON THE CD
effective way to increase your competence.
n On the Job notes describe the issues that come up most often in real-world
settings. They provide a valuable perspective on certification- and product-
related topics. They point out common mistakes, and address questions that
have arisen from on-the-job discussions and experience.
n Inside the Exam sidebars highlight some of the most common and confusing
problems that students encounter when taking a live exam. Designed to
anticipate what the exam will emphasize, they help ensure you know what you
need to know to pass the exam. You can get a leg up on how to respond to those
difficult-to-understand questions by paying extra attention to these sidebars.
n The Certification Summary is a succinct review of the chapter and a
restatement of salient points regarding the exam.
n The Two-Minute Drill at the end of every chapter is a checklist of the main
3 points of the chapter. It can be used for last-minute review.
Q&A n The Self Test offers questions similar to those found on the certification
exams. The answers to these questions, as well as explanations of the
answers, can be found at the end of each chapter. By taking the Self Test
after completing each chapter, you’ll reinforce what you’ve learned from that
chapter, while becoming familiar with the structure of the exam questions.
Once you’ve finished reading this book, set aside some time to do a thorough review.
You might want to return to the book several times and make use of all the methods
it offers for reviewing the material:
1. Re-read all the Two-Minute Drills, or have someone quiz you. You can also
use the drills as a way to do a quick cram before the exam. You might want
to make some flash cards out of 3 × 5 index cards that have the Two-Minute
Drill material on them.
2. Re-read all the Exam Watch notes and Inside the Exam elements. Remember
that these notes are written by authors who have taken the exam and
passed. They know what you should expect—and what you should be on
the lookout for.
3. Re-take the Self Tests. Taking the tests right after you’ve read the chapter is
a good idea, because the questions help reinforce what you’ve just learned.
However, it’s an even better idea to go back later and do all the questions in
the book in one sitting. Pretend that you’re taking the live exam. When you
go through the questions the first time, you should mark your answers on a
separate piece of paper. That way, you can run through the questions as many
times as you need to until you feel comfortable with the material.
4. Complete the Exercises. Did you do the exercises when you read through each
chapter? If not, do them! These exercises are designed to cover exam topics,
and there’s no better way to get to know this material than by practicing. Be
sure you understand why you are performing each step in each exercise. If
there is something you are not clear on, re-read that section in the chapter.
I f you are new to certifications, we have some good news and some bad news. The good news
is that a computer industry certification is one of the most valuable credentials you can earn.
It sets you apart from the crowd and marks you as a valuable asset to your employer. You will
gain the respect of your peers, and certification can have a wonderful effect on your income.
The bad news is that certification tests are not easy. You may think you will read
through some study material, memorize a few facts, and pass the examinations. After
all, these certification exams are just computer-based, multiple-choice tests, so they
must be easy. If you believe this, you are wrong. Unlike many “multiple-guess” tests
you have been exposed to in school, the questions on certification examinations go
beyond simple factual knowledge.
The purpose of this introduction is to teach you how to take a computer
certification examination. To be successful, you need to know something about the
purpose and structure of these tests. We will also look at the latest innovations in
computerized testing. Using simulations and adaptive testing, the computer industry
is enhancing both the validity and security of the certification process. These factors
have some important effects on how you should prepare for an exam, as well as your
approach to each question during the test.
We will begin by looking at the purpose, focus, and structure of certification tests,
and we will examine the effect these factors have on the kinds of questions you
will face on your certification exams. We will define the structure of examination
questions and investigate some common formats. Next, we will present a strategy for
answering these questions. Finally, we will give some specific guidelines on what you
should do on the day of your test.
the Value of Certification
The CompTIA Network+ certification program, like the certification programs
from Microsoft, Lotus, Novell, Oracle, and other software vendors, is maintained for
the ultimate purpose of increasing the corporation’s profits through the creation of
skilled workers. A successful certification program accomplishes this goal by helping
to create a pool of certification questions that not only test the knowledge of the
candidate but also test that candidate’s skills.
Vendor certification has become increasingly popular over the years because it helps
employers find qualified workers, and it helps software vendors such as Microsoft sell
products. Many employers are looking for professionals who hold IT certifications, and
a number of individuals without the required certification are overlooked.
A marked characteristic of the computer certification program is an emphasis on
performing specific job tasks rather than merely gathering knowledge. It may come
as a shock, but most potential employers do not care how much you know about the
theory of operating systems, networking, or database design. As one IT manager put
it, “I don’t really care what my employees know about the theory of our network.
We don’t need someone to sit at a desk and think about it. We need people who can
actually do something to make it work better.”
CompTIA’s Network+ certification program will test you on current network
implementations in wide use today, including network-related hardware and software.
The job task orientation of certification is almost as obvious, but testing real-world job
skills using a computer-based test is not easy. In Network+, CompTIA have created a
great certification exam that ensures a candidate knows the basics of networking.
test structure and specifications
The 2009 version of the Network+ Certification exam is exam number N10-004 and
is titled the CompTIA Network+ (2009 Edition) Exam. You can book your exam
online at www.2test.com. The Network+ exam cost is approximately $240 U.S., but
the price may be different in your country. The exam is approximately 85 questions,
and you have 90 minutes to complete the exam.
The topics that you are tested on are divided into domains. The following table lists
the different domains and what percentage of the questions are based on each domain.
Domain % of examination
1.0 Network Technologies 20%
2.0 Network Media and Topologies 20%
3.0 Network Devices 17%
4.0 Network Management 20%
5.0 Network Tools 12%
6.0 Network Security 11%
xxiv Network+ Certification Study Guide
The Network+ exam is known as a form test, and this is the type of test that
we are most familiar with. A form test is made up of a number of multiple-choice
questions, and you can go back to previous questions at any point. For the CompTIA
certification, a form consists of 85 questions and allows for 90 minutes to complete.
The CompTIA Network+ exam is a form-based test where each correct answer
gives you the same amount of points. The score is on a scale from 100 to 900,
and a score of 554 must be obtained in order to pass. An interesting and useful
characteristic of a form test is that you can mark a question you have doubts about as
you take the test. Assuming you have time left when you finish all the questions, you
can return and spend more time on the questions you have marked as doubtful.
CompTIA, like Microsoft, may soon implement adaptive testing for the Network+
exam. To develop this interactive technique, a form test is first created and
administered to several thousand certification candidates. The statistics generated
are used to assign a weight, or difficulty level, for each question. For example, the
questions in a form might be divided into levels one through five, with level-one
questions being the easiest and level-five the hardest.
When an adaptive test begins, the candidate is first given a level-three question.
If he answers it correctly, he is given a question from the next higher level; if he
answers it incorrectly, he is given a question from the next lower level. When 15–20
questions have been answered in this manner, the scoring algorithm is able to
predict, with a high degree of statistical certainty, whether the candidate would pass
or fail if all the questions in the form were answered. When the required degree of
certainty is attained, the test ends and the candidate receives a pass/fail grade.
Adaptive testing has some definite advantages for everyone involved in the
certification process. Adaptive tests enable the test center to deliver more tests
with the same resources, because certification candidates often are in and out in
30 minutes or less. For CompTIA, adaptive testing means that fewer test questions
are exposed to each candidate, which enhances the security, and therefore the
validity, of certification tests.
One possible problem you may have with adaptive testing is that you are not
allowed to mark and revisit questions. Because the adaptive algorithm is interactive,
and all questions but the first are selected on the basis of your response to the
previous question, it is not possible to skip a particular question or change an answer.
Computerized test questions can be presented in a number of ways. Some of the
possible formats for questions are listed here, and you may find any of the following
types of questions on your Network+ certification exam.
We are all familiar with True/False questions, but because of the inherent 50 percent
chance of choosing the correct answer, you will most likely not see true/false
questions on your Network+ certification exam.
The majority of Network+ certification questions are in the multiple-choice format,
with either a single correct answer or multiple correct answers that need to be
selected. One interesting variation on multiple-choice questions with multiple
correct answers is whether or not the candidate is told how many answers are
correct—you might be told to select all that apply.
One or more graphical elements are sometimes used as exhibits to help present or
clarify an exam question. These elements may take the form of a network diagram
or pictures of networking components on which you are being tested. It is often
easier to present the concepts required for a complex performance-based scenario
with a graphic than it is with words. Expect to see some graphical questions on your
Test questions known as hotspots actually incorporate graphics as part of the
answer. These questions ask the certification candidate to click a location or
graphical element to answer the question. As an example, you might be shown the
diagram of a network and asked to click an appropriate location for a router. The
answer is correct if the candidate clicks within the hotspot that defines the correct
location. The Network+ exam has a few of these graphical hotspot questions, and
most are asking you to identify network types, such as a bus or star network. As with
the graphical questions, expect only a couple of hotspot questions during your exam.
Free response Questions
Another kind of question you sometimes see on certification examinations requires
a free response or type-in answer. This type of question might present a TCP/IP
network scenario and ask the candidate to calculate and enter the correct subnet
mask in dotted decimal notation. However, the CompTIA Network+ exam most
likely will not contain any free response questions.
xxvi Network+ Certification Study Guide
Knowledge-based and Performance-based Questions
CompTIA Certification develops a blueprint for each certification examination
with input from subject matter experts. This blueprint defines the content areas and
objectives for each test, and each test question is created to test a specific objective.
The basic information from the examination blueprint can be found on CompTIA’s
Web site at http://certification.comptia.org/network/default.aspx.
Psychometricians (psychologists who specialize in designing and analyzing tests)
categorize test questions as knowledge-based or performance-based. As the names
imply, knowledge-based questions are designed to test knowledge, and performance-
based questions are designed to test performance.
Some objectives demand a knowledge-based question. For example, objectives
that use verbs such as list and identify tend to test only what you know, not what
you can do. For example:
Objective: Explain the following Transport Layer concepts.
Knowledge-based question: Which two protocols are connectionless-oriented network
protocols? (Choose two.)
C and D are correct.
The Network+ exam consists of mostly knowledge-based multiple-choice
questions that can be answered fairly quickly if you know your stuff. These questions
are very straightforward, lacking a complex situation to confuse you.
Other objectives use action verbs such as install, configure, and troubleshoot
to define job tasks. These objectives can often be tested with either a knowledge-
based question or a performance-based question. CompTIA are focusing their exam
questions to performance-based questions where you will need to know how to
perform a task instead of just the theory behind it. For example:
Performance-based question: You want to ensure you have a reliable tape backup
scheme that is not susceptible to fire and water hazards. You are backing up three
Windows servers and would like to completely back up the entire systems. Which of
the following is the most reliable backup method?
A. Configure the backup program to back up the user files and operating system
files; complete a test restore of the backup; and store the backup tapes offsite in a
B. Configure the backup program to back up the entire hard drive of each server
and store the backup tapes offsite in a fireproof vault.
C. Copy the user files to another server; configure the backup program to back up
the operating system files; and store the backup tapes offsite in a fireproof vault.
D. Configure the backup program to back up the user files and operating system files
and store the backup tapes offsite in fireproof vault.
A is correct.
Even in this simple example, the superiority of the performance-based question
is obvious. Whereas the knowledge-based question asks for a single fact, the
performance-based question presents a real-life situation and requires that you make
a decision based on this scenario. Thus, performance-based questions give more bang
(validity) for the test author’s buck (individual question).
testing Job Performance
We have said that CompTIA certification focuses on timeliness and the ability
to perform job tasks. We have also introduced the concept of performance-based
questions, but even performance-based multiple-choice questions do not really
measure performance. Another strategy is needed to test job skills.
Given unlimited resources, it is not difficult to test job skills. In an ideal
world, CompTIA would fly Network+ candidates to a test facility; place them in
a controlled environment with a team of experts; and ask them to plan, install,
maintain, and troubleshoot a network. In a few days at most, the experts could
reach a valid decision as to whether each candidate should or should not be granted
Network+ status. Needless to say, this is not likely to happen.
Closer to reality, another way to test performance is to use the actual software
and create a testing program to present tasks and automatically grade a candidate’s
performance when the tasks are completed. This cooperative approach would be
practical in some testing situations, but the same test that is presented to Network+
candidates in Boston must also be available in Bahrain and Botswana. Many testing
locations around the world cannot run 32-bit applications, much less provide the
complex networked solutions required by cooperative testing applications.
The most workable solution for measuring performance in today’s testing
environment is a simulation program. When the program is launched during a test, the
xxviii Network+ Certification Study Guide
candidate sees a simulation of the actual software that looks and behaves just like the
real thing. When the testing software presents a task, the simulation program is launched
and the candidate performs the required task. The testing software then grades the
candidate’s performance on the required task and moves to the next question.
Simulation questions provide many advantages over other testing methodologies,
and simulations are expected to become increasingly important in the computer
certification programs. For example, studies have shown that there is a very high