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Summarizing & Notetaking
 

Summarizing & Notetaking

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    Summarizing & Notetaking Summarizing & Notetaking Presentation Transcript

    • “ Practical Applications of Research-based Instructional Strategies: Summarizing & Note Taking ” WELCOME! Please sit five to a table. We’ll begin at 9:00. It’s good to be here!
    • Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • “ So many of our dreams at first seem impossible, then they seem improbable, and then, when we summon the will, they soon become inevitable.” Christopher Reeve
      • To take a closer look at the category of “Summarizing and Note Taking”, reflected in Classroom Instruction that Works by Dr. Robert Marzano, et. al., as found in the MCREL report (Marzano, 1998);
      • To be able to identify and explain instructional strategies that increase student achievement in this category;
      • To practice several activities from the designated categories in a variety of content areas; and
      • To reflect on ways to adapt given strategies for the appropriate content in specific classrooms.
      Goals for This Session:
    • Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • Normal Distribution Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • Instructional Strategy (Summarizing & Note Taking) Effect Size of 1.00 Standard Deviations Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
      • Activate prior knowledge!
      • *Good readers always check with their brain before reading! They ask, “Hey brain, what do I already know about this?”
      • Use context clues!
        • *Good readers sound out words, break words apart, or use context clues when they come to a word they don’t know!
      • Make inferences
      • *Good readers predict, draw conclusions, and make judgments before they read, while they read, and after they read!
      • Ask questions!
      • *Good readers STOP and ASK QUESTIONS about what they’re reading!
      What G o o d Readers Do!
      • Retell or summarize!
        • *Good readers stick to the important details as
        • they retell or summarize the story to themselves or
        • somebody else.
      • Create images!
      • *Good readers make pictures in their heads!
      • Determine the most important idea!
      • *Good readers know what is worth remembering!
      • Self-monitor, self-check, and use fix-up strategies!
      • *Good readers know when they don’t understand what
      • they’re reading! They don’t just keep reading! They try
      • to ‘fix’ the problem!
      And more . . .
    • Three Levels of Learning
      • Concrete Experience
          • Without the concrete experience, the representation or symbol may have little or no meaning no matter how much someone explains it to you.
          • This level of learning is often the most memorable for students.
      • Representational or Symbolic Learning
          • Picture of concrete experiences are helpful BUT can not substitute for the impact of concrete experience.
      • Abstract Learning
          • This level of learning represents the use of words and numbers (democracy or culture). This learning depends on the ability of the teacher to provide sufficient examples that relate to the students’ experiences.
    • Before we summarize and take notes, we need to identify the “ essential vocabulary ”- and let students in on the secret . Why?
    • One way of getting at “essential vocabulary” is through WORD SORTS.
      • Use the DOE Curriculum Frameworks and determine the “essential vocabulary”.
      • Make one set of cards with these words.
      • Make another set of cards (different color) with the appropriate definitions.
      • Make a third set of cards with a ‘non-linguistic representation” of the word.
      • Devise a number of ways use the vocabulary in word sorts or vocabulary games. Each activity should conclude with a writing component.
      nocturnal orb web wetland capacity How could you use this in your classes?
    • Standard LS.9 The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community. Key concepts include the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs; the relationship between predators and prey; competition and cooperation; symbiotic relationships; and niches. Understanding the Standard Life Science standard LS.9 applies the concept of interactions between populations of different species. This standard extends the concepts of prior K–6 standards, including those concerning producers, consumers, and decomposers (3.5); predator and prey (3.6); and niches (4.5). This standard introduces the concept of symbiosis and focuses on the symbiotic relationship between parasite and host. It is intended that students will actively develop scientific investigation, reasoning, and logic skills (LS.1) in the context of the key concepts presented in this standard. Let's practice . . . LIFE SCIENCE .
    • The concepts developed in this standard include the following: *In a community, populations interact with other populations by exhibiting a variety of behaviors that aid in the survival of the population. *Organisms or populations that rely on each other for basic needs form interdependent communities. *Energy resources of a community are shared through the interactions of producers, consumers, and decomposers. *The interaction between a consumer that hunts for another consumer for food is the predator-prey relationship. *Populations of one species may compete with populations of other species for resources. Populations of one species may also cooperate with populations of other species for resources. *A symbiotic relationship may exist between two or more organisms of different species when they live and work together. *Symbiotic relationships include mutualism (in which both organisms benefit), commensalism (in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected), and parasitism (in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed). *Each organism fills a specific role or niche in its community
    • In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to: *identify the populations of producers, consumers, and decomposers and describe the roles they play in their communities. *interpret, analyze, and evaluate data from systematic studies and experiments concerning the interactions of populations in an ecosystem. *predict the effect of population changes on the food web of a community. *generate predictions based on graphically represented data of predator-prey populations. *generate predictions based on graphically represented data of competition and cooperation between populations. *differentiate between the types of symbiosis and explain examples of each. *infer the niche of organisms from their physical characteristics. *design an investigation from a testable question related to interactions among populations. The investigation may be a complete experimental design or may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data collection and analysis.
    • Standard LS.9 The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community . Key concepts include the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs; the relationship between predators and prey ; competition and cooperation ; symbiotic relationships; and niches . Understanding the Standard Life Science standard LS.9 applies the concept of interactions between populations of different species . This standard extends the concepts of prior K–6 standards, including those concerning producers , consumers , and decomposers (3.5); predator and prey (3.6); and niches (4.5). This standard introduces the concept of symbiosis and focuses on the symbiotic relationship between parasite and host . It is intended that students will actively develop scientific investigation, reasoning, and logic skills (LS.1) in the context of the key concepts presented in this standard. Your words?
    • The concepts developed in this standard include the following: *In a community , populations interact with other populations by exhibiting a variety of behaviors that aid in the survival of the population. * Organisms or populations that rely on each other for basic needs form interdependent communities. * Energy resources of a community are shared through the interactions of producers, consumers, and decomposers. *The interaction between a consumer that hunts for another consumer for food is the predator-prey relationship. * Populations of one species may compete with populations of other species for resources. Populations of one species may also cooperate with populations of other species for resources. *A symbiotic relationship may exist between two or more organisms of different species when they live and work together. *Symbiotic relationships include mutualism (in which both organisms benefit), commensalism (in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected), and parasitism (in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed). *Each organism fills a specific role or niche in its community
    • In order to meet this standard, it is expected that students should be able to: * identify the populations of producers, consumers, and decomposers and describe the roles they play in their communities. * interpret , analyze , and evaluate data from systematic studies and experiments concerning the interactions of populations in an ecosystem . * predict the effect of population changes on the food web of a community. * generate predictions based on graphically represented data of predator-prey populations. * generate predictions based on graphically represented data of competition and cooperation between populations. * differentiate between the types of symbiosis and explain examples of each. * infer the niche of organisms from their physical characteristics. * design an investigation from a testable question related to interactions among populations. The investigation may be a complete experimental design or may focus on systematic observation, description, measurement, and/or data collection and analysis.
    • Give One … Get One …
      • On the back of your handout, select one or two words from the essential knowledge from the Life Science curriculum framework. Write a complete sentence that tells how that word/s is/are like being a teacher/administrator in Virginia. Think and be creative.
      • When signaled, circulate the room and find other colleagues who selected the same word. Share your sentences.
      • The group should select the best sentence and someone to share it with the group. After you’ve done this, return to your seat.
      Enjoy!
    • Word sorts are small group, categorizing and classifying activities. Word sorts help students activate and use their knowledge as well as providing them an opportunity to learn from and with each other . Words and phrases from materials that students will read (or have read) may be selected for use with word sorts. Twelve to twenty words or phrases should be selected; only a few words or phrases that are unfamiliar to students should be included. After words/phrases are selected, multiple copies of the complete set ( one for each student/small group ) should be made. Each set is then cut apart, resulting in a cut-up set of words/phrases for each group. Storing these in envelopes works well. Basic Word Sorts Similarities and Differences: Comparing, Classifying, Metaphors and Analogies 45 %
      • #1 Open Word Sort:
      • An open word sort is a divergent thinking activity. There is no “right” way to sort words in an open word sort; instead, the focus is on the process students undergo as they complete the activity and on their reasons for creating groups of words.
      • Students work in pairs or triads.
      • Directions for an open word sort are as follows: “Working together, decide how to group
      • these words/ phrases. You can’t put all of them in one group, nor can you have a ‘group’
      • for each slip of paper. Other than that, it’s up to you. Be ready to explain your decisions
      • to the rest of us.”
      • Give students 5 to 8 minutes to complete their groupings. Then ask volunteers to explain
      • their groupings and the reasons for them. If the open word sort is a pre-reading activity,
      • you might conclude by asking students what they expect to be reading about and why.
      • #2 Closed Word Sort:
      • In a closed word sort , the teacher provides categories for students. Other than this, the activity is completed as above. Although closed word sorts tend to yield more convergent responses from groups, the goal is not to produce “correct” responses. Rather, the focus is again on students’ thinking processes and on their reasoning.
      • Source: Nancy Padak, Kent State University
      Types of "Word Sorts" Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • #1 Alphabetization Students shuffle and arrange cards alphabetically. #2 Spelling of Prefixes, Suffixes, or Roots Students categorize words by how their prefixes, suffixes, or roots are spelled. ad-, ac-, al-, ap-, ar-, at- -able, -ible scrib, scrip, script Students can cut or fold word cards to separate a prefix and/or suffix a base word or root. #3 Beginning/Ending Consonants, Number of Syllables, Etc. Students can classify words according to beginning/ending consonants, blends, or diagraphs. They can also sort according to number of syllables and or vowel sounds heard in words. Sample "Word Sort" Activities bi month ly re sign ation
    • #4 Word Histories Students might sort words based on their origin: Algonquian Dutch Eskimo French Spanish squash easel igloo reservoir sombrero #5 Oral Practice Students, working in pairs, can practice pronunciation and spelling by asking each other to spell the word on their card. This activity might be especially effective when students are studying words from other languages (enchilada, bouquet, moccasin). #6 Interactive Games Students choose a word card and act out or draw clues about the word for others to guess. A point is given to the student who both guesses and spells the word correctly. For vocabulary enrichment, students can read aloud the dictionary definition or the thesaurus subentries for a basic list word while other students guess and spell the basic word. #7 Word Building Have students use their understanding of word formation and word families to build new spelling words with the cards provided for prefixes, suffixes, and roots or with cards they make for other familiar word parts. As a self-check, ask students to look up each word they make in a dictionary.
    • #8 Parts of Speech Students could sort words and word parts into columns according to the parts of speech. They can also see what words are formed when a suffix is added. Students can also see spelling-meaning links by tracking the base word or root across each row. Base Word/Root Noun Adjective Verb Legal Legalize Fract Fracture Flex Flexible Flexing Eleg Elegance Elegant Vari Variable Various Varying
    • If we don't use research based strategies and the student keeps failing... . . . who's the slow learner ?
    • let's get to "Summarizing and Notetaking". We've got the content, so... Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
      • SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING
      • Summarizing and note-taking both require students to process and “distill” information.
      • In order for students to summarize the most important points in a selection, they must be able to analyze information in depth.
      • Students must be able to mentally sift through, reorder and synthesize information.
      Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • Summarizing and Note Taking
      • “ Power Outlining”
      • One Sentence Summaries
      • Informal Outlines
      • Flow Charts
      • Summary Frames
      • 6. Webbing
      • Descriptive Pattern
      • Organizers
      • 8. Concept Pattern Organizer
      • 9. Pictures & Pictographs
      • 10. Combination Notes
      Let's practice a few.
    • #1 Power Outlining
    • FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY 1: Location 2: Absolute 3: latitude and longitude coordinates 3: street address 2: Relative 3: in the Atlantic Ocean 3: west of Madagascar 3: 30 miles south of Albany 1: Place 2: Human Characteristics 3: houses 3: wheat fields 3: cities 2: Physical Characteristics 3: mountains 3: rivers 3: deserts S A M P L E
    • #2 Let's try SOCCER!
    •  
    •  
    • Expansion Words $0.01 Words (Worn Out Words) $.25 Words (Cool Words) $1.00 Words (WOW Words) Said Big Sad Good
    • Expansion Words $0.01 Words (Worn Out Words) $.25 Words (Cool Words) $1.00 Words (WOW Words) Said
      • answered
      • yelled
      • called
      • told
      • demanded
      • articulated
      • chuckled
      • whispered
      • responded
      Big
      • large
      • fat
      • huge
      • bulky
      • enormous
      • gigantic
      • mammoth
      • ponderous
      Sad
      • unhappy
      • low
      • down
      • dejected
      • mournful
      • lugubrious
      • forlorn
      • sorrowful
      Good
      • nice
      • competent
      • rad
      • tip-top
      • unblemished
      • philanthropic
      • inculpable
      • irreprehensible
    • #3 Informal Outlining
      • The informal outline uses indentation to indicate major ideas and their related details.
      • Students simply indent ideas that are more subordinate.
      • FLOWCHARTS are diagrams that represent a sequence of events, actions, plans, or decisions. They are supported by research that confirms they make a difference and can be used in a variety of ways in the core content subjects. Some suggestions include the following.
      • Structuring events in story plots, historical events, or laboratory instructions
      • Writing and following instructions
      • Depicting cycles in nature and cultures
      • Developing a course of action
      • Solving content-related (mathematics and science) and personal problems
      • Focusing on consequences of decisions
      • FLOWCHARTS can be completed on paper, or formulated using sets of symbols and cards for steps or decisions in a lesson.
      • They also can be helpful in support of the categories depicted in Classroom Instruction that Works (Marzano, et. al., 2001).
      • Summarizing and Note Taking
      • Generating and Testing Hypotheses
      • Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
      #4 Flowcharts
    • Add 6 inches to 1 foot and 9 inches. In Math… !
    • #5 SUMMARY FRAMES: A Way to Summarize and Take Notes Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING
      • SUMMARY FRAMES
      • Narrative or Story Pattern
      • T-R-I Pattern
      • Definition Pattern
      • Argumentation Pattern
      • Problem-Solving Pattern
      • Conversation Pattern
      • **A summary frame is a series of questions that a teacher gives to students. Because these questions are designed to highlight the critical information, they can help students develop accurate, written summaries of information.
      What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING SUMMARY FRAMES NARRATIVE OR STORY PATTERN Used commonly with fiction, it has seven elements. Of the following elements, 3-7 are sometimes repeated to create an “episode”. Setting (time, place, and context in which story took place) Characters (main characters) Initiating event (event that starts the beginning action) Internal response (how main characters react to the initiating event) Goal (what the main characters decide to do as a reaction to the initiating event) Consequence (how the main characters try to accomplish the goal Resolution (how the story ends or turns out) What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING
      • SUMMARY FRAMES
      • T-R-I PATTERN
      • Topic (a statement about what information will be discussed)
      • Restriction (a statement that limits the information in some way)
      • Illustration (a statement the gives an example of the restriction or topic)
      What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING
      • SUMMARY FRAMES
      • DEFINITION PATTERN (text that describes a particular concept and identified subordinate concepts)
      • Term - subject to be defined
      • Set-t he general category to which the term belongs
      • Gross Characteristics - those characteristics that separate the term from other elements in the set
      • Minute Differences - the different classes of objects that fall directly beneath the term
      What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING SUMMARY FRAMES
      • ARGUMENTATION PATTERN (text that attempts to support a claim)
      • Evidence -information that leads to a claim
      • Claim -the assertion that something is true
      • Support -examples of or explanations for the claim
      • Qualifier -a restriction on the claim or evidence counter to the claim
      What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING
      • SUMMARY FRAMES
      • PROBLEM / SOLUTION PATTERN (text that introduces a problem and then identifies one or more solutions to the problem)
      • Problem -a statement of something that has happened or might happen that is problematic
      • Solution -a statement of a possible solution to the problem
      • Solution - another possible solution
      • Solution - another possible solution
      What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) SUMMARIZING & NOTE-TAKING
      • SUMMARY FRAMES
      • CONVERSATION PATTERN (verbal interchange between two or more people)
      • Greeting- Some acknowledgement that the parties have not seen each other for a while
      • Inquiry -A question about some general or specific topic
      • Discussion -An elaboration or analysis of the topic Assertions Threats Requests Congratulations Promises Demands
      • Conclusion
      Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
    • SUMMARY FRAMES CONVERSATION NARRATIVE T-R-I DEFINITION ARGUMENTATION PROBLEM/SOLUTION How did the participants in the conversation greet one another? When and where did the story take place? What was the place like? Topic (T) What is the story about in general? What is being defined? What information is presented that leads to a claim? What is the problem? What question or topic was brought up or referred to? Who are the main characters in the story? Restriction ( R) What information does the author give that narrows or restricts the general topic? To what general category of things does the item belong? What claim does the author make about a problem or situation? What does he or she assert is so? What is a possible solution? How did the discussion progress? What happens at the start of the story? Illustration (I ) What examples does the author present to illustrate the restriction? What characteristics separate the item from other things in the general category? What examples or explanations does the author present to support this claim? What is another possible solution? Did anyone state facts? How do the main characters react to what happens at the start of the story?   What are some types or classes of the thing being defined? What restrictions or explanations does the author present to support his or her claim? What is another possible solution? Did anyone make a request? What goals do the characters set?       What is another possible solution? Did anyone demand a specific action? What are the characters’ actions and how do they interact?       What is another possible solution? Did anyone threaten specific consequences if a demand was not met? How does the story turn out?         How did the other characters respond to the request, demand, or threat?           Did anyone say something that indicated that he or she valued something that someone else had done?          
    • #6 Webbing What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, Dean, 2000)
      • Webbing is a strategy that uses the relative size of circles to indicate the importance of ideas and lines to indicate relationships.
      • More important ideas are are in larger circles than less important ideas.
      • Lines from one circle to another indicate that the concepts in the connected circles are related in some way.
      • This strategy provides students with a visual representation of the relationship between ideas or elements.
      • One disadvantage is that it somewhat limits the amount of information a student can record.
    • #7 Descriptive Pattern Organizers
      • Used for information related to vocabulary terms or for facts about specific persons, places, things, and events
      • The information does not need to be in any particular order
      Equilateral Triangle Three equal sides A perpendicular line from any vertex to the opposite side (altitude) bisects the side. Three lines of symmetry Three angles each measure 60 degrees
    •  
    • #8 Concept Pattern Organizers
      • Organize information around a word or phrase that represents entire classes or categories of persons, places, things, and events.
      • Characteristics or attributes should be listed along with each example.
    •  
    • #9 Pictures and Pictographs Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria Antibiotics Bacteria Cold Spring, NY cytogeneticist Corn plants Nobel Peace Prize 1983 Dr. Barbara McClintock
    • #10 COMBINATION NOTES
      • This strategy uses both the informal outline and pictures or graphics representations.
      • Usually each page of notes is divided into two sections by a line running down the middle of the page.
      • The left hand side is used for notes using some variation of informal outlining.
      • The right side is used for graphic representations.
      • Finally a strip across the bottom is reserved for summary statements.
    • COMBINATION NOTES The Circulatory System P1 One of the transport system s of the body P2 3 functions: P3 carries food and oxygen to cells P3 carries away wastes from cells P3 protects the body from disease P2 3 parts: P3 heart P3 blood vessels P3 blood P1 One of the parts of the circulatory system is blood P2 4 parts: P3 plasma P3 red blood cells P3 white blood cells P3 platelets SUMMARY STATEMENTS:
    •  
    •  
    • The Main Thing …
      • There are six principles that drive the use of determining “essential“ vocabulary and note taking :
      • Equity – involves high expectations and appropriate support for ALL students;
      • Curriculum – targets the Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Processes contained in the Curriculum Framework;
      • Teaching – requires understanding what students know and need to learn and then challenging and supporting them to learn it well;
      • Learning – grounded in actively building new knowledge from experience and prior knowledge;
      • Assessment – that supports the learning of important content and skills and furnishes useful information to both teachers and students; and
      • Professional Development – focused on results ongoing longitudinal data analysis of trends in student achievement and the mission and vision of the division.
    • Summarizing and Note Taking
      • “ Power Outlining”
      • One Sentence Summaries
      • Informal Outlines
      • Flow Charts
      • Summary Frames
      • 6. Webbing
      • Descriptive Pattern
      • Organizers
      • 8. Concept Pattern Organizer
      • 9. Pictures & Pictographs
      • 10. Combination Notes
      Let's practice a few.
    • Interactive Note Taking
    • The Case for Interactive Note Taking
      • Generalizations from the research:
        • Verbatim note-taking is, perhaps, the least effective technique.
        • As much as 27 minutes are lost
        • taking notes at the secondary level.
        • Notes should be considered a work in progress.
        • Notes should be used as a study guide for tests.
        • Focusing on the “essential knowledge” helps eliminate extraneous information.
    • Setting the Stage for Interactive Note Taking
      • All major learning theories agree – for learners to internalize ideas, they must act upon them. Learners must do something with information: connect it, draw it, weigh it, manipulate it – in order to make sense of it.
      • There are many writing and drawing activities that can help students to engage and explore subject matter in just that way.
      • Writing and drawing during Interactive Note Taking is different from genre writing and formal art assignments in several important ways.
    • Reading Strategies
      • Box in and read the title.
      • Trace and number the paragraphs.
      • Stop and think at the end of each paragraph to identify a key point.
      • Circle the key word or write the key point in the margin.
      • Read the questions.
      • Prove your answer. Locate the paragraph where the answer is found.
      • Mark or write your answer.
      S T P#
    • Table of Content Samples
    •  
    •  
    • SPLENDORS OF ANCIENT EGYPT William H. Peck THE PEOPLE The Egyptians left one of the most complete and detailed records of daily activities, through objects preserved in graves and tombs, of any people in the ancient world. As early as the Predynastic Period, cookware, utensils, cosmetic items, and jewelry were placed in graves for the use of the deceased in the afterlife. Small sculptures, pottery decoration, and tomb paintings and reliefs depicted many of the routine tasks undertaken by the men and women of Egypt. Throughout its history, Egyptian society was carefully structured in a manner not unlike a pyramid. There was a large peasant or working class that formed the basis upon which society rested; there was a smaller elite ruling class, which controlled the government and the military; and the king and the royal family were at the apex or top of the pyramid. Simple laborers toiled in the field, in the mines, or on construction projects and produced all manner of foodstuffs and goods. Women’s lives essentially centered around the home and family, but some women had their own businesses and were able to help support their dependents. People lived in simple houses of two or three rooms made of unbaked mud brick, an abundant material derived from the soil of the Nile River bottom that was the basis of domestic architecture for all classes. During the Old Kingdom, the mastaba tombs (so-called from the Arabic word for “bench”) imitated in stone the shapes of these mud-brick dwellings. The working classes were usually depicted dressed in simply designed garments, typically kilts or loincloths for the man and undecorated shifts for the women. Linen, made from the flax plant, provided the main material for clothing; cotton was not introduced into Egypt until late in its history. The diet was simple, but, as indicated by food offerings left in tombs as well as depictions of such offerings, it included a variety of vegetables, fruits, meats, and fowl. If the inscriptions in tombs are accurate, the Egyptians consumed great quantities of bread and beer as well. Pottery was an important material in the home; storage containers, cooking utensils, serving dishes, and almost all other objects connected with food preparation and consumption were made of fired and unglazed clay.
    • Interactive Note Taking 4 3 2 1 Organization Learning Activities Relates Graphics To Texts Writing To Learn Overall Appearance
    • Standards Verbs
      • PROBLEM SOLVING
      • Analyze Derive Discover Evaluate Explore
      • Predict Solve Survey Verify Investigate
      • REASONING
      • Categorize Classify Compare Contrast Differentiate
      • Describe Estimate Explain Generalize Interpret
      • Justify Order Hypothesize Predict Infer
      • Prioritize Rank Validate Summarize
      • COMMUNICATION
      • Clarify Correspond Describe Discuss Demonstrate
      • Exhibit Explain Express Persuade Portray
      • Restate Show Speak State Write
    • Sample
    •  
    • So, where is our next target?
    • Summarizing can be considered to be “RULE-BASED” . What Works in Classroom Instruction (Marzano, Gaddy, & Dean, 2000) Let's remember...
    • Students need consistency in format and process.
      • How do we accomplish that?
      • After carefully looking at data and reviewing options, Cumberland County has selected
      The Cornell Note Taking System.
    • “ The Cornell Method of Note Taking was developed by Dr. Walter Pauk.
      • Director of the Reading and Study Center at Cornell University
      • Author of Numerous “Self Help” Texts and Articles
        • “ Essential Skills”, vol. 1-8
        • “ Essential Study Strategies
        • “ Study Skills for College Athletes”
        • “ Efficient Reading”
        • “ How to Study in College”
        • “ Conclusions”, vol. 1-11
    • 1. Record: During the lecture, use the main column to record as many meaningful facts and ideas as you can. Write legibly. 2. Questions : As soon after class as possible, formulate questions based on the notes in the right-hand column. Writing questions helps to relationships, establish continuity, and strengthen memory. Also, the writing of questions sets up a perfect stage for exam studying later. 3. Recite : Cover the note taking column with a sheet of paper. Then, looking at the questions or cue-words in the recall column only, say aloud, in your own words, the answers to the questions, facts, or ideas indicated by the cue-words. Then, uncovering your notes, verify what you have said. This procedure helps to transfer the facts and ideas into your long term memory. 4. Reflect : Reflect on the material by asking yourself questions, for example: “ What’s the significance of these facts? What principle are they based on? How can I apply them? How do they fit in with what I already know? What’s beyond them? Unless ideas are placed in categories, unless they are taken up from time to time for re-examination, they will become inert and soon forgotten. 5. Review : Spend at least ten minutes every week reviewing all your previous notes. If you do, you’ll retain a great deal for current use, as well as for the exam. Dr. Pauk identifies five essential elements to note taking.
    • Step #1 Step #2 Step #3 Dr Pauk says, “One minute spent in immediate recall nearly doubles retention of that piece of data.” Divide your paper with a vertical line from top to bottom. You’ll need about 2 ½ in. on the left; 6 in. on the right; about 3 in. on the bottom. Write your name, course, and date at the top of each page. Record your information as fully and as meaningfully as possible in the right hand column. Skip one line between ideas and several lines between topics. After distilling all of your notes, write a summary at the bottom of the page; mention all key points. Use both columns of your notes and your summary to study for tests. As soon as possible, review and reorganize your notes; formulate questions and write them in the left hand column. Step #3
    • You can use your preferred style of note taking in the main area.
    • Let's Try Our Hand! Key Points Or ? Course/Name/Date Notes Summary
    • The list of strategies is not new. But what is surprising is finding out what a big difference it makes when students learn how to take notes, work in groups, use graphic organizers, etc. The provision of statistical effect sizes and percentile gains for students provides a research base from which these conclusions must be reached. Robert J. Marzano From the author……
    • How do we follow up and coach each other?
      • By referring to and using your own copy of What Works in
      • Classroom Instruction and the Handbook.
      • By considering the impact of the categories on your own
      • curriculum and pacing guides.
      • By focusing on one strategy at a time.
      • By planning and implementing a strategy and
      • collaborating with others in a grade group or faculty
      • meeting.
      • By cataloging and/or filing activities that
      • support the research based categories for future use
      • IT’S UP TO YOU!
    • It’s Up to Us!
      • There are three types of
      • (instructional leaders),
      • those who make it happen,
      • those who watch it happen,
      • and those who
      • wonder what happened.
      • Tommy Lasorda
    • Resources
      • Marzano, Gaddy, and Dean. What Works
      • in Classroom Instruction .
      • Robert J. Marzano, et. al., A Handbook for
      • Classroom Instruction that Works .
      • Daggett, Dr. William. Instructional Strategies: How to Teach for Rigor and Relevance. International Center for Leadership in Education, Inc.
      • A Study of Effective Practices in Virginia’s Schools. www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/accountability/effectivepractice.ppt
      • Mulligan, Dr. Daniel, Director of Instructional Accountability, Hampton City Schools
      • Jones, Dr. Ray. Reading Quest.org-Making Sense in Social Studies.
      • www.curry.edschool.virginia.edu/go/readquest/strat
      • Thanks for your professionalism,
      • attention, and attendance.
      • Good luck!
      • [email_address]
      • 434-645-7144