The federal governments rebuilding efforts of the south after the Civil War to repair damages and restore southern state to the Union.
Why Reconstruct the South?
The war destroyed 2/3 of all shipping and 9000 miles of Railroads in the south.
The infrastructure of the south was destroyed, Roads, factories, bridges, levees.
The South lost one out of five adult white men in the conflict
If the Confederacy lost the war, Why is the federal Government willing to pay for reconstruction?
Plans for Reconstruction
The 10 Percent plan
Pardons to all confederate officers who took an oath of allegiance
Permitted states to hold constitutional conventions after 10 percent of voter swore allegiance to the Union
Lincoln’s plan was seen as too lenient and did not include voting rights for blacks.
pardoned all who swore allegiance to Union
Allowed each state to hold constitutional convention
Each state was required to void secession, abolish slavery, ratify the thirteenth Amendment
Johnson plan was similar to Lincoln but it was more generous
Established to help Black southerner adjust to freedom.
Created by congress in March of 1865
Dismantled in 1869
What was the main role of this bureau?
main role was providing emergency food, housing and medical aid to refugees
250,000 freed children enrolled in schools
Also know as Radical reconstruction
-Put the south under military rule, divided in five districts
Ordered new elections and constitutions
Required that qualified men be allow to Vote
Did not allow supporters of confederacy the right to vote
Equal Rights to all citizens
Must Ratify 14 th amendment
Civil Rights Act 1866
The Civil Rights Act Of 1866 is a piece of United States legislation that gave further rights to the freed slaves after the end of the American Civil War.
This law was a counter attack to the black codes passed at this time.
Veto the Act
President Johnson vetoed the Civil right bill, but had little power and the veto was over ridded by congress
And then congress kept pushing until the
14 th Amendment
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
What does it mean?
All persons born in the U.S. are citizens of the U.S.
What is the status of
a Immigrant who has a baby in the U.S. ?
A enemy combatant who has a child on a U.S. base ?
U.S. is not responsible for any debt incurred during the war, namely the cost of Slaves.
15 th amendment
No citizen can be denied the right to vote based on race, color and previous servitude
Who is excluded?
What are the implications of the 15 th ?
Whites were mad and didn’t vote, Blacks voted in mass.
600 black member of congress were elected.
The Republican South
Carpetbaggers: Northern Republicans who moved south
Viewed as profiteers
Scalawags : white southerners who were republicans.
In reality all types of people went to the south
Impeachment ! !
Congress is mostly Republican and influenced by radical republicans
Andrew Johnson is a Democrat
They are not best of friends
But not out
Johnson fired a cabinet member of Lincoln this caused the impeachment
On May 16, 1886 congress voted to remove Johnson but were one vote short.
This vote showed how much power congress had and many, backed down and did not vote to remove Johnson
Impeachment is only for serious crime not disagreements
Election of 1868 VS Hiram Ulysses Grant Horatio Seymour
Election of 1872
Effects of Reconstruction
Grant as leader of Radical Republicans is re-elected.
Civil rights act of 1866
14 th and 15 th Amendments to the Constitution
End of Reconstruction
Lifestyle of Freedmen
Most if not all of the freed slaves were poor and were forced to become sharecroppers .
Organization such as the Ku Klux Klan
The problem: whites could not farm the huge plantations of the south.
Blacks could not afford to move from their slave homes, on the plantation.
The Solution: Whites would allow blacks to farm on their land, in return for labor in his cotton fields. Then he would deduct, food clothing and housing from the black families.
Sharecropping in the South
Were designed to limit the opportunities of blacks
Passed in the South during Reconstruction.
The Black Codes placed taxes on free blacks who tried to pursue nonagricultural professions.
restricted the abilities of blacks to rent land or own guns, and even allowed the children of "unfit" parents to be apprenticed to the old slave masters
The Ku Klux Klan
. Founded in 1866 by veterans of the Confederate Army,
main purpose: to resist reconstruction, and it focused as much on intimidating "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags" as on putting down the freed slaves
Black State Legislators in South, 1868-1900 Why the decline?
Enforcement Acts 1870 and 1871
•1870 Act: Ku Klux Klan Act
•1871 Act: strengthen federal enforcement of election law in large cities
End of Reconstruction, 1876-77
•By 1876, public support for racial equality wanes.
•Election of 1876
•Compromise of 1877
•Courts and the Demise of Reconstruction
Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction
Election of 1876–Democrat
Sam Tilden wins popular vote, but not electoral college vote
–Vote disputed in OR, SC, FL, and LA
–Congressional Committee resolves dispute
•GOP Hayes given disputed Electoral College votes
•Hayes wins presidency and Pulls federal troops out of South
Courts and the Demise of Reconstruction
• Slaughter-House Cases (1873)
– State government tells butchers in New Orleans to move facilities outside of city limits
– Butchers order to move violates 13 th and 14 th Amendments (Slavery and citizenship)
– Court rules federal government was under no obligation to protect citizens from acts by state government.