Brain Computer Interface


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Brain Computer Interface

  1. 1. Brain Computer Interface<br />by- MANEESH RANJAN MCA 4th Sem. SJCE,MYSORE<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Introduction<br />Application<br />History<br />What is BCI<br />Structure and signals<br />Architecture/Logical structure<br />Brain waves<br />Functionality<br />Future Work<br />Conclusion<br />References<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />It is the study of brain functions<br />BCI are system that provide translation of the electrical activity of the human brain into command which can control device in real time.<br />An Electroencephalogram based Brain-Computer-Interface (BCI) provides a new communication channel between the human brain and a computer.<br />
  4. 4. Applications <br />Bioengineering applications: assist devices for disabled people.<br />Human subject monitoring: sleep disorders, neurological diseases, attention monitoring, and/or overall "mental state".<br />Neuroscience research: real-time methods for correlating observable behavior with recorded neural signals.<br />Man – Machine Interaction: Interface devices between human and computers, machines.<br />
  5. 5. History- Discovering the Basics<br />1924: Hans Berger discovers the EEG<br /> Analyses the interrelation of EEG and brain diseases.<br />1970: First developments to use brain waves as input<br />ARPA has vision of enhanced human<br /> First step in the right direction<br />
  6. 6. History-Monkey first<br />1990: First successful experiments with monkeys<br />Implanting electrode arrays into monkey brains<br />Recording of monkeys‘ brain waves<br />2000: Monkeys control robots by thoughts<br />
  7. 7. History - … Humans follow<br />More non-invasive than invasive approaches<br />Brain reading by eg. EEG, MEG or fMRI<br />2004: First human benefits from research<br />
  8. 8. KEY ISSUES IN BCI RESEARCH AND USERS<br />RESEARCH DISCIPLINES<br />Engineering<br />Clinical ...<br />Psychological<br />Neuroscience<br />
  9. 9. KEY ISSUES IN BCI RESEARCH AND USERS<br />Target users:<br /><ul><li>Researchers - clinical researchers, neuroscientists, signal processing experts, etc.
  10. 10. Technical operators - caregivers, therapists who are in charge of training someone on BCI operation.
  11. 11. End-users -people with disabilities who rely on the system for communication
  12. 12. Casual end-users -those who use a BCI as an alternative input for entertainment devices.</li></li></ul><li>What is BCI<br />Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) <br />Interaction between the human neural system and machines<br />Goal<br />Enabling people (especially disabled) to communicate and control devices by mere thinking.<br />BCI is a control system <br />
  13. 13. Structure of a BCI<br />
  14. 14. Structure of a BCI<br />1) Signal Acquisition: the EEG signals are obtained from the brain through invasive or non-invasive methods (for example, electrodes). After, the signal is amplified and sampled.<br />2) Signal Pre-Processing: once the signals are acquired, it is necessary to clean them.<br />3) Signal Classification: once the signals are cleaned, they will be processed and classified to find out which kind of mental task the subject is performing.<br />4) Computer Interaction: once the signals are classified, they will be used by an appropriate algorithm for the development of a certain application.<br />
  15. 15. Signal Processing<br />Feature Extraction<br />The Translation Algorithm <br />
  16. 16. Output Device<br />Any controllable machines<br />For answering yes/no questions<br />For word processing <br />Wheelchair<br />Virtual Reality<br />Usually, Computer screen and the output is the selection of targets or cursor movement<br />
  17. 17. Existing Solution<br /><ul><li>Successful Story, Wearable BCI
  18. 18. A successful transition of the whole BCI system to the portable device
  19. 19. No machine learning
  20. 20. Limited computational power (limited signal processing)
  21. 21. BCI2000
  22. 22. A general-purpose system for (BCI) research
  23. 23. Source Module (new device new driver)
  24. 24. Signal Processing Module (reusable, No Machine Learning)
  25. 25. User Application Module (UDP/IP support to be running in any machine)
  26. 26. Platform
  27. 27. Microsoft Windows™ 2000/XP
  28. 28. C++ language</li></li></ul><li>Wearable BCI<br />Mobility<br />Communication technologies<br />Bluetooth<br />802.11(wire less –WLAN)<br />GSM/GPRS<br />PDA instead of stationary computer<br />Dry Electrode instead of wet (reducing montage time)<br />Making the BCI transparent<br />No need to change electrodes for a reasonable long time<br />
  29. 29. Architecture<br />
  30. 30. Logical scheme of BCI<br />Increase of performance<br />appropriate feature extraction<br />Modification ofBrain Signals<br />Signal Features<br />computer training<br />user training<br />Psychological<br />Effort(Intention)<br />Classification<br />Of Intent<br />Environment<br />appropriate feedback strategy<br />
  31. 31. Characteristics of Brainwaves<br /><ul><li>Theta waves [4, 7.5] associated with reverie, daydreaming, meditation, creative ideas
  32. 32. Delta waves [0,4] Hz associated with deep sleep and in the awake state were thought to indicates physical defects in the brain.</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics of Brainwaves<br /><ul><li>Alpha wave(8-13hz)-its indicates both a relaxed and attention mode of the brain.
  33. 33. Beta wave(13-30 hz)-it is the brain wave usually associated with activity thinking, active attention.</li></li></ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAIN WAVES<br /><ul><li>Gamma waves-within 35Hz-it reflect the mechanism of consciousness.
  34. 34. Mu wave(8-12)hz –associated with Motor activity,</li></ul>Mu and alpha waves<br />
  35. 35. Functionality of BCI<br />Steps for the function of BCI.<br />1.user wired to a multi-electrode EEG skin cap, which is connected to a pc running BCI2000.<br />2.user of the signal asked to generate a series of signals.<br />3.EEG potential record and analyze the signal<br />4.the software attempt to match these signal to previous recorded signals.<br /> last identified words are wrapped on output devices like-screen or speech synthesizer.<br />
  36. 36. Risk factors and alternate solution<br /><ul><li>Undergone through hurdle brain surgery.
  37. 37. New surgery for each up gradation
  38. 38. Risky and complicated eyes surgery.
  39. 39. Use wearable computing devices.
  40. 40. External device is good option.
  41. 41. Glasses and Lasik operation is best options.</li></li></ul><li>Current Projects<br />Berlin Brain-Computer-Interface<br />Joint Venture of several German research organisations<br />Supported by the Ministry of Education and Research<br />Graz Brain-Computer-Interface<br />Wide range of research topics<br />Impressive combination of BCI and FES (Functional Electrical Stimulation)<br />
  42. 42. Future Work<br />Virtual Reality <br />Bluesense,Sniff mode<br />Bluesense, Security<br />
  43. 43. Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Distributed framework
  44. 44. Controlling the Breakout video game through brain signals
  45. 45. BluesenseAD  No ribbon cable
  46. 46. Acceptable delay, sampling frequency
  47. 47. Reliable
  48. 48. Robust
  49. 49. Game Server Application
  50. 50. TCP support
  51. 51. Simplicity
  52. 52. Video Game
  53. 53. Suitable for BCI experiment
  54. 54. Can be run on Java-enabled handsets</li></li></ul><li>REFERENCES<br /> <br />[1] IEEE Xplorer Digital Library website(Through SJCE Server) <br /><br /> <br />[2] Wikipedia - internet encyclopedia<br /><br />
  55. 55. Any Questions..…?<br />
  56. 56. Thank You……<br />