Activities Belvedere


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Activities Belvedere

  1. 1. Teaching and Research COMMON GROUND Programme and Agenda for the Belvedere Educational Network (2006–2009) Foreword 21 The Belvedere Educational Network 23 Teaching and Research Programme 24 theme 1 The ‘historic fabric’ 27 theme 2 The biography of the landscape 29 theme 3 Regional design in the 21st century 31 theme 4 Experience and history 33 theme 5 Design and history 35 past/planning/future theme 6 Belvedere and developmental planning 37 theme 7 REFRAME: spatial design equals value assessment 39 theme 8 REDESIGN: treatment of historical topography 41 theme 9 RESTYLE: designing with a historic repertoire 43
  2. 2. COMMON GROUND COMMON GROUND Agenda 2006–2009 The activity agenda has been compiled by placing the initiatives discussed in Core team of the Belvedere Educational Network general terms in the first part and the actions following from the teaching and research themes in a workable sequence. The agenda covers the period to Roel During September 2009, but the activities for the first two years are defined in more Wageningen University and Research Centre concrete terms. We propose to update the agenda in the autumn of 2007. Monique Eerden 2006 Belvedere Project Office • Development and implementation of an interdisciplinary course at masters level (done) Jan Kolen • Website for students with information about Belvedere studies (done) Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam • Start the development of a bachelors course to be given at universities of professional education (in preparation) Eric Luiten • Lectures by the Belvedere professors (in April, June and October) Delft University of Technology • Preparation of a symposium on immovable military heritage • Draw up an inventory of existing partnerships between universities, André van der Zande universities of professional education and academies, and encourage Wageningen University and Research Centre new collaborative arrangements based on available expertise, interest and complementarity. • Draw up a publication plan for study handbooks and professional literature • Launch a digital newsletter for and about the network june 2006 2007 • Extend the educational network across the universities, universities of professional education and academies of architecture • Develop ‘Belvedere tracks’ (e.g. specialisations) within ba and ma degree courses past/planning/future past/planning/future • Develop a masterclass at masters and postgraduate level for the further training of professionals • Make a start with the internationalisation of teaching activities • Initiate individual PhD tracks and research programmes (see actions in the Teaching and Research Programme) • Symposium in March 2007: immovable military heritage in teaching and research • Prepare a symposium on the significance and implications of the concept of ‘historic fabric’ • Series of debates on the theme ‘reflections on working practices’ 2008 • Extend the educational network through the development of international university partnerships • Summer school in 2008 on the future value and modification of world heritage in Europe in conjunction with the Triennial to be held in Apeldoorn • Symposium on the significance and implications of the concept of ‘historic fabric’ • Prepare a symposium on ‘Belvedere, the creative city and regional design’ • Publication of a guidebook to Belvedere-related courses 2009 • Symposium on ‘Belvedere, the creative city and regional design’ • Publication of a study handbook for Belvedere courses • Final publications
  3. 3. Interior townhall, Utrecht Photo: Duccio Malagamba Maaswerken, Elsloo Photo: Project office Maaswerken, Maastricht Peat reclamation landscape in Eemland Photo: Wim van der Ende Fort Steurgat, Werkendam Photo: Wim van der Ende Rietveld neighbourhood, Utrecht Photo: Joël van Houdt Officebuiding Unilever, Rotterdam Photo: Thea van den Heuvel ‘The Citadel’ Broekpolder Photo: Bas Beentjes Class, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Photo: avc/Sidney Vervuurt Student workshop, Wageningen Photo: Rita van Biesbergen
  4. 4. Foreword COMMON GROUND past/planning/future ‘During a course of study you can work on a change in mentality,’ claimed Jan Kolen, Belvedere professor at the Vrije universiteit Amsterdam, during the Teaching and Research Programme and Agenda for launch of the Belvedere Educational Network. Education and research do the Belvedere Educational Network (2006–2009) indeed present ideal opportunities for critical reflection on existing ways of thinking. But should central government play a role in this? Big Brother in the lecture room? Yes and No. The government can put subjects on the agenda and ask critical questions, but it should stay out of the lecture room. How these subjects are investigated and taught is a matter for the educational and research institutions themselves. This certainly applies to giving the Belvedere philosophy a firmer footing in teaching and research. Studies by COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE the Social and Cultural Planning Office and others have revealed a need to pay greater attention to the relation between cultural heritage and spatial planning and design. The choice of vision, disciplines and philosophy to underpin research into and teaching on this relation is up to the researchers, lecturers and students. The inauguration of the Belvedere chairs at three universities and within three different disciplines shows that this theme can be approached from many different angles: from the perspective of cultural heritage, architecture and landscape design, urban and rural planning, etc. I see the Belvedere Educational Network as an incentive to strengthen existing initiatives in the field, because luckily there are many such initiatives. Design and heritage professionals are already actively debating and discussing the cultural ambition within the remits of current planning and design tasks. The Action Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture also plays its part in strengthening the basis for this cultural ambition. Of paramount importance is getting the design disciplines involved at an early stage and giving cultural heritage a more prominent place in land-use and development plans. 21 The government will support the Belvedere Educational Network for a period of four years, at the end of which the crossover between the various disciplines involved should be firmly embedded within mainstream teaching and research programmes. The eventual goal is to improve the physical outcomes of planning and design. To do this we need graduates and professionals who are able to integrate cultural heritage into the planning and design process. But professionals do not want to constantly reinvent the wheel and are looking for a theoretical basis for the Belvedere approach. The Belvedere Educational Network can deliver both. I call upon students, researchers, teachers and those who make use of expert knowledge to actively participate in the network and help to bring about a rapid renewal of teaching, research and practice. State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science, Medy C. van der Laan The Hague, 28 June 2006
  5. 5. ‘As a student of landscape architecture I have The Belvedere Educational Network spent a lot of time thinking about which elements In September 2005 the Belvedere Project Office and three Dutch universities from the past are worth preserving, who decides (Vrije universiteit Amsterdam, Delft university of Technology and Wageningen university and Research Centre) set up a core team for the this and how to deal with cultural heritage. The Belvedere Educational Network for a period of four years, until September 2009. The team consists of Monique Eerden, Roel During, André van der interdisciplinary module ‘Belvedere: conservation Zande, Eric Luiten and Jan Kolen. The last three have been appointed by the above-mentioned universities as ‘Belvedere professors’ for a period of four through development in town and country’, years. The participating institutes are convinced that the education of young people and the further training of professionals present an ideal opportunity organised by the Vrije universiteit Amsterdam, to anchor the ‘Belvedere approach’1 ‘conservation through development’ – within our thinking on spatial planning and design in the Netherlands, and Delft university of Technology and Wageningen within professional practice in the design and historical disciplines. The COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE network focuses on higher education, in other words the bachelors and university, has not given me any cut-and-dried masters programmes run by the universities, universities of professional education and academies of architecture. answers to these questions. As a matter of fact, The core team has formulated three goals: during the course it actually became clear that 1 To permanently embed the Belvedere approach within higher education 2 To elaborate and strengthen the theoretical foundations of the Belvedere there are no standard solutions and that the policy 3 To make an innovative contribution to practice through teaching and Belvedere approach is still firmly in the research developmental phase. To be involved in this 1 The Belvedere strategy The objective of the The core team and the educational institutions presently affiliated to the Belvedere strategy is to network cannot and do not want to do this on their own. Our aim is add development as a student is particularly exciting promote a respectful approach to cultural and diversity, richness and depth to the courses on offer. The prime objective is historic values within to strengthen the existing complementarity between study programmes and and it motivates me to delve more deeply into the spatial planning and development. curricula. In addition, we aim to initiate both short- and long-running research This cannot be accom- activities to generate monodisciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and 22 theme of ‘conservation through development’. plished by simply preser- insights in the field of heritage studies and spatial development. Cooperation 23 ving what remains and preventing any changes between higher professional education (hbo) programmes, universities, or by burying the past, Yoran van Boheemen but rather by seeking academies of architecture and professional practice itself will therefore be (student, Wageningen University) effective ways to create necessary. win-win situations: using and designing buildings, structures and land- Over the next few years we want to develop a number of new and recognisable scapes in such a way that an object of cultural and/ educational formats and modules: or historic importance is • An interdisciplinary Belvedere module for masters students, to be given a place and contri- butes to the quality of its developed by the partner universities newly created surround- • A bachelors Belvedere course, for example as a subsidiary subject or minor, ings. According to the Belvedere approach, to be developed in collaboration with the universities of professional ‘cultural heritage has to education be regarded as being of vital importance to our • A Belvedere summer course or workshop, to be developed within the society and to each indivi- MArch, MLA and Murb curricula at the academies of architecture dual citizen’. The full text and a summary of the • English language versions of the above courses, with a view to the Belvedere Memorandum international exchange of students, experiences and ideas in English can be down- loaded from: • Specific ‘Belvedere tracks’ (e.g. specialisations/options) within ba and ma degree courses
  6. 6. • A format for a Belvedere masterclass for postgraduate continuing education programmes, the recently published agenda of the College of government and further training for highly qualified professionals Advisers, the Mission Strategy of the newly formed government Agency for Archaeology, Cultural Landscapes and Monuments, and of course the Action In addition we will launch a research programme by Programme on Spatial Planning and Culture 2005–2008. • initiating teaching-related research, in the form of individual doctoral programmes and small research programmes, in which talented students The themes provide the basis for forming alliances in the field of education, are given the chance to deepen their knowledge and expand their range of research and internationalisation. Interested parties and individuals, skills; particularly from educational institutions, are invited to inform us of their • liaising with existing research teams with a view to collaboration and actively interests in specific themes (or topics within these themes) and to explore developing research proposals on heritage and spatial development for opportunities for cooperation with others on these topics. However, it is also national and international research programmes. possible that potential participants will identify important topics that have not yet been included within one or more of these themes. In this case, they are Moreover, we will keep the target groups in the teaching and research also invited to raise these points and discuss them with us. When developing communities informed and involve them in the work and results obtained these themes and topics in more detail, the core team will ensure that the within the network by thematic coherence of the programme as a whole is maintained. COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE • communicating relevant developments in education and research via the website, newsletters and publications; Internationalisation is a constant element running through all the proposed • organising symposia and debates on topical themes relating to heritage themes and actions. The themes covered by the Belvedere policy are, of management, historical research, urban and rural planning, policy and course, not only topical in the Netherlands, but elsewhere in Europe as well. physical design. Exchanging knowledge and experience with colleagues in other countries is therefore an obvious course of action. Cooperation can be achieved through With relatively little effort and investment, students can become acquainted the exchange of students and teachers under the eu Erasmus programme, by with and obtain a feeling for the Belvedere issues. Developing such an linking doctoral research into existing European programmes, by organising attitude is also the aim of postgraduate (academic) continuing education and and attending international symposia, and through participation in activities postgraduate continuing professional education programmes. In the masters under the European Landscape Convention. The network is also exploring phase of university education, the focus on attitude development will be taken the possibilities for acquiring European funding for research and knowledge a step further with the aim of deepening the level of the students’ knowledge management (such as kp7, interreg and ascend) and will take account of and understanding of the issues. PhD tracks can be used to deepen anticipated international trends, such as the growing interest in the future of intellectual insights and empirical knowledge and further develop and Europe’s military heritage. refine research and design methods. As the emphasis shifts from attitude to knowledge, greater investments in time, coordination and effort will be The agenda (see inside cover) is designed to present the subject matter, required. related actions and network activities in a logical order. The agenda also 24 contains several ‘facilitating’ activities, such as the development of a website 25 and the publication of a study handbook. Teaching and Research Programme The core team has drawn up a teaching and research programme to turn these objectives into concrete actions and create a structure for cooperation. The programme contains nine themes, each with its own specific topic areas and actions. Each of the themes is linked to the teaching and research remits of one of the three university chairs, but all are closely interrelated with regard to their subject matter. They should be viewed as tasks for the network as a whole and their further elaboration and implementation will not be tied specifically to any one institution. However, responsibility for regularly putting the themes on the agenda does lie with the relevant university chair. When choosing the topic areas we have, of course, looked at the subject matter through ‘Belvedere glasses’. In general, the topics deal with issues on the interface between the (designed) environment and time, and – as far as the latter is concerned – the past, present and future. The themes have been formulated to tie in as closely as possible with current teaching and research
  7. 7. ‘Our living environment is changing faster than theme 1 ever, and our urban and rural heritage is rapidly The ‘historic fabric’ disappearing in the process. It is astonishing how People’s appreciation and experience of the past is changing. In recent quickly new housing estates spring up, archaeolo- decades the collective history of the nation has been joined by more personal, local and informal histories of the landscape. The boundary between histor- gical evidence is filed away in dusty boxes and ical interest and personal recollection is blurring. People display at least as much, if not more, interest in the landscape, town or village of their youth as depots, and landscapes become degraded and in the distant past laid bare by archaeologists. And for the average Dutchman the emotionally charged history of the Second World War is no less important cluttered, or undergo complete transformations. than the great success story of the golden Age. At the same time we see that the level of interest in How the past manifests itself is also changing. Our monuments are getting COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE younger: not only are archaeological sites, polder landscapes and traditional heritage and history has never been as high as it is Dutch architecture worth conserving, but also old factories, industrial com- plexes and post-war housing estates. Furthermore, there are signs that our today. Anyone involved with urban or landscape impressions of ‘what life was like in the past’ are often aroused by contem- porary images and animations. The re-enactment of historic battles and the design in the Netherlands cannot get around this. popularity of traditional housing fit into this pattern. Policy makers, cultural historians and designers All these changes mean that we should adjust our ideas about heritage. Of course, that heritage still consists of authentic, material vestiges from the all have something to say about the processes landscape of bygone times. But memories, new lieux de mémoire and recon- structions also demand a place in our heritage catalogue: a ‘historic fabric’ taking place in urban and rural areas. They fall over that (just like the urban fabric) is spreading out over the Dutch landscape at a rapid rate. Within that fabric the history of places is experienced very each other with their good intentions, and some- differently by experts and non-experts. With an eye on the future design of the urban and rural landscape, it is important that designers, historians times less good intentions. What is needed is and planners can recognise, interpret and translate this ‘multivocal’ – and sometimes controversial – character of the past into their working practices. 26 more cooperation and coordination. There is no They should critically examine their own expertise and images of the past and 27 apply them in a different way. Clearly, teaching and research are suitable doubt that cultural heritage will continue to play learning aids for achieving this. a role, but future graduates will have to be better A specific topic within this theme is the development of dialogue forms for groups, including heritage experts/historians, designers and government equipped to play this game. This is in the interests officials with an interest in the history of places, the landscape or region, and who attach a range of different values and meanings to them. At the same we of the students, but is even more important for will study new concepts and presentation techniques that will enable histo- rians and heritage experts to participate fully in this dialogue. our heritage and our living environment. The Actions: Belvedere Educational Network can make a Teaching/network • Students following heritage, design and planning courses (at bachelors, valuable contribution to this.’ masters and postgraduate level) will delve more deeply into these historical issues. They will examine the consequences of the developments outlined Els ten Napel above for our understanding of ‘cultural heritage’ and ‘cultural values’, and (student, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) for how we treat the past in the future planning and design of town and country.
  8. 8. • We will guide students in an examination of how they can analyse this theme 2 ‘historic fabric’ and the disciplines and approaches that can help them to do this. The biography of the landscape • In 2008 a symposium on this theme will be held for a larger group (including non-students). After the Second World War the history of the urban and rural environment Initiative: Jan Kolen, was for a long time considered to be an obstacle to progress. In the eyes of Chair of New Perspectives on the Heritage of Town and Country planners, engineers and urban designers, the old landscape was inadequate for the needs and aspirations of modern life. Now a growing group of plan- ners, designers and heritage experts share the conviction that new transfor- mations of the urban and rural landscape can in fact become more culturally significant, sustainable and effective if we reflect upon the transformations of the past. The common threads running through the transformation of town and country, however, are not easy to tease apart. The redevelopment of sites, urban areas and landscapes has always taken place in a complex process of COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE interaction between administrative and socio-economic changes, technolo- gical developments, ecological dynamics and, last but not least, the history of mentalities: the whole package of cultural ideas, religious thought, collective memories and ideals. Research into historical transformations, therefore, requires a new theoretical framework that combines historical, geographical, anthropological and ecolo- gical lines of reasoning. On this point we can benefit from recent innovations in research, such as the concept of the biography of the landscape. An inter- disciplinary history of spatial transformations can help us to construct a better picture of the historical layers within urban and rural landscapes and bring spatial patterns and structures to life through appealing analyses, stories and anecdotes. They can also be of value where the past even gives rise to major spatial planning dilemmas. An example of this is the national water manage- ment programme. Many consider our landscape of rivers, dikes and polders to be the ultimate expression of our rich history of water management and collective identity, but an examination of the history of the river and polder 28 landscapes also reveals that traditional water management solutions have in 29 many cases been inadequate. The water management task is therefore both a cultural as well as a technical challenge on an unprecedented scale.2 In such a case, historical research can make an important contribution to the planning and design of the landscape, with respect to both public safety and the cultural ‘resonance’ of the living environment. In this theme the emphasis will be on gaining a deeper theoretical under- standing of the ‘biography of the landscape’. Students and researchers will be trained in the concrete application of this concept. An interdisciplinary approach will be pursued: historians will investigate spatial transformations and designers will learn about the history of town and country, which, need- less to say, is partly bound up with the history of their own profession. Actions: Teaching 2 College van Rijksad- viseurs, 2005: Agenda • Students following history, geography and design courses at masters and 2005, arbm, p.30. postgraduate level will study the principles and methods of the long-term
  9. 9. history of spatial transformations. This will be based around the inter- theme 3 disciplinary masters course ‘Biography of the Landscape’ given at the Vrije universiteit Amsterdam. Regional design in the 21st century Research • From 2007 the aim is to work up this theme in more detail within a number of PhD tracks. urban networks and regions respond to new economic and cultural trends in Internationalisation order to cut a distinctive profile for themselves. Two concepts are often put • Opportunities will be explored for pursuing teaching-related research in forward in connection with this: the ‘creative city’ and the ‘experience society’. conjunction with foreign and international programmes, particularly in the Creative cities invest especially in the creative industries, art and culture, field of the history, exploitation and management of European wetlands education and research, and high-performance and innovative technologies (in relation to the water management programme). (collectively referred to as the ‘creative economy’). Just like the successful cities of the past, they hope to create a bulwark of prosperity and well-being. Initiative: Jan Kolen, In the Netherlands the Delta Metropolis has expressed such an ambition, but Chair of New Perspectives on the Heritage of Town and Country the aim of becoming a creative city can now also be found on the websites of virtually all Dutch towns and cities, from Breda to Arnhem and from COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE groningen to Maastricht. The creative city concept assigns a crucial role to the cultural significance and economic value of experience. Successful cities, it is suggested, no longer concentrate on the production of physical goods, but focus on providing experiences and images. These are more in tune with the ‘experience society’, which puts greater value on high-quality experiences and identities than on dry production figures. Cultural heritage and historical products appear to play a key role in the urban networks and regions that identify themselves with these trends. Moreover, this interest in the past is reflected in the physical design of the urban fabric. There is therefore every reason to address this theme in the Belvedere Educational Network. Because heritage plays such a distinctive role in regional design, it is clear that various groups in society often feel drawn to very different aspects of the history of the region. This appears to contradict the tendency of many creative cities to take a highly selective approach to exploiting their history. After all, it is much easier to sell a city with a simple and readily identifiable profile than with a complicated and emotionally charged historical narrative. It is there- 30 fore important that historians, heritage experts and designers broaden the 31 historical repertoire of the city and its community by drawing attention to alternative histories, the different historical layers and local memories. A specific topic within this theme is the search for new ways to conduct an integral regional analysis – the survey. The aim is to devise an intensive form of design through research, in which interdisciplinary teams of students explore the historical and contemporary developments in the region in greater depth. This ‘geographical’ approach should lead to a creative and historically- grounded contribution to current cultural and spatial transformations. On this point, cooperation between universities, universities of professional education and academies is essential. Actions: Teaching/network • This subject matter will be explored in depth with students of historical, geographical and design disciplines in courses at the bachelors and masters levels. In the first instance, this will be developed within the interdisciplinary
  10. 10. masters course on ‘urban Transformations’ at the Vrije universiteit theme 4 Amsterdam. For teaching on this theme collaboration will also be sought with universities of professional education and the academies of Experience and history architecture. Research/network • From 2007 the aim is to refine and explore this theme in more depth within Knowledge and understanding of people’s experience of historical elements university research programmes by creating a number of PhD tracks. in the landscape are scarce and based on very little rigorous scientific research. universities of professional education will be encouraged to take part. The policy maps in the Belvedere Memorandum are based on the expert • Development of a new form of ‘regional survey’ (see above), in cooperation opinions of historical geographers, historians of architecture and archeolo- with the other chair holders and staff (e.g. lecturers) at universities of gists. This is equally true for the National Landscapes in the National Spatial professional education and academies of architecture. Strategy and the sites nominated for unesco’s World Heritage List. Experts Internationalisation/network use criteria which are applied mainly to physical historical objects and struc- • Teaching and research will concentrate, among other topics, on the tures and base their judgements much less on the historical narrative and the Euregion, making international cooperation a condition for the successful social and cultural dimensions. Moreover, the limited general questionnaire completion of projects. studies that have been conducted indicate that ‘lay’ people ascribe different COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE • Teaching will also be available in English to enable foreign students to weights to certain evaluation criteria (rarity, condition, representativeness, become acquainted with this aspect of the Belvedere policy. national/international significance, etc.) than experts. For example, it • In 2009 a symposium for a wider audience will be held on ‘Belvedere, the appeared that residents attach greater importance to the more recent past creative city and regional design’. than the distant past, which scores so highly in the judgements of experts. Knowledge about our appreciation and experience of history is also much Initiative: Jan Kolen, more difficult to acquire than knowledge about physical phenomena. Chair of New Perspectives on the Heritage of Town and Country Empirical experiments are still conducted using traditional questionnaire methods, comparative images (photos, simulation photos, etc.), self- selection methods, discourse analysis and participative action research. The relation between valuation or judgement and willingness to act or make sacrifices is also far from clear and often problematic. When may a value have a decisive influence on actual land use? Which history is hard and fast and which is only interesting, and why? It is also important to look for synergetic working relations between experts, amateur experts and the residents and users of an area through their own involvement and role in the planning process. After all, the experience and 32 appreciation of history/histories by the various groups of actors is not static. 33 Ideally, a common discourse will develop in an area in which the narratives of experts and other groups of actors blend and enrich each other. Such know- ledge will be broadened and deepened, making use of methods from social psychology, linguistics and semiotics, and the social sciences in general, as well as historical geography. This theme will be studied within a European context. Actions: Teaching • The aesthetic and experiential evaluation of heritage will be built into modules at various educational levels. use will be made of the body of thought and methodological repertoire available at the Landscape Centre at Wageningen university and Research Centre. Research • A PhD student has already started work on this theme and will be supported by the results of minors and majors from the masters programme. This doctoral candidate is building on the PhD theses by van den Berg, van Assche and Duineveld.
  11. 11. Internationalisation theme 5 • Internationally, the method of aesthetic and experiential evaluation has been developed in tourism and recreational networks. In Wageningen the Design and history theme belongs within the teaching and research remit of the chair held by Lengkeek. We will participate in these networks. The same goes for the related research into the experience of nature, which Since Bijhouwer, landscape architecture at Wageningen has had a tradition of includes natural history and the social and cultural significance of nature. integrating the historical dimension of the landscape into landscape designs for land consolidation schemes (agricultural improvement) or rural land Initiative: André van der Zande, development (multisectoral renewal which includes nature conservation, Chair of Spatial planning and Cultural Heritage water management, recreation and environment along with agriculture). However, the 20th century rural land development programmes backed by a centrally managed arsenal of professional expertise, legislation and inter- ventions no longer exist. This means that the previously automatically guar- anteed role and tasks of the landscape architect have to be reinvented for 21st century area-based renewal schemes. However, we see a number of COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE promising trends. For example, in the book Een plan dat werkt3 Hajer et al. suggest that the landscape designer should be given a much more central role. Physical design, process design and process supervision are brought much closer together in an iterative process of research and design and are handed to the landscape architect. A new method of design through research is developing which has hardly been given serious thought. In a process of trial and error, spatial or development plans are drawn up in a series of design stages until the pieces of the jigsaw fall neatly into place and the final design receives the assent of all the relevant actors. We observe that the tools cur- rently available to designers have been inadequate for this task because of the complexity of public administration, the layered nature of landscapes and the pluralist society, which manifests itself in an increasingly unwieldy process of seeking a consensus that has widespread support (the ‘polder model’). The relations between design, decision-making and obtaining legitimacy have become more problematic in a much altered societal process architecture. given a more modest substantive role and a greater procedural role, designers 34 now need a different set of competences and new traditions and practices. 35 Further research into how the design-led research method can be used to explore the playing field of renewal and conservation and construct different types of process architecture is urgently required. This has the potential to provide a workable methodological framework for adapting the Belvedere philosophy to the process and content of mainstream planning. This theme we will draw on the theoretical foundations of landscape archi- tecture, public administration, regional planning and political science, but also from change management and the wider social sciences. Actions: Teaching 3 Hajer, Maarten, Dirk • Courses will still cover the three-step process of analysis/research, design Sijmons & Fred Feddes (red), 2006. Een plan dat and policy analysis/advice, which is an established element in the interuni- werkt: ontwerp en poli- versity modules at the masters level. It will also be a core component in the tiek in de regionale planvorming. workshops (action learning in a workplace in an area based on real, concrete isbn 90-5662-472-5 projects) to be developed with the universities of professional education.
  12. 12. • Teaching activities will be developed in conjunction with the bachelors and theme 6 masters programmes in Landscape Architecture at Wageningen university and Research Centre. Belvedere and developmental planning Research • The aim is to generate doctoral research for this theme. The real decisions to give history a place in spatial transformations are taken Initiative: André van der Zande, in the areas concerned. This makes the area-based approach to spatial Chair of Spatial Planning and Cultural Heritage development in the 21st century the key to the Belvedere approach. When the Belvedere Memorandum was published it was primarily a question of choosing the right areas, proper application of the available policy instru- ments and generating a strategic impetus through the delivery of subsidies. In other words, a government task. But the developmental planning approach – in which the spatial quality objectives are incorporated into the area develop- mental process itself, instead of working with previously defined criteria and quality standards – is interpreted in a fundamentally different and more chal- COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE lenging way in the Belvedere process. For example, how are the qualities imparted by cultural heritage delivered through public-private partnerships? What possibilities are opened up by the National Spatial Strategy and its asso- ciated new policy instruments to start putting the Belvedere policy into practice ? Deepening our understanding of area processes is therefore crucial. The totality of discourses, administrative practices, experiences with legislation and involvement of the public will have to be studied in depth as a coordi- nated system of conditions within which the new Belvedere projects will take shape. The link between cultural heritage and planning is thus no longer a policy task but a societal one. In academic terms, the challenge is to develop the expertise that can be directly applied in the practical sphere of develop- mental planning. The most obvious approach to deepening our understanding is to monitor these area-based planning processes themselves, and in particular the degree 36 to which actors feel responsible for taking due care of heritage features, and 37 their motives for ascribing importance to them, or conversely, trivialising or marginalising them. A blind spot in our knowledge is the degree to which good plans actually promote investments in our cultural heritage and the creation of an attractive environment. The underlying processes are also worthy of study. How do people form opinions about the value and signifi- cance of heritage (see Theme 3)? What experience do government decision- makers have with ‘selling’ cultural heritage and justifying the costs of its conservation? How do cultural heritage and the creation of regional identity influence each other and how do developers and other private investors value this? And which negotiation mechanisms are available to safeguard or even enhance cultural heritage values? Options include the land value capture mechanism available in the area developmental planning toolbox. This theme is a synthesis of history, design and how people perceive and experience the environment, and it draws on the disciplines mentioned above. It would clearly pay dividends to compare this knowledge against similar policy development and implementation processes in other countries
  13. 13. and international know-how regarding the dynamic relation between cultural theme 7 heritage and planning. This can be done by making comparisons between specific areas in each country and by exchanging knowledge about how people REFRAME: spatial design equals value assessment perceive, experience and rate the value of cultural heritage. Actions: Knowledge of the history of landscapes, towns and cities, generated and Teaching aggregated by professionals and non-professionals alike, is used in planning • Workplace (in cooperation with Larenstein International Agricultural and decision making on the future of the physical environment. In general College) there is a direct, linear relation between the acquisition of knowledge about a • Wageningen Academic Masters Cluster specific physical object, structure or ensemble and the statutory or planning • Interuniversity Belvedere masters module protection afforded to such objects or structures. In most cases, once a pro- Research posal is made to designate an object or area for protection, research into the • Research into area-based developmental planning processes history of the object or area is conducted or intensified. Historical research • Research into the uptake of the results of Belvedere projects into planning and proposed protection status legitimise each other. Historical research is practice hardly ever used to get redevelopment or landscape projects off the ground COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE COMMON GROUND PAST/PLANNINg/FuTuRE • Research into old legal forms in rural areas which could provide inspiration or make a case for improvement works or transformations. In other words: for new types of contracts and collaboration historical and heritage research and the protection of historic monuments • Research into Belvedere and infrastructure and listed buildings are two sides of the same coin (in the same way that many consider that landscape ecological research and nature conservation are). Initiative: André van der Zande, The concept of historical value is crucial. Criteria such as rarity, condition Chair of Spatial Planning and Cultural Heritage and completeness provide a fixed reference framework for scoring historic patterns and artefacts. Such scores enable us to attribute a value and status to these features. Spatial and physical planning is increasingly confronted with this type of historical research and its results. Designers tend to be uncomfortable with this, and are sometimes also unsympathetic to it. The essence of the physical design process is tracking down a desired new situation that was not known beforehand. Ascribing hard and fast historical values in advance does not sit well with the goal of the designer, which is to increase value. Faced with the task of combining old buildings or patterns with new development pro- grammes or users, the designer should primarily seek to express the degree 38 to which older elements can contribute to increasing value. 39 To bridge the gap between the protection and development of historical values we introduce two concepts: future value of cultural heritage and heritage development. They are put forward to challenge cultural historians to deliver their knowledge within the context of physical transformations; physical designers will be spurred on to consider their proposals in a historical context. These concepts also imply a different way of working and interaction between the researcher and designer. The idea is that both should enter the planning process at the same time, so that historical knowledge and design skills can feed off each other at each level of abstraction. We will focus this theme on heritage that has an official national or inter- national status and is located in areas subject to changing or unpredictable land use and development pressures (for example due to expanding urban development, depopulation or mass tourism).