The First Regional Greenhouse Gas
    (GHG) Assessment for USMC Bases in
    California and Arizona


         Thomas DeCo...
Drivers and Goals of Regional
      GHG Assessment
     Driver: April 2007 Supreme Court Decision (Mass. vs.
      EPA) -...
Extent of Green House Gas (GHG) Survey
    at MCI West

       Scope 1 (Direct or On-site)*      Scope 2 (Indirect)*      ...
GHG Timeline For California




    * NOTE: 2050 goal is a result of Executive Order S-3-05, not AB 32.
                  ...
5
Major Provisions of AB 32


     Establish the 1990 Baseline
     Development of Scoping Plan
     Mandatory Reporting ...
PART 1 OF FENCELINE-TO-FENCELINE
    INVENTORY


                                       7
7
Facilities Included:

     Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Pendleton
     Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Camp Pendleton
  ...
For Official Use Only   9
9
GHG Sources Inventoried*

     1. Direct GHG Emissions
         • Stationary Sources:
              –   Internal Combustio...
Results of Regional Fenceline-to-
     Fenceline GHG Inventory




11
Results of Regional Fenceline-to-
     Fenceline GHG Inventory
                          Indirect GHG Emissions

         ...
Results of Regional Fenceline-to-
     Fenceline GHG Inventory
                        Direct GHG Emissions by Source Cate...
Unusual Sources of GHG
     Emissions


     Facility                  Description

     MCAS Camp Pendleton       Dry ice...
AB 32 THRESHOLD –
     TECHNICAL EVALUATION


                            15
15
AB 32 Applicability Evaluation

      Reporting Thresholds:

       a) ≥ 25,000 MT CO2 for stationary combustion sources
...
AB 32 Reporting
 Applicability Results

                                   Stationary        Cogen Facilities ≥
     USMC ...
Current Impacts of Mandatory
      Reporting

      MCAGCC Twentynine Palms is the only facility
       reporting at pres...
EARLY ACTION MEASURES




                             19
19
Early Action Measures (EAMs)

      Scoping Plan by ARB contains 74 GHG
       reduction measures
      44 EAMs with eff...
EAMs Impacting USMC in CA

     1. Landfill methane capture and control
       – Threshold is 450,000 tons of waste-in-pla...
Status of Landfills

                                           Subject to Landfill
     Base               Landfill Name ...
2.        High GWP Refrigerant
                  Requirements
                                             Refrigerant Cha...
HVAC&R Systems Affected
     by High GWP Refrigerant Rule

                                    MCLB Barstow
              ...
Other EAMs Affecting USMC in CA

                                                                        Estimated
       ...
CARBON REDUCTIONS AND CREDITS



                                     26
26
Reductions in GHG Emissions

      USMC’s goal is to identify past and future
       projects within bases in CA and AZ w...
Previous GHG Reductions
      2003-2008


              MCLB Barstow   MCAGCC 29 Palms   MCAS Yuma
                 0.1%  ...
Typical GHG Reduction Projects

      Energy efficiency
        – Boiler upgrades and retrofits
        – Energy improvem...
USMC’s Planned GHG Reductions
     in CA and AZ


      Wind power at MCMWTC Bridgeport and MCLB
       Barstow
      Mo...
PATH FORWARD




                    31
31
Planned and Funded Tasks

      Re-assess sources and emissions according to
       draft EPA Mandatory Reporting rule pu...
Recommendations

      Wait for Council on Environmental Quality
       (CEQ) or Executive Order (EO) policy for GHG
    ...
Questions/Comments?

      Thomas DeCosta, Program Manager, MCI
       West
       – Phone: 760-725-4540
       – E-mail:...
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GHG Assessment for MCI West

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GHG Assessment for MCI West

  1. 1. The First Regional Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Assessment for USMC Bases in California and Arizona Thomas DeCosta Christina Schwerdtfeger 2009 Federal Environmental Symposium – Bellevue, WA 3 June 2009 1
  2. 2. Drivers and Goals of Regional GHG Assessment  Driver: April 2007 Supreme Court Decision (Mass. vs. EPA) --ruled that GHGs can be regulated as air pollutants under the CAA  Provide a GHG inventory and assessment of all stationary and portable (i.e., non-mobile) sources associated with USMC bases in CA and AZ – Determine which facilities are subject to mandatory reporting under Assembly Bill (AB) 32 – Identify which of ARB’s early action measures (EAMs) will impact USMC operations.  Identify past and future projects within USMC bases in CA and AZ which produce reductions in GHG emissions to possibly support NEPA documentation. 2 2
  3. 3. Extent of Green House Gas (GHG) Survey at MCI West Scope 1 (Direct or On-site)* Scope 2 (Indirect)* Scope 3 (Other)* AB 32 Mandatory Stationary Electricity and Combustion •Employee Travel Mobile Steam Sources •Transport of Goods Sources Purchases from and Services Utilities •Other Activities TBD Non-Mobile TBD Sources * Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) terminology 3
  4. 4. GHG Timeline For California * NOTE: 2050 goal is a result of Executive Order S-3-05, not AB 32. 4 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. Major Provisions of AB 32  Establish the 1990 Baseline  Development of Scoping Plan  Mandatory Reporting for Certain Facilities  Early Action Measures  Cap-and-Trade Program 6 6
  7. 7. PART 1 OF FENCELINE-TO-FENCELINE INVENTORY 7 7
  8. 8. Facilities Included:  Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Pendleton  Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Camp Pendleton  MCAS Miramar  Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow  Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) Twentynine Palms  Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center (MCMWTC) Bridgeport  MCAS Yuma including Chocolate Mountain Range Complex  Marine Corps Recruit Depot (MCRD) San Diego 8 8
  9. 9. For Official Use Only 9 9
  10. 10. GHG Sources Inventoried* 1. Direct GHG Emissions • Stationary Sources: – Internal Combustion • Fugitive Sources: – External Combustion – Landfill – Dynamometers – Refrigerant Use – Jet Engine Test Cells – Miscellaneous Material – Thermal Oxidation Usage – Cogeneration – Total Flooding Fire – Crash/Fire/Rescue Fighting Systems Training • Process Sources: – Wastewater Treatment – Oil/Water Separators 2. Indirect GHG Emissions: – Electricity *AB 32 Mandatory Reporting Protocol and AP-42 were used. – Steam 10 10
  11. 11. Results of Regional Fenceline-to- Fenceline GHG Inventory 11
  12. 12. Results of Regional Fenceline-to- Fenceline GHG Inventory Indirect GHG Emissions MCAS Camp MCB Camp Pendleton Pendleton 2% 23% MCAGCC Twentynine Palms 6% MCRD San Diego 46% MCLB Barstow 4% MCAS Yuma MCMWTC 12% Bridgeport MCAS Miramar 1% 6% 12
  13. 13. Results of Regional Fenceline-to- Fenceline GHG Inventory Direct GHG Emissions by Source Category Miscellaneous WWTP Material Usage 0.079% 0.844% OWS 0.001% Refrigerant Use 4.146% Stationary Combustion 41.649% Landfills 53.282% 13
  14. 14. Unusual Sources of GHG Emissions Facility Description MCAS Camp Pendleton Dry ice blocks for aircraft maintenance MCRD San Diego Cylinders of CO2 for pH control in swimming pool All bases except MCMWTC Aerosol cans with power duster, canned air and Bridgeport corrosion prevention products MCLB Barstow Dry ice blasting for cleaning of delicate parts 14 14
  15. 15. AB 32 THRESHOLD – TECHNICAL EVALUATION 15 15
  16. 16. AB 32 Applicability Evaluation  Reporting Thresholds: a) ≥ 25,000 MT CO2 for stationary combustion sources • Boilers, heaters, cogeneration units, dynamometers/IC engine test cells, generators (non-emergency), crash/fire/rescue training, etc. b) ≥ 2,500 MT CO2 and Prime Electricity Generator(s) ≥ 1 megawatt (MW) c) ≥ 2,500 MT CO2 and ≥ 1 MW for Cogeneration Facilities 16 16
  17. 17. AB 32 Reporting Applicability Results Stationary Cogen Facilities ≥ USMC Facility Combustion ≥ 25,000 2,500 MT CO2 and ≥ 1 MT CO2 MW MCAGCC Twentynine Palms Yes Yes MCB Camp Pendleton No No MCAS Miramar No No MCLB Barstow No No MCMWTC Bridgeport No No MCRD San Diego No No MCAS Camp Pendleton No No MCAS Yuma (California) No No MCAS Yuma (Arizona) N/A N/A 17 17
  18. 18. Current Impacts of Mandatory Reporting  MCAGCC Twentynine Palms is the only facility reporting at present  Annual report was submitted 1 June 2009; in subsequent years, reports are due 1 April  3rd Party Verification: – Due triennially beginning in 1 October 2010 – Must use state-approved, independent verifier 18 18
  19. 19. EARLY ACTION MEASURES 19 19
  20. 20. Early Action Measures (EAMs)  Scoping Plan by ARB contains 74 GHG reduction measures  44 EAMs with effective dates beginning 2010  These are command-and-control type rules  EAM applicability is independent from mandatory reporting thresholds and determination  Rule-making and public hearings are ongoing with ARB 20 20
  21. 21. EAMs Impacting USMC in CA 1. Landfill methane capture and control – Threshold is 450,000 tons of waste-in-place (WIP) – Annual reporting beginning on 15 March 2011 – Submittal of a design plan and installation of gas capture system within 12 and 18 months, respectively after effective date of regulation – CERCLA landfills are exempt – Landfills closed prior to 1977 are exempt 21 21
  22. 22. Status of Landfills Subject to Landfill Base Landfill Name Gas Capture Rule Rationale at present? Box Canyon No IRP site MCB Camp Las Pulgas Yes Exceeds 450,000 tons WIP Pendleton San Onofre Yes Exceeds 450,000 tons WIP Southeastern MCAS Yuma No IRP site; closed in 1961 Portion of Base MCMWTC Pickel Meadow No IRP site; closed in 1975 Bridgeport Leased and operated by MCAS Miramar Miramar Landfill No the city CAOC 7, CAOC MCLB Barstow No Below 450,000 tons WIP 23, CAOC 35 MCAGCC Monitor WIP - estimated to No Twentynine Palms trigger rule by 2024 22 22
  23. 23. 2. High GWP Refrigerant Requirements Refrigerant Charge Regulatory Requirement Large Medium Small (>2000 lbs) (200-1999 lbs) (50-199 lbs) Register existing 8-31-2011 8-31-2013 7-1-2014 equipment Register new 8-31-2011 8-31-2013 7-1-2014 equipment Automatic Leak Quarterly Leak Annual Leak Leak Detection and Detection Inspections Inspections After Monitoring by 7-1-2010 After 7-1-2010 7-1-2010 Reporting Frequency Annually Annually N/A First Reporting Date 8-31-2011 8-31-2013 N/A 23 23
  24. 24. HVAC&R Systems Affected by High GWP Refrigerant Rule MCLB Barstow MCAS Camp 6% Pendleton 7% MCRD San Diego 9% MCAGCC 29 Palms 39% MCMWTC Bridgeport 3% MCAS Yuma (CA) MCB Camp 1% Pendleton 35% 24
  25. 25. Other EAMs Affecting USMC in CA Estimated EAM Description Implementation Date Reduction of high GWP GHGs used in consumer products 2010 Reduction of HFC-134a from do-it-yourself servicing and dismantling of motor vehicle air conditioners 2010 Tire inflation 2010 Alternative fire suppressants (HFCs to protect computer and communication systems) 2011 Foam recovery and destruction (used as insulation) 2010 Specifications for commercial refrigeration 2012 Cool automobile paints 2012 25 25
  26. 26. CARBON REDUCTIONS AND CREDITS 26 26
  27. 27. Reductions in GHG Emissions  USMC’s goal is to identify past and future projects within bases in CA and AZ which produce reductions in GHG emissions. • May allow greater flexibility for facility changes and mission- critical operations • Demonstration of environmental stewardship and sustainable operations 27 27
  28. 28. Previous GHG Reductions 2003-2008 MCLB Barstow MCAGCC 29 Palms MCAS Yuma 0.1% 13.7% 14.4% MCRD San Diego MCAS Miramar 0.8% 3.3% MCAS Camp Pendleton 10.6% MCMWTC Bridgeport MCB Camp Pendleton 0.0% 57.1% 28
  29. 29. Typical GHG Reduction Projects  Energy efficiency – Boiler upgrades and retrofits – Energy improvements (i.e., lighting, DDC controls, CFLs, LEDs, etc.) – HVAC&R repairs & upgrades  Steam turbine and cogeneration  Photovoltaics and solar thermal  Xeriscaping (minor savings in CO2e, but saves water)  Elimination of digester gas 29 29
  30. 30. USMC’s Planned GHG Reductions in CA and AZ  Wind power at MCMWTC Bridgeport and MCLB Barstow  More photovoltaics at most bases  More xeriscaping, especially in the desert  Landfill gas capture – MCB Camp Pendleton  Lighting upgrades and delamping 30 30
  31. 31. PATH FORWARD 31 31
  32. 32. Planned and Funded Tasks  Re-assess sources and emissions according to draft EPA Mandatory Reporting rule published in April 2009 – Preliminary review indicates that MCB Camp Pendleton landfills and MCAGCC Twentynine Palms facility will be affected – Mobile sources not included  Calculate mobile and Scope 3 GHG emissions (e.g., employee travel) to present a consistent approach to NEPA calculations 32 32
  33. 33. Recommendations  Wait for Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) or Executive Order (EO) policy for GHG analysis with respect to NEPA documentation  Continue tracking EAM rule development in California and provide input during public hearings  Track development of cap-and-trade programs at state and federal levels  Provide this study as a guide to other USMC installations outside of CA and AZ 33 33
  34. 34. Questions/Comments?  Thomas DeCosta, Program Manager, MCI West – Phone: 760-725-4540 – E-mail: thomas.decosta@usmc.mil  Christina Schwerdtfeger, PhD, REA, Principal Consultant, ZMAssociates – Phone: 949-378-0573 – E-mail: christina@zmassociates.com  Jim Dill, PE, Project Manager, URS Group, Inc. – Phone: 714-433-7746 – E-mail: Jim_Dill@URSCorp.com 34 34

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