Bye to bully ppt com255


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This is a powerpoint done for our project "Bye to Bully" for COM255 Organizational Communication (NTU 2009/10)

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  • Avoiding a bully is one reason your child may be reluctant to go to school. Perhaps he is being forced to relinquish his lunch money to this bully. Or he might be fearful of physical harm. If you suspect a problem like this, you need to take action to ensure your child's safety and well-being. Thus, being a parent I've learned to be vigilant and more particular on the safety of my teens especially when it comes with bullying cases. Then I found this site that provides a protection for children from a safety mobile protection that can access family, friends and 911 in times of emergency. I just downloaded their application on their iPhone. Here’s where you can find it:
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  • Our group will provide some background knowledge about bullying in school.   Firstly, bullying is defined as:   student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and overtime, to negative actions on the part of one or more students. (Olweus, 1993a, 1996 cited in Olweus 1997) and It is also a negative action when someone intentionally inflicts, or attempts to inflict, injury or discomfort upon another
  • 1)      Verbal : When someone is being called names or being teased or even blackmailing. Sometimes students were verbally bullied for no apparent reason at all, but some are specifically focused on physical appearance, disability, religion, sexual orientation and etc. This type of bullying is the most prevalent of all because it cannot be visually seen; no scratches or bruises are left behind and it often happened when no adults are around hence it is difficult for parents and teachers to notice what is going on in class.   2)  Physical: This involves violent physical acts; such as beating, pushing, kicking and all forms of physical bullying. This often put the victims’ life at high risk. There were some cases whereby the physical bullying went out of control and lives were taken.   3)    Social: It means social exclusion or boycotting a person from a social group/activity to make him/her feel isolated and unwanted. This includes the spreading of rumours or gossips, trying to break up existing friendship(s) the victim has and at the same time tarnishing his/her reputation thus he/she will be unable to develop any potential relationship with anyone else. People will most likely shun away, leaving the victim all alone.   4)    Psychological/Mental: When a victim is stalked, intimidated or blackmailed/threatened, he/she will constantly be living in fear worrying about when the threats would be carried out by the bullies. Such constant scare of getting hurt can be lead to a tremendous psychological and emotional drain to the victim.   5)     Cyber:  The advancement of technologies shifted the bullying episodes from happening face-to-face onto the cyber world via emails, instant messaging, social networking sites, YouTube and etc. Among all forms of bullying, cyber bulling can be extra hurtful and embarrassing in comparison because any negative information regarding the victim are all out for the whole world to see. It is also said that cyber bullying is usually meaner than the face-to-face bullying as the bully is unable to see the victim; which means that those who do not dare to bully up front of the victim, they “hide” and do all the bullying online.  
  • If boundaries are not set in early years, a child can find no limits and no inner security. Nobody punishes them or explain to them when they did something wrong. This continues into adulthood.   With a lack of boundary setting in childhood, adult bullies do not have secure feelings about who they are, their ‘true’ selves.     B ullies may be able to read the emotional responses of others but they often lack empathy, the ability to relate to the feelings of others.   Next, we have 2 interviews that re-emphasize on the characteristics of the bullies.
  • Started bullying during upper secondary Bullied 2 secondary one students Ordered them to buy food and run errands for him and his friends. Extorted money from the victims to pay for all their expenditures Threatened the victims when they did not comply     When asked about the reasons why R bullied, he said that that his friend asked him to follow him and do whatever he did. That included bullying other weaker students. His friend also treated him very well, especially when the parents of R were in the midst of a divorce and that had causes a lot of problems at home. His friend would cheer him up and bring him out.   R also did not want any people to know his family problems so he think that was why he acted brave and tough in front of others by bullying people.   From the above interview, we can see that the student had turned into a bully because he had some insecurities which he did not want to show and he was led astray by his peers.
  • We also had an interview with Rachel Loh. She is a social worker who works with youth; moslty with school dropouts.     They want to exert their power. They find satisfaction from being strong and cool. It also gives them a sense of control.     Their parents may intimidate them, making them feel powerless by being physically and verbally abusive. Thus, they use bullying as an outlet to express their frustration at home.        
  • 3) According to Smith & other reseachers, the findings also suggest that school pupils who consistently cannot cope with bullying, or try to make fun of the bullying, are more at risk for later problems in the workplace.
  • Therefore, peer victimization prevention programs need to extend beyond the school context and instill sources of emotional support within the family environment. For instance, schools and teachers need to work with the parents of adolescents who are involved in peer victimization experiences. The idea is to get parents involved by focusing on adolescents’ behaviors rather than on who is to blame. Second, training can give parents skills to initiate consistent conversations with their adolescents. For example, parents can ask what the conflict is about, and brainstorm solutions with their adolescents that can be used to resolve the conflict. When parents help their adolescents to deal with conflicts, this offers their adolescents support and maintains a relationship that allows for open
  • After "To Respond to reports of Victimization") e.g., encourage students to talk about their experiences rather than telling them what they should think, and use this to inform their response)   How to address conflics appropriately: (e.g., meet with the victim and the bully to discuss how he or she could respond appropriately to future situations).
  • Bye to bully ppt com255

    2. 2. What is Meant by Bullying? <ul><ul><li>A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students. (Olweus, 1993a, 1996 cited in Olweus 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a negative action when someone intentionally inflicts, or attempts to inflict, injury or discomfort upon another (Olweus, 1973b cited in Olweus 1997) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. The Different Types of School Bullying   1) Verbal   2) Physical   3) Social   4) Psychological/Mental   5) Cyber
    4. 4. The Bullied: Common Characteristics Noted 1) Having a different appearance (Erling & Hwang, 2004)   2) Small, weak & soft (Boulton & Underwood,1992)   3) Low self-esteem : Both genders considered themselves less attractive than others (Bjorkqvist etal., 1982)   4) Sensitive, more quiet, anxious and insecure        (Glew et al., 2000)   5) Often alone & without friends (Schwartz et al., 1993)
    5. 5. Why bullies bully: Some Common Characteristics <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of boundary setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching for recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(Information from </li></ul>
    6. 6. Why bullies bully (Interviews) <ul><li>Interview with an ex-bully (R) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started bullying during upper secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullied 2 secondary one students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered them to buy food and run errands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extorted money from the victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened and beat up the victims </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Why did he bully? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faced with family problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecurities/Wanted a brave and tough front </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why bullies bully (Interviews)   <ul><li>Interview with youth social worker, Rachel Loh </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Exert power, sense of control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>            - Insecurities </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>           - Intimidated by parents </li></ul><ul><li>            - Physical and/or verbal abusive </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>           - Peer pressure especially when they join gang </li></ul><ul><li>               - Cover up insecurities </li></ul>
    8. 8. Purposes of the Campaign <ul><li>UNICEF Convention of the Rights of a Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 28: Rights to Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 29: Goals of Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ It should encourage children to respect others, human rights and their own and other cultures. It should also help them learn to live peacefully, protect the environment and respect other people.” </li></ul>
    9. 9. Purposes of the Campaign <ul><li>2) Prevention of potential bullies/criminals in the future (National Crime Prevention Council, US) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3) Prevent future workplace victimization - Victims at school are more at risk of workplace victimization (Smith et. al, 2003)   </li></ul>
    10. 10. What is the campaign all about? <ul><ul><li>Raise awareness amongst secondary school teachers and parents about the current state of school bullying and the importance of bully-free environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide practical advice on how to deal with existing bullying cases and methods to prevent bullying </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Two-pronged approach <ul><li>Understanding bullying from the perspective of the VICTIMS </li></ul><ul><li>2) From the perspective of the BULLIES:  How do we prevent bullies from developing in schools and at home? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Why highlight secondary school bullying? <ul><ul><li>Bullying is most prevalent in secondary schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- 1 in 5 Primary School students get bullied </li></ul><ul><li>- 1 in 4 Secondary School students get bullied (Singapore Children's Society as cited by Channel NewsAsia, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence is the period where students are impressionable </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Why involve both teachers and parents? <ul><li>- Teachers have direct contact with students most of the time </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- Parents continues to remain a significant protector </li></ul><ul><li>against emotional and behavioral problems in late adolescence and into adulthood (Needham, 2008; Stice et al., 2004 in Yeung & Leadbeater 2010)  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- A need for both teachers and parents to work together </li></ul><ul><li>(Yeung & Leadbeater 2010) </li></ul>
    14. 14. How to carry out this campaign <ul><ul><li>Website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibition during Meet-the-Parents sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training courses for teachers </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Website <ul><ul><li>Target Audience: Parents and Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources on how to prevent bullying, identify bullying and other general information are available 24/7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stories of bullying incidents in schools can also be contributed in forums </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Meet-the-Parents in the first week of school <ul><ul><li>Exhibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-lingual videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stories of the bullies and the bullied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotional posters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First week of school – set the year right by creating a good environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    17. 17. Informational Booklets <ul><ul><li>Booklets in 4 major languages of Singapore (English, Chinese, Malay an Tamil) that parents and teachers can bring home as reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight the reasons why bullies bully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical advice for teachers to tailor classroom activities where (Yeung and Leadbeater 2010): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students develop supportive attitudes and empathetic feelings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers respond to victimization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers address conflicts immediately and appropriately </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Training Courses for Teachers <ul><ul><ul><li>4 Basic Principles for Intervention Programmes (Olweus, 1997): </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  environment with warmth, positive interest and involvement from adults </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>firm limits to unacceptable behaviour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in cases of violations of rules, non-physical and non-hostile sanctions to be given </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adults in schools and homes to act as authorities in some respects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scenarios for teachers to practise the 4 basic principles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Limitations of campaign <ul><li>May not be that helpful for parents who are less educated (not able to read well) or less engaged on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers may not be able to make the long-term commitment of receiving training for our Intervention Programme </li></ul>
    20. 20. References <ul><ul><li>Bjorkqvist, K., Ekman, K., & Lagersopetz, K. (1982). Bullies and victims: Their ego picture, ideal ego picture and normative ego picture. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 23, 307-313.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Boulton, M. J., & Underwood, K. (1992). Bully/victim problems among middle school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 73-87. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Channel NewsAsia. (2009). Schools should build bully-free culture to curb problem of school-bullying. Retrieved April 6, 2010 from </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erling, A., & Hwang, P. (2004). Swedish 10-year-old children's perceptions and experiences of bullying. Journal of School Violence, 3, 33-43. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glew, G., Rivara, E, & Feudmer, C. (2000). Bullying:Children hurting children. Pediatrics in Review, 21, 183-190 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  . </li></ul>
    21. 21. References <ul><ul><li>Olweus, Dan. (1997). Bully/Victim Problem in School: Facts and Intervention. European Journal of Psychology of  Education , 12 (4), 495-510. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Singapore's Children Society. (2008). Bully-Free Campaign . Retrieved April 4, 2010 from   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeung, Rachel and Bonnie Leadbeater. (2010). Adults Make a Difference: The Protective Effects of Parent and and Teacher Emotional Support on Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Peer-Victimized Adolescents. Journal of Community Psychology , 38(1): 80-98 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith, Peter K., Singer, Monika., Hoel, Helge. & Cooper, Cary. (2003). Victimization in the school and worlpalce: Are there any link? British Journal of Psychology , 94, 175–188. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A,,& Coie,J. D. (1993).The emergence of chronic peer victimization in boys‘ play groups. Child Development, 64. 1755-1772. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>