B. R. SIWAL Deputy Director email: firstname.lastname@example.org Women Development Division NIPCCD, New Delhi GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AGAINST ADOLESCENT GIRL-FOCUS ON SEXUAL VIOLENCE
“ Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to results in , physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.”
FACTORS THAT PERPETUATE VIOLENCE
Gender – specific socialization
Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles
Expectations of roles within relationships
Belief on the inherent superiority of males
Values that give men proprietary rights over women and girls
Notion of the family as the private sphere and under male control
Customs of marriage (bride price / dowry)
Acceptability of violence as a means to resolve conflict
Portrayal of negative image in media
Women’s economic dependence on men
Limited access to cash and credit
Discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands, and maintenance after divorce or widowhood
Limited access to employment in formal and informal sector
Limited access to education and training
Under-representation of women in power, politics, media and in legal and medical professions
Domestic violence not taken seriously
Notions of family being private and beyond control of the state
Risk of challenge to status quo / religious laws
Limited organisation of women as a political force
Limited participation of women in organised political system
Laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintence and inheritance
Low levels of legal literacy among women
Lesser legal status of women either by written law and / or by practice
Insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary
PSYCHOLOGICAL MALTREATMENT Definition
Psychological Neglect - the consistent failure of a parent or caretaker to provide a child with appropriate support, attention, and affection.
Psychological Abuse - a chronic pattern of behaviors such as belittling, humiliating, and ridiculing a child.
PHYSICAL ABUSE Definition
Physical abuse is any non-accidental injury to a child under the age of 18 by a parent or caretaker. These injuries may include beatings, shaking, burns, human bites, strangulation, or immersion in scalding water, with resulting bruises and welts, broken bones, scars, burns, retinal hemorrhage, or internal injuries.
CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE Definition
Child sexual abuse is the exploitation of a child or adolescent for the sexual gratification of another person.
TYPES OF VIOLENCE
Violation of human rights
Other human right instruments
Gender based discrimination
Threats of reprisals
SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND ABUSE
Exposure to Sexual Acts of others
Sexual Assault with object
Sexual Harassment / Eve teasing
Sex with minor (child marriage)
Indications of violence against Girls:
Fractures, injuries of conjunctive tissue:
wounds on head or face;
Contusion of abdomen, chest, perineum, especially during pregnancy.
Unusual burns (from cigarettes, stove, hot fat, acids).
Visits to the hospital become more frequent, and traumas – more serious.
Not getting enough sleep and malnutrition.
Pattern injury- Hand print
Pattern injuries - linear
Pattern Injury Bite Mark
SEXUALLY ABUSIVE BEHAVIORS
SEXUALLY ABUSIVE BEHAVIORS
SEXUAL ABUSE SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN:
Pregnancy in young adolescent
Frequent unexplained sore throats, yeast or urinary infections
Child reports inappropriate sexual behavior
Child engaged in highly inappropriate sexual behavior
Improper visualization or glances
Direct statements of a sexual nature
Behavioral Changes - Signs of Sexual Abuse
Sleep disturbances: nightmares, night terror
Appetite disturbances: anorexia, bulimia
Phobias: avoidance behavior
Behavioral Changes - Sings of Sexual Abuse
Genital or urethral trauma
Sexually transmitted diseases
Recurrent urinary tract infections
Behavioral Changes - Sings of Sexual Abuse
Promiscuity or prostitution
Commonly admitting to guilt
CONSEQUENCES OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE :
Sexually transmitted diseases.
Vaginal or rectal injuries.
Miscarriages, stillborn babies, premature birth.
Low self esteem
Obsessive – compulsive disorder
Post – traumatic stress disorder
STD including HIV/AIDS
Symptoms of depression:
consider suicidal options or attempts to take her own life;
anorexia of bulimia (i.e. pathological refusal to have a meal of pathological overeating);
taking alcohol or drugs;
fits of uneasiness;
feeling of helplessness;
weeps frequently ;
avoids meeting eyes.
loss of contacts with family members and friends (sense of being isolated).
poverty (sometimes as a result of financial tricks of her partner).
alienation from her children or even hostility towards them.
Recruitment transportation are receipt of women and girl through deception or coercion for the purpose of prostitution other sexual exploitation or forced labour.
VULNERABILITIES TO TRAFFICKING
Feminization of Poverty
Poverty of parent
Lack of employment opportunities
Lack of unequal access to education
Traditional community attitude
Debt and bondage of parents
False promises and deception
Commercialization and agriculture
Love of livelihood
Gender based socialization
Caste and tribal social system
Domestic – violence
Low level of confidence and self worth
Death of parents
Lack awareness and laws
Street children with no guardians
Single women – migrant worker
Sudden disaster victim – cyclone, earth quakes and floods
Stigmatization – girls raped, adorned
TRENDS IN TRAFFICKING
Growing scope and magnitude
New source and destination
Diverse and sophisticated mechanisms
Highly organised crime syndicates
Changes in the portico of trafficked persons.
Extended linkage between trafficking network and political networks
Increasing profits with little risk gross human rights violation for capital accumulation.
ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM
Victims of domestic violence requiring assistance often face their problems alone without any support from their relatives or neighbors
Institutional and legal systems should be more efficient response to cases of domestic violence.
There are few organizations providing social, housing, legal, and psychological assistance to victims of violence; lack of programs for self-assistance and self-defense for victims of domestic violence.
combating domestic violence and of providing assistance to victims.
Lack of modern empirical diagnostics and practical knowledge essential for better
understanding and combating the phenomenon of domestic violence.
The level of public stereotypes concerning domestic violence complicates preventing this violence and solving related problems.
ROLE OF NGOs
Collect and analyze information on domestic violence.
Hold public awareness campaigns, publish informational materials.
Conduct different educational activities, e.g. trainings for women.
Undertake training of governmental officials; provide them with information.
Accompany police on domestic violence calls.
Provide “public defenders” to victims.
Participate in the work of “advisors”.
Create shelters, crises centers, self-defense groups and hotlines for abused women.
Conduct psychological rehabilitation of abusers, children and other members of the family.