Pornography Tanja Tyden

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Pornography Tanja Tyden

  1. 1. Pornography consumption and sexual practices among adolescents <ul><li>Tanja Tydén, Ph.D., professor </li></ul><ul><li>Elisabet Häggström-Nordin, RNM, MMSc </li></ul><ul><li>Ulf Hanson, M.D. Associate professor </li></ul><ul><li> Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, </li></ul><ul><li> Center of Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås </li></ul><ul><li> Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University </li></ul>
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Pornography: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>estimated to be one of the most sought-after topics on the Internet (Lewin, 1998; Griffiths, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swedish National Institute of Public Health : ”…need for studies about how adolescents are influenced by sexually toned messages and by pornography” (Forsberg, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals working with adolescents have noted ”new” questions and concerns (Forsberg, 2000) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Aim <ul><li>To investigate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pornography consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>possible associations </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Method and sample <ul><li>December 2002 - February 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>5 senior high schools; medium-sized city </li></ul><ul><li>Random sample of 47 classes with 924 students </li></ul><ul><li>(participation rate 77%) </li></ul><ul><li>Mean age 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom questionnaire </li></ul>
  5. 5. Results: Sexual behaviour (1) <ul><li>Sexual intercourse: 74% </li></ul><ul><li>Contraceptive use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At first intercourse: 71% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At latest intercourse: 68% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual partners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men ( M = 3) more than women ( M = 2; p = 0.002) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Results: Sexual behaviour (2) <ul><li>” Sex with a friend”: 41.5% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More men (49%) than women (32%; p < 0.001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STIs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More women (7.5%) than men (3%; p = 0.018) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abortion: 9% </li></ul>
  7. 7. Results: Sexual behaviour (3) <ul><li>Oral sex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>50% had experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of women had given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% reported condom use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anal sex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>16% had experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>62% did not use a condom </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Results: Pornography <ul><li>Experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More men (98%) than women (72%; p < 0.001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>83% had watched pornography at home </li></ul><ul><li>Positive attitude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More men ( median = 461 ) than women (median = 225; p < 0.001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking the initiative to watch: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More men (75%) than women (19%; p < 0.001) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Results: Sources of pornography
  10. 10. Results: influence of pornography
  11. 11. Do you get influenced by pornography? <ul><li>Young women: </li></ul><ul><li>” You feel like you’re not good enough, and get the wrong idea of how a girl is portrayed” </li></ul><ul><li>” Everyone gets affected; you think it should be like in the film” </li></ul><ul><li>” You get more ideas and dare to do more” </li></ul><ul><li>Young men: </li></ul><ul><li>” You use it in your sex life” </li></ul><ul><li>” You want to try things you’ve seen on for example TV” </li></ul><ul><li>” You do get affected. You see more stuff you can do, which isn’t so bad” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Do others get influenced by pornography? <ul><li>Young women: </li></ul><ul><li>” You think that’s the way it should be” </li></ul><ul><li>” Think that for example anal sex is really common and stuff” </li></ul><ul><li>” Think that perhaps it should be hard and that the man should dominate” </li></ul><ul><li>Young men: </li></ul><ul><li>” They think it’s cool” </li></ul><ul><li>” Oral sex, anal sex” </li></ul><ul><li>” Many probably think they can do all the things they see” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Results: pornography <ul><li>Sample categorised into high- and low consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High consumers = every day/ every week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low consumers = every month/ / a few times a year, once in a while / do not read or watch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More young men (30%) than women (2%) were high consumers (p < 0.001) </li></ul>
  14. 14. * Do you get sexually aroused by looking at pornography?
  15. 15. * Do you fantasise about doing things seen in pornographic films?
  16. 16. * Have you tried to perform acts seen in pornographic films?
  17. 17. Bakground factors among high- and low consumners (men) <ul><li>Background factor High consumer Low consumer p-value </li></ul><ul><li>% (n=110) % (n=256) </li></ul><ul><li>Study programme </li></ul><ul><li>(Theoretical/Practical) 51/ 49 47/ 53 0.479 </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant background 26 26 0.991 </li></ul><ul><li>Parents occupation </li></ul><ul><li>(both working) 84 82 0.854 </li></ul><ul><li>Steady relation </li></ul><ul><li>(months; median) 6 6 0.868 </li></ul><ul><li>Age at first sexual </li></ul><ul><li>intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>(median) 15.0 16.0 0.019 </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to parents </li></ul><ul><li>( Index; mean ) 8.75 9.34 0.065 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bakground factors among high- and low consumners (men) <ul><li>Background factor High consumer Low consumer p-value </li></ul><ul><li>% (n=110) % (n=256) </li></ul><ul><li>Study programme </li></ul><ul><li>(Theoretical/Practical) 51/ 49 47/ 53 0.479 </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant background 26 26 0.991 </li></ul><ul><li>Parents occupation </li></ul><ul><li>(both working) 84 82 0.854 </li></ul><ul><li>Steady relation </li></ul><ul><li>(months; median) 6 6 0.868 </li></ul><ul><li>Age at first sexual </li></ul><ul><li>Intercourse (median) 15.0 16.0 0.019 </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to parents </li></ul><ul><li>( Index; mean ) 8.75 9.34 0.065 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sexual practices in relation to high- and low consumption of pornography among men <ul><ul><li> Anal intercourse Group sex Sex with a friend </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crude OR 2.02 2.04 1.67 </li></ul><ul><li>(95% CI 1.09-3.77) (95% CI 0.97-4.31) (95% CI 1.05-2.66) </li></ul><ul><li>Adj OR 1.99 1.95 1.75 </li></ul><ul><li> (CI 0.95-4.16) (CI 0.70-5.47) (CI 1.27-4.12) </li></ul><ul><li>Significant confounder: Early age at first intercourse (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.18-1.88) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusions <ul><li>Intercourse with a friend associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high consumption of pornography among males (sign.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anal intercourse (tendency) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group sex (tendency) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant confounder: early age of sexual debut </li></ul><ul><li>Condom use at anal- and oral sex infrequent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implications for spread of STIs </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Possible implications (1) <ul><li>Professionals working at youth clinics should have updated knowledge about adolescent sexual behaviour: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to give optimal counselling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to prevent STIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media analysis in schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage adolescents to create their own materials, not only consume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines, film, theatre etc. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Implications (2) <ul><li>Discuss gender roles and equality in sex education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is sexuality portrayed in pornography? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power-perspective? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender-perspective? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Separate girls- and boys groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dare to talk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also gender-mixed groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open discussion </li></ul></ul>

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