Implications of Price and Production Shocks on Food Security in Ethiopia: A General Equilibrium Analysis
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Implications of Price and Production Shocks on Food Security in Ethiopia: A General Equilibrium Analysis

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Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), World Food Programme(WFP), ESSP-2 Workshop, 18-November-2009

Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), World Food Programme(WFP), ESSP-2 Workshop, 18-November-2009

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Implications of Price and Production Shocks on Food Security in Ethiopia: A General Equilibrium Analysis Implications of Price and Production Shocks on Food Security in Ethiopia: A General Equilibrium Analysis Presentation Transcript

  • Implications of Price and Production Shocks on Food Security in Ethiopia: A General Equilibrium Analysis Sherman Robinson Dirk Willenbockel Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex Hashim Ahmed Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) Paul Dorosh International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (Ethiopia Strategy Support Program, ESSP-2) EDRI – World Food Programme – ESSP-2 Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 18 November, 2009
  • Introduction: Food Production and Price Shocks • Ethiopian farmers often suffer the adverse effects of insufficient or poorly timed rain. • A major drought occurred in 2002/03 and localized droughts affect some farmers almost every year • Drought-induced reductions in cereal supply and in some instances international price shocks threaten food security of net food consumers. • This paper uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the effects of these shocks on prices, incomes and food consumption, particularly for poor households.
  • Methodology • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model • Regionalized (based on agro-ecological zones) • Production • Household income and consumption • Disaggregated households – Rural farm (by region) – Small urban (rural non-farm) and large urban centers
  • The Data Base EDRI 2004/05 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) – Constructed as part of a project with the University of Sussex (w/support of IFPRI-ESSP2) – 65 production sectors (24 agricultural, 10 agricultural processing, 20 other industry, 11 services) – Regional SAM based on the “3 Ethiopias” • Rainfall sufficient, drought prone, pastoralist • Rainfall sufficient AEZ disaggregated to humid lowlands, enset-based systems, and other (highland) rainfall sufficient areas – Poor household groups defined as poorest 40% of rural and urban households according to HICES 2004/05 per capita expenditure data
  • Agro-ecological Zones (AEZ’s): “3 Ethiopias” split into 5 AEZs Source: 2005/06 EDRI Social Accounting Matrix.
  • The CGE Model • Production – Value added modeled using constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production functions of factor inputs (land, livestock capital, various types of labor and non-agricultural capital) – Intermediate inputs into production are determined as fixed shares of the quantity of output. • Trade – Imported goods are assumed to be imperfect substitutes for domestically produced goods; – Likewise, exported goods are imperfect substitutes for domestically produced and consumed goods.
  • The CGE Model (2) • Incomes and Consumption – Payments from each factor of production is allocated to households and other institutions using fixed shares derived from the base SAM. – Household consumption is modeled using a Linear Expenditure System (LES) specification.
  • Rules for Supply-Demand Balances (Model Closure) • Commodity markets • Prices adjust to equate supply and demand • Capital (including livestock capital) is fixed by sector and region • Land is fixed by region, but is mobile across crops • Labor markets • Total supply of labor of each skill type is fixed (and fully employed) • Real wages adjust so that demand for labor is equal to supply
  • CGE Model: Macro Specification • Trade balance • Fixed foreign savings (foreign capital inflow), so trade balance (current account) is also fixed. • Real exchange rate adjusts to achieve export supply and import demand that yield the fixed trade balance. • “Balanced” macro closure • Aggregate investment, government demand, and consumption are fixed shares of total absorption. • Any macro adjustment burden is shared equally across macro aggregates • Govt deficit is endogenous. Savings rates adjust to achieved savings-investment balance. • Numeraire: Consumer price index is fixed • The model determines prices relative to this fixed CPI.
  • Scenarios • Production shocks in drought-prone and pastoralist areas • 20 percent crop productivity decline • 20 percent loss of livestock • Production shocks in enset cultivating areas • 20 percent enset yield decline • 20 percent maize productivity decline
  • Agricultural Value Added by Agro-Ecological Zone bn birr (2005/06) Shares Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Teff 2.75 0.29 1.41 10.8% 3.7% 9.3% Wheat 2.31 0.26 0.88 9.1% 3.2% 5.8% Maize 2.71 0.75 1.09 10.7% 9.4% 7.2% Bar/Sor 2.47 0.20 1.61 9.7% 2.6% 10.6% Enset 0.25 0.66 0.44 1.0% 8.2% 2.9% Exp Crops 3.78 2.01 3.08 14.9% 25.1% 20.3% Oth Agric 3.64 2.09 2.35 14.3% 26.2% 15.5% Livestock 7.47 1.72 4.34 29.4% 21.6% 28.6% Total 25.38 7.97 15.19 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Zone 2: Rainfall sufficient highlands (cereal – based) Zone 3: Rainfall sufficient highlands (enset – based) – most of SNNPR Zone 4: Drought prone Source: 2005/06 EDRI Social Accounting Matrix.
  • Agricultural Value Added by Agro-Ecological Zone 30 Value Added (bn 2005-06 Birr) 25 Livestock Oth Agric 20 Exp Crops 15 Enset Bar/Sor 10 Maize 5 Wheat Teff 0 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 2: Rainfall sufficient highlands (cereal – based) Zone 3: Rainfall sufficient highlands (enset – based) – most of SNNPR Zone 4: Drought prone Source: 2005/06 EDRI Social Accounting Matrix.
  • Simulation 1a Drought (20% Decline in Crop Productivity) • Base regional agricultural production shares • Drought prone zone produces about 1/3 of total teff and barley/sorghum and about 1/4 of wheat, maize and livestock • Pastoralist zone produces 22% of livestock output • Drought-induced 20 percent decline in crop productivity • Drought-prone zone cereal crop outputs decline 13% (maize) to 21% (teff) • Barley/sorghum output falls by 16% and maize output falls by 24% in the pastoralist zone • Price and income effects • Prices of cereals rise because of reduced supply: teff (6.9%, barley/sorghum 2.2%, wheat 2.1%) • Rural poor household real incomes fall by 2.3 and 3.3% in the drought-prone and pastoralist zones, respectively • Overall, household welfare declines 2.1% (of the base year consumption expenditure) nationally
  • Simulation 1b Drought (20% Decline in Livestock) • Production shocks in drought-prone and pastoralist areas • Output of livestock falls by 14% in drought areas • At the original price, demand for livestock products would be greater than supply, so the price of livestock rises (by 8.5%) • In response to the higher prices, supply of livestock products from non-drought affected farmers increases • Livestock sector output rises by 3.1% in other AEZs • Livestock exports fall by 20.1% • The livestock shock has only small effects outside of the drought areas. • Real incomes of urban households fall by 1.0% • Nationally, real welfare fall by 0.9%
  • Simulation 2a Enset Shock (20% Decline in Enset) • Base regional agricultural production shares • The rainfall sufficient highland enset zone produces 48 percent of the national enset crop, but enset accounts for only 8 percent of the agricultural value added of SNNPR • 20 percent decline in enset area in rainfall sufficient highland enset zone (most of SNNPR) • Output of enset falls by 17% in SNNPR enset areas • The enset price rises by 5.1%, inducing some substitution of land to enset with minimal effect on other agricultural prices • Rural poor households in SNNPR suffer a small decline in welfare on average • The enset shock has almost no effect on the economy outside of the enset zone, though enset growers outside of the zone do benefit from the higher enset market price.
  • Simulation 2b 20% Decline in Maize Productivity in Enset Zone • Base regional agricultural production shares • The rainfall sufficient highland enset zone produces only 16 percent of the national maize crop, and maize accounts for only 9.4 percent of the agricultural value added of SNNPR • 20 percent decline in maize productivity in the rainfall sufficient highland enset zone (most of SNNPR) • Output of maize falls by 15% in SNNPR enset areas • The maize price rises by only 1.5%, since the maize market is assumed to be integrated with the much larger national market • Rural poor households in SNNPR suffer a small decline in welfare on average • The maize shock has almost no effect on the economy outside of the enset zone,
  • Simulation Results: Production Shocks Sim 1a Sim 1b Sim 2a Sim 2b Production Shock Livestock Maize Enset Maize 20% 20% 20% 20% Zones 4 and 5 4 and 5 3 3 Share of Natl Prod 46.7% 24.6% 48.3% 16.1% Share of Zone VA 28.6% 7.2% 8.2% 9.4% Price Effect 8.5% 1.1% 5.1% 1.5% % Change RurPoor Real Income -0.6% -2.3% -0.2% -0.1% Welfare -0.8% -2.8% -0.3% -0.1% Note: For Sims 1a and 1b, Share of Zone VA and % changes in real income and welfare are for zone 4 only. Source: 2005/06 EDRI Social Accounting Matrix.
  • Real Wholesale Prices of Cereals Addis Ababa, 2004-09 600 500 Price (Birr (2006)/quintal) 400 300 200 100 0 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08 Jan-09 Jan-04 Sep-05 Sep-06 Sep-07 Sep-08 Sep-09 Sep-04 May-05 May-06 May-07 May-08 May-09 May-04 Month/Year Maize Mixed Teff Wheat Sorghum Source: EGTE data; Dorosh and Ahmed (2009). 18
  • Caveats – Sensitivity analysis regarding key assumptions and parameters is required – In order to better model droughts, further analysis is needed regarding the multi-period effects of losses of livestock capital on livestock investment and output – Additional analysis of implications of foreign exchange rationing (as is currently in place) is also needed
  • Concluding Observations (1) • The simulations illustrate the extent to which production and price shocks spread throughout the economy • Drought reduces farmer crop incomes in the affected regions • Reduced supply affects national prices since markets are generally integrated at the wholesale level • Farmers outside drought regions actually benefit, but net consumers everywhere lose
  • Concluding Observations (2) – Production shocks can have devastating effects on households directly affected, but can leave the national economy largely unaffected – Effects on the national economy are limited even though the simulations assume integrated commodity markets (i.e. the domestic price of each commodity changes by the same amount throughout the country) – The effects of production shocks would be even more limited nationwide if commodity price transmission were less perfect, (but would be more severe in the area experiencing the production shock)
  • Concluding Observations (3) – Thus, isolated production shocks can pose severe threats to household welfare at the local level, but be essentially unnoticed at the national level because of – the small size of the shocks relative to the entire economy and – the diversity of food products (not all of which are directly affected by the shock) – Localized monitoring of production and market conditions is essential – Further work is needed to refine model paramters and specifications and to better understand dynamic effects of droughts and price shocks