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  1. 1. Bacterial spot on pepper and tomato<br />Joubert F.<br />
  2. 2. Learning Objectives<br /> The learner will be abble to :<br /> - identify the symptoms associated with bacterial spot on pepper and tomato<br /> - know the causal agents of bacterial spot on tomato and pepper<br /> - know the most widespread techniques used in the control of this disease<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />Bacterial spot on pepper and tomato<br /> - Major disease in FL and worldwide<br /> - Economic losses : up to 50% (Pohronezny and Volin, 1983)<br />Tomato industry in FL : $ 550 millions in 2006 (USDA ERS, 2008)<br />Pepper industry in FL <br /> - From November to May: National dependence for the supply of fresh peppers<br /> - 34 % of the national bell pepper acreage in 2004 (Mossler et al., 2006)<br />
  4. 4. The disease <br />
  5. 5. A : water-soaked young lesions<br />B: enlarged lesions with water-soaked<br />appearance<br />C: necrotic tissues<br />Sun, X., Nielsen, MC and Miller, JW. 2002. Bacterial spot of tomato and peper. Plant Pathology circular. No. 129. p. 4.<br />
  6. 6. Fruits symptoms<br />A : Fruits symptoms On Tomato<br />B : Fruits symptoms On pepper<br />Sun, X., Nielsen, MC and Miller, JW. 2002. Bacterial spot of tomato and peper. Plant Pathology circular. No. 129. p. 4.<br />
  7. 7. Causal agent<br />Causal agent : Xanthomonascampestrispv. vesicatoria(formerly)<br /> - X. perforans on tomato, and X. euvesicatoria on peper<br /> Cultivar of pepper and tomato have been used to characterize races of xanthomonadspathogenic to theses plants<br />Jones, JB, and Stall, RE. 1998. Diversity among xanthomonads pathogenic on pepper and tomato. Annual Review of Phytopathology 36:41-58. <br />
  8. 8. Causal agent<br />www.apsnet.org/.../PhotosE-H/eps.htm<br /><ul><li>Yellow bacterial colonies of X. c.pv.vesicatoriaon sucrose-peptone-agar medium
  9. 9. sugar polymers that contribute to the bacterial slimy appearance</li></li></ul><li>Disease cycle of bacterial spot <br />www.apsnet.org/.../BacterialSpot/discycle.htm<br />
  10. 10. Cultural practices <br />Use disease – and pathogen –free transplants. <br />Avoid clipping the seedlings to reduce bacterial secondary spread.<br />Do not place cull piles near tomato or pepper fields. <br />Avoid overhead irrigation watering in transplant production. <br />Eliminate volunteer tomato and solanaceousweeds such cherry and nightshade in the vicinity of tomato or pepper fields. <br />Decontaminate tools after working in the infested fields <br />
  11. 11. Control of bacterial spot <br />Copper based bactericides , routinely used<br /> - Frequent occurrence of resistant copper strains<br /> Copper + an EBDC fungicide (mancozeb, maneb…)<br />Copper resistance genes in Xanthomonasperforansin strains from Florida , Oklahoma ,from California<br />
  12. 12. Control<br />Actigard : Application every 14 days<br /> - Activation of plant defense response <br />Phages (bacteriophages) <br /> - Phages are viruses that infect bacteria. <br /> - A registered product is Agriphage (AgriPhi, Inc, UT). <br /> - formulated phages could be applied twice a week at sunset for the management of bacterial spot<br />
  13. 13. Integrated Management<br />Purpose <br /> - reduction of bacterial sources and minimization of plant susceptibility.<br />Factible combinations :<br />Actigard and copper-mancozeb combination.<br />or<br />Actigard and AgriPhage combination : <br /> Application of Actigard : every 14 days. <br /> Use of phage twice a week : <br /> Application before sunset<br />