Factors that weakened the League of Nations <ul><li>No control of major conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>No progress in disarmament. </li></ul><ul><li>No effective military force </li></ul><ul><li>US and the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>were not members. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: Organization </li></ul><ul><li>created to maintain peace </li></ul><ul><li>through negotiations, rather </li></ul><ul><li>than war </li></ul>
Hyperinflation—German’s Economy in Shambles after WWI
Weimar Republic: Decadence & Corruption in 1920’s Berlin Germany was taken over by corruption, chaos and Communist uprisings. Decadence and anarchy reigned and everyone seemed to be at war with one another. In addition the state was under a constant threat, being unarmed and unsafe in the neighbor of steadily strengthening Soviet Union. This was the situation when the National Socialists began their struggle.
The Great Depression “ Brother, can you spare a dime?”
*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are bitterly opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism Nazism Fascism Communism
"Don't chat! Chatting leads to treason"
Policy of Appeasement <ul><ul><li>Appeasement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy of making concessions to an aggressor in hopes of avoiding war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How was it used prior to World War II? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance that Hitler could not be stopped and needed to be negotiated with (even at the expense of the smaller independent countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepted because of sympathy and guilt felt by Britain and USA of unjust Treaty of Versailles </li></ul></ul>
U. S. Neutrality Acts: 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939 U.S. practiced a foreign policy of isolationism---remain out of the affairs of nations outside of North America
Germany Invades the Rhineland March 7, 1936 Rhineland : Border line between Germany and France occupied by Hitler
Why the German reoccupation of the Rhineland marked a significant turning point? <ul><li>Hitler´s power increased in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The balance of power changed in Germany´s favor. </li></ul><ul><li>The weak response by France and Great Britain encouraged Hitler to further aggression </li></ul><ul><li>They killed political dissidents, Soviet prisoners of war, and other radicals for political reasons. </li></ul>
Rome-Berlin Axis , 1936 The “Pact of Steel” Axis Powers: Alliance among Germany, Italy.
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis , 1940 The Tripartite Pact
Hitler at the 1936 Berlin Olympics African-American Jesse Owens became the first to win 4 gold medals in track and field---much to Hitler’s contempt
The Spanish Civil War: 1936 - 1939 Francisco Franco: Becomes first fascist dictator of Spain / ally of Hitler
“ Guernica” by Pablo Picasso The bombing of Guernica (April 26, 1937) was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica, causing widespread destruction and civilian deaths during the Spanish Civil War. The raid by planes of the German Luftwaffe "Condor Legion" and the Italian Fascist Aviazione Legionaria was called Operation Rügen . Western countries viewed Guernica as an example of ‘terror bombing.‘ This is the subject of Picasso’s famous anti-war painting.
The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937 WWII began in Asia when The Japanese army invaded The Chinese province of Manchuria
The Austrian Anschluss , 1938 Within three years of the rise to power of the Nazi Party in Germany and his appointment as Chancellor, Adolf Hitler had begun to rearm Germany and had marched his troops back into the demilitarized Rhineland. These actions were in breach of the Treaty of Versailles, but produced no retaliation from Great Britain and France, and the Nazi leader felt that he could safely embark on military aggression against tiny Austria. After first destabilizing its government, Hitler invaded Austria in 1938. Many Austrians welcomed the Nazis and were content to see their country incorporated into Germany.
Munich Conference (Sudetenland) England and France agree to let Hitler take part of Czechoslovakia in 1938 and in exchange Hitler promises to stop further aggressive actions. SUDETENLAND Mountanious region of western Czechoslovakia occupied by Hitler
Why did France and Britain fail to take a strong stand against Hitler time after time? Neither was strong enough to stand against Hitler alone, they didn´t want to weaken their economies again
MUNICH CONFERENCE SHORT- TERMS OUTCOMES Made Hitler confident Accelerating his plans of attack LONG-TERM OUTCOMES l It became a symbol for surrender Future leaders should Never vote to appease An aggressor again.
Appeasement : The Munich Agreement, 1938 Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain who practiced appeasement Negotiations????? Process of making Trade offs
Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich: 1939 Occupy: to take over without permission Puppet government: Government controlled by An outside power Collective security: A system in which nations Act together to stop aggression