Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s LIC. LAURA FLORES
Extreme Nationalism Deny Individual Rights - Supremacy of The State Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control - For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator TOTALITARIANISM
What is it?
Describe its characteristics…
Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)
Censorship (to examine printed materials to ban or delete information)
Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)
One leader (dictator); charismatic
Authoritarian (requiring absolute loyalty and obedience to the state
Terror and Fear
*These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism Nazism Fascism Communism
I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953.
What is Communism?
revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”
state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)
Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism
I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943. First
European fascist dictator of Italy
What is Fascism?
intense nationalism and elitism
interests of the state more important than individual rights
maintain class system and private ownership
Ideas of Mussolini
Mussolini argued that citizens were empowered when they were subordinated to the state. By blindly obeying the state, they helped the state thrive, which benefited them.
To Mussolini, this distinguished the fascist state from repressive authoritarian governments, which sought to crush people, & not empower them.
I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
What is Nazism? German fascism
extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian
based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party
belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”
belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe
Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them
Hitler considered himself superior, eventhough he was a drifter & failed artist during his youth.
A corporal during WWI, he was devastated by Germany’s loss & blamed it on the Jews.
He started his political career at age 30, joining the German Workers Party. He had exceptional speaking skills & came to be revered by others in the party. He was chosen its leader in 1921, and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party.
Fascism taken to
its extreme form.
Racist and anti-Semitic
elements that did not
appear in Italian fascism.
Nazi Controls Anti-semitism: Hostility and discrimination against the jews Territorial integrity: Territorial domain of a State Armed Aggression: Military invasion, a War of conquest
GESTAPO : the Secret State Police
SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA
SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties
Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east
Wehrmacht: German army
Einstazgruppen: Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units
Nazi Military State
M EIN KAMPF : Book written by Hitler, set his ideas and goals: Germans were a master race, that jews , latins, black people, gypsies, Homosexuals, were inferior and should be destroyed LEBENSRAUM: living space for Germans VERSAILLES TREATY : should be destroyed
Mein Kampf (1924)
The title means My Struggle , and it expounds on Hitler’s anti‑Semitism, worship of power, scorn for morality, and plan for world domination. Hitler wrote it in prison after a failed attempt to overthrow the German government
ENABLING ACT: Act that Gave Hitler Absolute Power in Germany for four Years-
This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. Nuremberg Laws : Deprived jews of german citizenship and rights “ The Eternal Jew” Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community. Kristallnocht: The beginning of the nazi persecution of jews
Kristallnacht—November 9, 1938—”Night of Broken Glass”—Jewish shops, synagogues, homes violently attacked—after a Jewish teenager from Germany shot a German diplomat in Paris—beginning of mass emigration of Jews and the forced removal to Jewish ghettos