Fascism B

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Fascism B

  1. 1. Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s LIC. LAURA FLORES
  2. 2. Extreme Nationalism Deny Individual Rights - Supremacy of The State Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control - For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator TOTALITARIANISM
  3. 3. <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe its characteristics… </li></ul>Totalitarianism
  4. 4. <ul><li>Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms) </li></ul><ul><li>Strict controls and laws </li></ul><ul><li>Military state (secret police, army, military) </li></ul><ul><li>Censorship (to examine printed materials to ban or delete information) </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters) </li></ul><ul><li>One leader (dictator); charismatic </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian (requiring absolute loyalty and obedience to the state </li></ul><ul><li>Terror and Fear </li></ul>Totalitarianism
  5. 5. *These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism Nazism Fascism Communism
  6. 6. Communism <ul><li>I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Communism? </li></ul><ul><li>revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society” </li></ul><ul><li>state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership) </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fascism <ul><li>I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943. First </li></ul><ul><li>European fascist dictator of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>What is Fascism? </li></ul><ul><li>intense nationalism and elitism </li></ul><ul><li>totalitarian control </li></ul><ul><li>interests of the state more important than individual rights </li></ul><ul><li>maintain class system and private ownership </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ideas of Mussolini <ul><li>Mussolini argued that citizens were empowered when they were subordinated to the state. By blindly obeying the state, they helped the state thrive, which benefited them. </li></ul><ul><li>To Mussolini, this distinguished the fascist state from repressive authoritarian governments, which sought to crush people, & not empower them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nazism <ul><li>I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Nazism? German fascism </li></ul><ul><li>extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian </li></ul><ul><li>based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party </li></ul><ul><li>belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race” </li></ul><ul><li>belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adolph Hitler <ul><li>Hitler considered himself superior, eventhough he was a drifter & failed artist during his youth. </li></ul><ul><li>A corporal during WWI, he was devastated by Germany’s loss & blamed it on the Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>He started his political career at age 30, joining the German Workers Party. He had exceptional speaking skills & came to be revered by others in the party. He was chosen its leader in 1921, and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nazism <ul><li>Fascism taken to </li></ul><ul><li>its extreme form. </li></ul><ul><li>Racist and anti-Semitic </li></ul><ul><li>elements that did not </li></ul><ul><li>appear in Italian fascism. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nazi Controls Anti-semitism: Hostility and discrimination against the jews Territorial integrity: Territorial domain of a State Armed Aggression: Military invasion, a War of conquest
  13. 13. <ul><li>GESTAPO : the Secret State Police </li></ul><ul><li>SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA </li></ul><ul><li>SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers &quot;brown-shirts&quot; early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east </li></ul><ul><li>Wehrmacht: German army </li></ul><ul><li>Einstazgruppen: Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units </li></ul>Nazi Military State
  14. 16. M EIN KAMPF : Book written by Hitler, set his ideas and goals: Germans were a master race, that jews , latins, black people, gypsies, Homosexuals, were inferior and should be destroyed LEBENSRAUM: living space for Germans VERSAILLES TREATY : should be destroyed
  15. 17. Mein Kampf (1924) <ul><li>The title means My Struggle , and it expounds on Hitler’s anti‑Semitism, worship of power, scorn for morality, and plan for world domination. Hitler wrote it in prison after a failed attempt to overthrow the German government </li></ul>
  16. 18. ENABLING ACT: Act that Gave Hitler Absolute Power in Germany for four Years-
  17. 20. This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. Nuremberg Laws : Deprived jews of german citizenship and rights “ The Eternal Jew” Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community. Kristallnocht: The beginning of the nazi persecution of jews
  18. 21. kristallnacht <ul><li>Kristallnacht—November 9, 1938—”Night of Broken Glass”—Jewish shops, synagogues, homes violently attacked—after a Jewish teenager from Germany shot a German diplomat in Paris—beginning of mass emigration of Jews and the forced removal to Jewish ghettos </li></ul>

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