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  • 1. Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during the 1930s LIC. LAURA FLORES
  • 2. Extreme Nationalism Deny Individual Rights - Supremacy of The State Increasing influence of new political parties that emphasize state control - For example: Communism, Nazism, Fascism Total Control of State by a Dictator TOTALITARIANISM
  • 3.
    • What is it?
    • Describe its characteristics…
    Totalitarianism
  • 4.
    • Government establishes complete control of all aspects of the state (political, military, economy, social, cultural)
    • Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies, uniforms)
    • Strict controls and laws
    • Military state (secret police, army, military)
    • Censorship (to examine printed materials to ban or delete information)
    • Propaganda (media – radio, newspapers, posters)
    • One leader (dictator); charismatic
    • Authoritarian (requiring absolute loyalty and obedience to the state
    • Terror and Fear
    Totalitarianism
  • 5. *These theories, specifically Communism and Fascism, are completely different theories that are opposed; however they exhibit the same behaviour Totalitarianism Nazism Fascism Communism
  • 6. Communism
    • I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953.
    • What is Communism?
    • revolutionary idea of a political, economic and social system that creates a “classless society”
    • state ownership and control of the means of production (no private ownership)
    • Soviet Communism or “Stalinism”, was more of a totalitarian and military state combined with elements of communism
  • 7. Fascism
    • I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of Italy from 1922 to 1943. First
    • European fascist dictator of Italy
    • What is Fascism?
    • intense nationalism and elitism
    • totalitarian control
    • interests of the state more important than individual rights
    • maintain class system and private ownership
  • 8. Ideas of Mussolini
    • Mussolini argued that citizens were empowered when they were subordinated to the state. By blindly obeying the state, they helped the state thrive, which benefited them.
    • To Mussolini, this distinguished the fascist state from repressive authoritarian governments, which sought to crush people, & not empower them.
  • 9. Nazism
    • I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
    • What is Nazism? German fascism
    • extremely fascist , nationalistic and totalitarian
    • based on beliefs of the National Socialist German Workers Party
    • belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan, the “master race”
    • belief that all Germans should have “lebensraum” or living space in Europe
    • Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germany’s problems on them
  • 10. Adolph Hitler
    • Hitler considered himself superior, eventhough he was a drifter & failed artist during his youth.
    • A corporal during WWI, he was devastated by Germany’s loss & blamed it on the Jews.
    • He started his political career at age 30, joining the German Workers Party. He had exceptional speaking skills & came to be revered by others in the party. He was chosen its leader in 1921, and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party.
  • 11. Nazism
    • Fascism taken to
    • its extreme form.
    • Racist and anti-Semitic
    • elements that did not
    • appear in Italian fascism.
  • 12. Nazi Controls Anti-semitism: Hostility and discrimination against the jews Territorial integrity: Territorial domain of a State Armed Aggression: Military invasion, a War of conquest
  • 13.
    • GESTAPO : the Secret State Police
    • SS (Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unit formed out of the SA
    • SA (Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties
    • Lebensraum (living space): concept that emphasized need for territorial expansion of Germany into east
    • Wehrmacht: German army
    • Einstazgruppen: Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing units
    Nazi Military State
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. M EIN KAMPF : Book written by Hitler, set his ideas and goals: Germans were a master race, that jews , latins, black people, gypsies, Homosexuals, were inferior and should be destroyed LEBENSRAUM: living space for Germans VERSAILLES TREATY : should be destroyed
  • 17. Mein Kampf (1924)
    • The title means My Struggle , and it expounds on Hitler’s anti‑Semitism, worship of power, scorn for morality, and plan for world domination. Hitler wrote it in prison after a failed attempt to overthrow the German government
  • 18. ENABLING ACT: Act that Gave Hitler Absolute Power in Germany for four Years-
  • 19.  
  • 20. This Nazi propaganda poster reads, ‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew. Nuremberg Laws : Deprived jews of german citizenship and rights “ The Eternal Jew” Posters like this promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and in some cases violence against the Jewish community. Kristallnocht: The beginning of the nazi persecution of jews
  • 21. kristallnacht
    • Kristallnacht—November 9, 1938—”Night of Broken Glass”—Jewish shops, synagogues, homes violently attacked—after a Jewish teenager from Germany shot a German diplomat in Paris—beginning of mass emigration of Jews and the forced removal to Jewish ghettos