The Assyrian Empire


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© 2009 AlessandraRao A powerpoint presentation designed by, Phyllis Yao and Carolyn Helfand, Global Period 7 Class (Ms.Regnier) Due November 26, 2008. Alos included: a video of Alessandra's original song, Give me a Chance. © 2009 AlessandraRao

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  • The Assyrian Empire

    1. 2. Geography of Assyria The geography of Assyria had a big impact on their resources, victories, defeats and culture. The Assyrian Empire is a part of four countries. Its abundant resources helped it to become a successful empire. <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria is located in the northern part of Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>The heartland of the empire spans land throughout four countries </li></ul><ul><li>These countries include: - Northern Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>-North western Iran -South eastern Turkey -North eastern Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria is located near the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>The Tigris and Euphrates River runs through Assyria </li></ul><ul><li>Nineveh is the capital of Assyria </li></ul>Climate -Assyrian winters were cold and wet -Summers were warm AR
    2. 3. Geography of Assyria (Continued) <ul><li>Geographic Features </li></ul><ul><li>The land is flat and exposed, making it easy to be attacked </li></ul><ul><li>-This influenced the culture to develop a war like behavior </li></ul><ul><li>-They repelled invaders by setting up a strong army </li></ul><ul><li>The Tigris and Euphrates rivers run through Assyria </li></ul><ul><li>Important cities like Nineveh, Ashur, Arbel, Nimrod and Arrapkha are located near the Tigris River </li></ul><ul><li>The Taurus and Zagros mountains are to the north and east </li></ul><ul><li>A limestone plateau is located south and west of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>There is an adequate amount of rainfall by the foot of the Zagros mountains, which contributes to their healthy soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Land and Resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrian land is very rich, fertile and was an essential part of their agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Major crop producing areas include Arbel Plain and Nineveh Plain. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria was successful in agriculture for its abundant crops </li></ul><ul><li>Figs, olives, pomegranates, almonds, mulberries and vines were also grown. Cotton and grain were grown as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tigris and Euphrates rivers provide benefits such as transportation, fertile land, deposits of alluvium, irrigation, etc </li></ul>The Assyrian Flag AR
    3. 4. Assyrian Culture and Religion Artifacts found by archaeologists acted as a window to the Assyrian way of life. The Assyrians had a form of record keeping and a distinct culture. Detailed artwork, pottery, carvings, and sculpture demonstrate the way they battled, their weapons, and their values. Their cruel behavior earned them a bad reputation. <ul><li>Worship </li></ul><ul><li>In the Ancient Assyrian religion, the king was paramount (highest in rank) </li></ul><ul><li>Assur was the national god, who was represented by the king. He was depicted as a warrior god and leader in war. </li></ul><ul><li>Customs </li></ul><ul><li>Akitu is known as the Assyrian New Year </li></ul><ul><li>Ashur, Sargon, Shamiram, Nineveh, Ninos, and Nimrod, are popular Christian and Assyrian names given to children </li></ul>AR
    4. 5. Assyrian Culture and Religion <ul><li>Assyrian Art </li></ul><ul><li>The typical Assyrian art form was “narrative relief sculpture”. Tools were used to carve into stone. </li></ul><ul><li>Stone was an important resource to the Assyrians, and there was an abundance of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrians excelled in working with bronze which was also plentiful. </li></ul><ul><li>Places like the Palace of Ashurbanipal were decorated with shallow carved stone sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes depicting lion hunts and winged bulls with human faces (right) were incorporated into the sculptures. </li></ul>AR
    5. 6. Assyrian Culture and Religion: Art AR
    6. 7. Assyrian Culture and Religion (Continued) <ul><li>The Assyrian Language </li></ul><ul><li>Akkadian – Ancient language of the Assyrians </li></ul><ul><li>It was written in cuneiform on clay tablets </li></ul><ul><li>It was used up until 750 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Arameans brought a new writing system: Aramaic </li></ul><ul><li>Aramaic was written on parchment paper, leather or papyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language, and a modern form of it is spoken among most Assyrians. </li></ul><ul><li>Dialects include Chaldean, Turoyo, and Assyrian. </li></ul><ul><li>These Neo-Aramaic languages using Syriac Script </li></ul><ul><li>Syriac script is a modern form of Aramaic script. </li></ul>Below: The Assyrian Language Right: Assyrian Language Background: AR
    7. 8. Assyrian Culture and Religion <ul><li>Assyrian Policies </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrians were a merciless people. </li></ul><ul><li>Their policy was to dispatch conquered peoples to other areas in the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Also, their goals were to destroy the enemy country’s sense of nationalism, or pride. </li></ul><ul><li>They were known for their cruelty because they skinned and beheaded their prisoners (see image to the right). This tactic was a part of their culture and a way to inflict terror. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture to the right depicts the Assyrian scribes recording the number of people slain. </li></ul>AR
    8. 9. Expansion <ul><li>Assyria expanded by their strong military forces and kept the territories using force </li></ul><ul><li>Between 850 and 650 BC, Assyria defeated Syria, Palestine and Babylonia. They conquered Egypt, reachinBetween 850 and 650 BC, Assyria defeated Syria, Palestine and Babylonia. They conquered Egypt, reaching beyond the Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria was very advanced when it came to technology and strategies for war. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrians were very heroic when it came to protecting their nation. They were rumored to come out on top when they were out numbered five to one. </li></ul>Assyrian soldiers PY
    9. 10. Assyrian Military the Assyrian army was the largest standing army ever seen in the Middle east or Mediterranean <ul><li>Not only did the Assyria have advanced technology, they also had great tactics to capture other kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The army drew rams in to the city walls to break them down. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrian troops threw ladders against the walls of cities and climbed into the city's stronghold while the archers launched arrows. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrian Army used sappers (soldiers who dug tunnels) to sap the origins of the enemy's walls so they would weaken and fall. </li></ul>PY
    10. 11. Assyrian Military cont . <ul><li>If there were a river in between the Assyrian army and the city, the engineers would build pontoons to bridge the rivers. They tied inflated animal skins together and connected the pontoons to the shores with beams. They elevated a raised dirt roadway at both ends. Soldiers then installed a support structure of stones, brush and clay. </li></ul><ul><li>The army was very organized, with many types of specialized units. There were the personal security for the king, archers, spearmen, rams and foot soldiers. </li></ul>Assyrians attacking an Egyptian city PY
    11. 12. Controlling the Conquered Kingdoms <ul><li>Assyria organized the conquered territories into an empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria governed the territories closest to Assyria and made them dependent territories. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrian kings picked the governor for the dependent territories or supported the rulers that sided with Assyria. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria protected the dependent territories from invasions. </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria was forceful ruling the empire. If a conquered territory refused to pay taxes, Assyria would destroy the land and kill the people. </li></ul><ul><li>If there were any signs of rebellion, entire populations could be wiped out, and their territories annexed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of people were deported to work in Assyria as slave laborers or conscripts into the army. </li></ul>PY
    12. 13. Assyrian Technology <ul><li>The Assyrians were crafty, looking always onward and upward. Nineveh, Assyria’s capital city, featured one of the ancient world’s largest libraries. Ashurbanipal, one of Assyria’s many kings, had the useful and desirable ability to read in several languages. As their technology advanced, their Empire did also. Assyrian technology, in fact, is what helped them to be so very powerful. </li></ul>CH
    13. 14. Chariots <ul><li>One of the most useful things that the Assyrians used was the chariot. Also a means of quick transportation, the two-wheeled horse-drawn Chariots were used to smash their way through the cities and towns of their rivals. Fun, yes? </li></ul>CH
    14. 15. Iron <ul><li>The Assyrians were also some of the first ancient peoples to notice the quality and efficiency of Iron over bronze. Soon, they had equipped all of their warriors with weapons and armor that were mostly (if not completely) made of heavy durable iron. </li></ul>CH
    15. 16. Fall of the Assyrian Empire <ul><li>A huge part of Assyria’s growth as an empire rode on their ability to successfully take over and defeat other towns, cities, empires, etc. Although, because of their violent nature, the Assyrian’s earned themselves more enemies than allies. Shortly after the death of king Ashurbanipal, a united army made up of mostly Medes and Chaldeans burned Nineveh to the ground. Assyria fell quickly after that. </li></ul>CH
    16. 17. Bibliography: slides 1 - 8 <ul><li>Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. &quot;Entry for 'ASSYRIA'&quot;. &quot;International Standard Bible Encyclopedia&quot;. 1915. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Hallsal, Paul. &quot;Assyria (c.1350- 612 BCE).&quot; Ancient History Source Book 04 08 1998 25 Nov 2008 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Photos: </li></ul><ul><li>The Ancient Near East Map (Background Slide 3) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrian Empire 650 BC (Map slide 2) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrian god photo (Image Slide 4) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrian art </li></ul><ul><li>http:// = hut&name =47112.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrian art </li></ul><ul><li>http:// = hut&name =47090.jpg </li></ul>AR
    17. 18. Bibliography: slides 9 - 12 <ul><li> http:// </li></ul><ul><li><!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]--> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li><!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]--> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li><!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]--> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li><!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]--> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li><!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]--> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li><!--[if !supportEmptyParas]--> <!--[endif]--> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>PY
    18. 19. Bibliography: Slides 13 - 16 <ul><li>Gordon, George . &quot;Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent.&quot; World History . 2nd ed. 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Assyrian Empire.&quot; . 24 Nov 2008 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>BetBasoo, Peter. &quot;Timeline of Assyrian History.&quot; . 24 Nov 2008 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ancient Assyrian Armor.&quot; . 24 Nov 2008 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Maspero, G.. &quot;History of Egypt.&quot; . 24 Nov 2008 <>. </li></ul>CH