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  • 1. Chapter 9~ Cellular Respiration:
    • Harvesting Chemical Energy
  • 2. Cells need energy to perform cellular work:
    • Growth
    • Metabolism
    • Movement
    • Contraction
    • Cell division
    • Transport
  • 3. Principles of Energy Harvesting
    • Respiration is a Catabolic pathway
    • Organic compounds such as glucose are broken down releasing the energy stored in the chemical bonds
  • 4.  
  • 5. Cellular Respiration
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 ---> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O +
    ATP
  • 6. Cellular respiration has 3 components:
    • Glycolysis: occurs in the cytosol; degrades glucose into pyruvate
    • Kreb’s Cycle: occurs in mitochondrial matrix; pyruvate into carbon dioxide
    • Electron Transport Chain: occurs in inner membrane of mitochondrion; electrons passed to oxygen
  • 7.  
  • 8. Respiration is a Redox reaction
    • Oxidation-reduction
    • Oxidation is e-loss; reduction is e-gain
    • Reducing agent: e-donor
    • Oxidizing agent: e-acceptor
  • 9. “ Leo says Ger”
  • 10.
    • Na + Cl Na+ + Cl-
    • Sodium is ______________?
    • Chlorine is _____________?
  • 11. Some redox reactions change the degree of sharing between covalent bonds
  • 12.
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 ---> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O +
    ATP
  • 13. Oxidizing agent in respiration
    • NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
    • Removes electrons from food (series of reactions)
    • NAD+ is reduced to NADH
    • Enzyme action: dehydrogenase
    • Oxygen is the eventual e- acceptor
  • 14.  
  • 15. Glycolysis
    • 1 Glucose 2 pyruvate molecules
    • C 6 2C 3 molecules
  • 16.
    • Energy investment phase : cell uses ATP to phosphorylate fuel
    • Energy payoff phase : ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation and NAD+ is reduced to NADH by food oxidation
    • Net energy yield per glucose molecule : 2 ATP plus 2 NADH; no CO2 is released.
  • 17.  
  • 18. Other compounds can be converted to simple sugars and consumed during glycolysis
    • Proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids
    • Fats are digested into glycerol and fatty acids
  • 19. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • Completes the energy yielding oxidation of organic molecules
  • 20. If molecular oxygen is present…….
    • Each pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA (begin w/ 2):
      • CO2 is released;
      • NAD+ ---> NADH;
      • coenzyme A (from B vitamin), makes molecule very reactive
  • 21. For each pyruvate that enters:
    • 3 NAD+ reduced to NADH
    • 1 FAD+ reduced to FADH 2
    • 1 ATP molecule
  • 22.  
  • 23. Electron Transport Chains
    • Couple electron transport (exergonic) to ATP synthesis (endergonic)
    • Oxygen is the terminal (final) electron receptor, therefore the process produces ATP by “Oxidative Phosphorylation”
    • Produces 32-34 molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose
  • 24. Electron transport chains
    • Involve electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins)
    • Shuttle electrons that release energy used to make ATP
    • Sequence of reactions that prevents energy release in 1 explosive step
  • 25.  
  • 26. Electron route:
    • food
    • NADH
    • electron transport chain
    • oxygen
  • 27. Electron transport chain
    • Cytochromes carry electron carrier molecules (NADH & FADH2) down to oxygen
    • Chemiosmosis : energy coupling mechanism
    • ATP synthase : produces ATP by using the H+ gradient (proton-motive force) pumped into the inner membrane space from the electron transport chain; this enzyme harnesses the flow of H+ back into the matrix to phosphorylate ADP to ATP (oxidative phosphorylation)
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Review: Cellular Respiration
    • Glycolysis: 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • Kreb’s Cycle: 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • Electron transport & oxidative phosphorylation: 2 NADH (glycolysis) = 6ATP 2 NADH (acetyl CoA) = 6ATP 6 NADH (Kreb’s) = 18 ATP 2 FADH2 (Kreb’s) = 4 ATP
    • 38 TOTAL ATP/glucose
  • 31. FERMENTATION
    • When oxygen is not available, glycolysis is followed by :
      • Alcohol fermentation
        • pyruvate to ethanol
      • lactic acid fermentation
        • pyruvate to lactate
        • Occurs in muscle of animals when insufficient oxygen is present
  • 32. Fermentation
    • Does not produce any additional ATP
    • Does regenerate oxidized NAD, to keep glycolysis operating
  • 33.