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Ch 2 Biochemistry Ap
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Ch 2 Biochemistry Ap

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  • 1. Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry
  • 2.
    • Matter and Energy
    • Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)
      • Physical vs Chemical changes
    • Energy – the ability to do work
      • Kinetic • Potential
      • Chemical • Electrical
      • Mechanical • Radiant
    • Law of Conservation of Energy - change forms
  • 3.
    • Composition of Matter
    • Elements
      • Fundamental units of matter
      • 96% of the body is made from four elements
        • Carbon (C)
        • Oxygen (O)
        • Hydrogen (H)
        • Nitrogen (N)
    • Atoms
      • Building blocks of elements
  • 4.
    • Atomic Structure
    • Inside nucleus
      • Protons (p + )
      • Neutrons (n 0 )
    • Outside nucleus
      • Electrons (e - )
  • 5.
    • Identifying Elements
    • Atomic number
      • Equal to the number of protons that the atoms contain
    • Atomic mass number
      • Sum of the protons and neutrons
  • 6.
    • Atomic Weight and Isotopes
    • Isotopes – Carbon-12 and Carbon-14
      • Have the same number of protons
      • Vary in number of neutrons
    • Atomic weight
      • Close to mass number of most abundant isotope
      • Atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation
  • 7.
    • Radioactivity
    • Radioisotope
      • Heavy isotope
      • Tends to be unstable
      • Decomposes to more stable isotope
    • Radioactivity
      • Process of spontaneous atomic decay
  • 8.
    • Molecules and Compounds
    Molecule – two or more like atoms combined chemically Compound – two or more different atoms combined chemically Carbon dioxide CO 2
  • 9.
    • Chemical Reactions
    • Atoms are united by chemical bonds
    • Atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken
  • 10.
    • Electrons and Bonding
    • Electrons occupy energy levels called electron shells
    • Electrons closest to the nucleus are most strongly attracted
    • Each shell has distinct properties
      • Number of electrons has an upper limit
      • Shells closest to nucleus fill first
  • 11.
    • Electrons and Bonding
    • Bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer shell (valence shell)
    • Full valence shells do not form bonds
  • 12.
    • Inert Elements
    • Have complete valence shells and are stable
    • Rule of 8s
      • Shell 1 has 2 electrons
      • Shell 2 has 10 electrons
        • 10 = 2 + 8
      • Shell 3 has 18 electrons
        • 18 = 2 + 8 + 8
  • 13.
    • Reactive Elements
    • Valence shells are not full and are unstable
    • Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons
      • Allows for bond formation, which produces stable valence
  • 14.
    • Chemical Bonds
    • 1. Ionic Bonds
      • Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
    • Ions
      • Charged particles
        • Anions are negative (Cl-)
        • Cations are positive (Na+)
        • Either donate or accept electrons
  • 15.
    • Chemical Bonds
    • 2. Covalent Bonds
      • Atoms become stable through shared electrons
      • Single covalent bonds share one electron
      • Double covalent bonds share two electrons
  • 16.
    • Examples of Covalent Bonds
  • 17.
    • Polarity
    • Covalent bonded molecules
      • Some are non-polar
        • Electrically neutral as a molecule
      • Some are polar
        • Have a positive and negative side
  • 18.
    • Chemical Bonds
    • 3. Hydrogen bonds
      • Weak chemical bonds
      • Hydrogen is attracted to negative portion of polar molecule
      • Provides attraction between molecules
  • 19.
    • Patterns of Chemical Reactions
    • 1. Synthesis reaction (A+B  AB)
      • Atoms or molecules combine
      • Energy is absorbed for bond formation
    • 2. Decomposition reaction (AB  A+B)
      • Molecule is broken down
      • Chemical energy is released
  • 20.
    • Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions
  • 21.
    • Patterns of Chemical Reactions
    • 3. Exchange reaction
      • (AB + C  AC+B) single
      • (AB+CD  AD+CB) double
      • Involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions
      • Switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made