Followers believe that obtaining valid knowledge is the only way to obtain release from suffering.
According to the Nyaya school, there are exactly four sources of knowledge (pramanas)
Closely associated with the Hindu school of logic Nyaya. Vaisesika proposes a form of atomism and claims that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms guided or directed by the will of the Supreme Being.
Sankhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities
Prakriti (phenomenal realm of matter).
Is the cultivation of the mind using meditation ( dhyana) to further one's acquaintance with reality and finally achieve liberation.
Believe in revelation of the nature and of dharma, by following a set ritual obligations, and prerogatives to be performed properly.
Also believed that the nature of dharma isn't accessible to reason or observation, and must be inferred from the authority of the revelation contained in the Vedas.
Vedanta is based on two simple propositions
Human nature is divine.
The aim of human life is to realize that human nature is divine.
The goal of Vedanta is a state of self-realization or cosmic consciousness
The predominant religion in ancient India was Hinduism. The roots of Hindu religion can be traced back to the Vedic period. Hinduism is believed to be the oldest of major religions and originated in northern India. Besides Hinduism, other main religions during ancient India were Buddhism, and Jainism.. There also many heterodox religious sects in ancient India. One such sect was Ajivika, founded by Mahavira's rival Goshala Maskariputra. There were also several other religious contemporaries to Buddha and Mahavira during the 6th century B.C. z
Technology in Ancient India
Science and technology in ancient and medieval India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games.
Technology in Ancient India (pt.2)
Mathematics - Vedic literature is replete with concepts of zero, the techniques of algebra and algorithm, square root and cube root. Arguably, the origins of Calculus lie in India 300 years before Leibnitz and Newton.
Astronomy - Rig Veda (2000 BC) refers to astronomy. Physics - Concepts of atom and theory of relativity were explicitly stated by an Indian Philosopher around 600 BC.
Chemistry - Principles of chemistry did not remain abstract but also found expression in distillation of perfumes, aromatic liquids, manufacturing of dyes and pigments, and extraction of sugar.
Medical science & surgery - Around 800 BC, first compendium on medicine and surgery was complied in ancient India.
Fine Arts - Vedas were recited and recitation has to be correct, which gave rise to a finer study of sound and phonetics. The natural corollary were emergence of music and other forms of performing arts.
Mechanical & production technology - Greek historians have testified to smelting of certain metals in India in the 4th century BC.
Civil engineering & architecture - The discovery of urban settlements of Mohenjodaro and Harappa indicate existence of civil engineering & architecture, which blossomed to a highly precise science of civil engineering and architecture and found expression in innumerable monuments of ancient India. Along with the creation of indoor plumbing,
Shipbuilding & navigation - Sanskrit and Pali texts have several references to maritime activity by ancient Indians.
Sports & games Ancient India is the birth place of chess, ludo, snakes and ladders and playing cards .
During ancient India various art forms developed at great pace. It is evident from the surviving art forms and literature that the ancient Indian art forms have great detailing and unique realistic style of their own.
Well planned cities and houses with the presence of drainage systems and public baths. Vedic villages had certain distinct characteristics The Vedic grama could have a pur, or a fort-like structure within it. The Vedic hymns speak of "purs" made of stone and metal. The Vedas had many words for houses. It appears that the main distinction was between chhardis ( house with a thatched roof), harmyam (a house of brick and stone that had a courtyard in the middle), and gotra (a multi-dwelling complex with sheds for animals). The Rig-Veda speaks once of a palace with 1000 doors, and twice of a palace with 1000 columns.
Primarily represented by three important building types- the Chaitya Hall (place of worship), the Vihara (monastery) and the Stupa (hemispherical mound for worship/ memory)- exemplified by the magnificent caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa.
Early beginnings of Hindu temple architecture have been traced to the remains at Aihole and Pattadakal. Early temples were rock-cut. The pyramid form was an essential architectonic element in any temple in the Dravidian style. The Northern style was stepped and slightly curved. The structural system was essentially stone as the basic raw material. Decoration was fundamental to Indian architecture and is seen in the myriad details of figured sculpture as well as in the architectural elements.