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Simple Mixture
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Simple Mixture

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Physical scheme

Physical scheme

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  • 1. Simple mixture of anions #if SO4 is present----------Group V Cations is absent 1- HCl test #Solid +dil Hcl ------- heat # Strong eff. /CO3 or HCO3 present yellow ppt---------S2O3 present #Soln. + BaCl2------------- white ppt #Soln.+ FeCl3-----brown immediately------- CO3 present colour disappear in few # Soln. + BaCl2------------- white ppt minutes after heating------- HCO3 present
  • 2. 2-FeCl3 Test
    • Soln.+ FeCl3-----
    • Persistent brown Redish brown colour
    • color-----SO3 present Iodide present
    • Soln + BaCl2----white Cl2-water test
    • ppt sol. In dil. HCl Soln.+ chloroform
    • + Cl2-H2O---shake
    • violet colour in CHCl3 layer
  • 3. 3-BaCl2 Test
    • Soln.+ BaCl2-------- white ppt insol. In dil. HCl ----------SO4 present
    • 4- Cl2- water test
    • Soln.+ chloroform + Cl2-H2O---shake-----yellow to brown colour in CHCl3 layer----- Br present
  • 4. 5- Chromyl Chloride test
    • Yellow color in NaOH---- Cl present
  • 5. Simple mixture of cations
    • Tests for cations on solid for ammonia and colored cations
    • Cu----- blue
    • Fe----- Faint yellow to dark brown
    • Cr------ dark green
    • Co------ reddish brown
    • Ni-------- Green
  • 6.
    • 1- test for ammonia
    • Solid + dil. NaOH---- ammonia odour---ammonia present
    • 2- test for Fe
    • Soln. + 3 drops conc. HNO3 --- boil-----cool---- NH4SCN---- red blood color----iron present
    • 3- test for Co
    • Solid+ 2 ml Amyl alc.+ 1 gm NH4SCN---Shake ----blue color in alc. Layer--- Co present
  • 7.
    • 4-test for Ni
    • soln + NH4Cl + NH4OH till Amm. odour appear + Dimethyl glyoxime----Rose red colour
    • 5-test for Cu
    • Soln.+ H2S---- black ppt
    • Soln.+NH4OH------ blue colour
    • Soln. + ferrocyanide--chocolate brown ppt
    • 6- test for Cr
    • Soln + NH4Cl + NH4 OH----greenish white ppt
  • 8.
    • Dissolve part of solid to form according to the following solubility Sequence
    • ( cold water, Hot water, cold dil. HCl, hot dil. HCl, Conc. HCl (hot),dil. HNO3, conc. HNO3, Aqua Regia (3 HCl:1 HNO3)
    • Test for the six groups in order
  • 9. Group I : Pb+1, Hg +1
    • Soln. + cold Dil HCl ----White ppt---gp I present ---- Filter--ppt(gp I)
    • -filterate(other groups)
    • Wash ppt with water and boil
    • If sol-----pb
    • Insol. ------Hg
  • 10.
      • Confirmatory tests for pb
      • KI test (soln.+KI------yellow ppt.)
      • H2SO4 test (soln.+dil. H2SO4---white ppt)
      • K2CrO4 test (soln.+ K2CrO4—yellow ppt.)
    • Confirmatory tests for Hg
    • ppt. + aqua regia in porcelain dish-----------evaporate till dryness----------dissolve residue in few drops of water ---------add SnCl2-------------- grey white ppt
  • 11. Group II A & B (Pb, Hg, Bi, Cu, Cd, As, Sb or Sn)
    • Filterate from group I (or Soln.+ dil. HCl)
    • Adjust acidity using methyl violet till greenish blue colour
    • If
    • blue------------add HCl
    • Green----------add Water
  • 12.
    • Test for presense of Gr. II
    • • part of soln + H2S ----if ppt ----add excess H2S to whole soln.---filter
    • ------------if no ppt. ----move to gp III
    • Test for complete pption on filterate by drops of H2S ----if ppt. --- add H2S to filterate and refilter again
        • Ppt---------gp II
        • Filterate ----------- other groups
  • 13.
    • Soln. (adjusted acidity) + excess H2S
    • Canary Yellow ppt Black or brown ppt
    • Cd or gp II B (Pb, Bi, Hg)
    • Filter
    • Wash ppt. with10 ml dil. Nitric
    • + 10 ml dil sulfuric acid (boil)
    • Soluble Insoluble
    • Bi Hg or Pb
  • 14.
    • to differentiate between lead and mercuric add acetic acid to ppt.
    • If
    • a) soluble-------------- ----------Pb
    • b) insoluble --------------------- Hg
  • 15. Confirmatory tests
    • for bismuth
    • soln. (ppt+dil nitric+ dil sulfuric) + conc.NH4OH------- white gelatinous ppt.
    • for lead
    • as above
    • for mercuric:
    • ppt. + aqua regia in porcelain dish-----------evaporate till dryness----------dissolve residue in few drops of water ---------add SnCl2-------------- grey white ppt
  • 16.
    • To differentiate between Cd and gpIIB
    • To part of yellow ppt + NaOH+ 1 drop yellow ammonium sulfide ----warm and shake
    • If sol ----- gp II B
    • insol. ---- Cd
    • Gp II B
    • part of residue + few drops conc Hcl + heat with stirring
    • If sol. ----- Sn or Sb
    • insol. ------ As
  • 17.
    • Test for As
    • Residue + amm. Carbonate soln.+ H2S--------orange ppt
    • For Sn and Sb
    • Soln + iron wire ----boil----black ppt on wire ------ Sb
    • ------- no black ppt ---- Sn
    • Test for Sn
    • Soln + HgCl2-------white to grey ppt
  • 18. Gp III (Al, Fe and Cr)
    • If gp II present boil to expell H2S and test it by lead cetate paper ( no black color of paper)
    • Soln. + NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve-------- add NH4OH---------
    • White gelatinous ppt reddish brown ppt greenish white ppt
    • AL Fe Cr
        • Ppt------------gp III
        • Filterate -------- other groups
  • 19.
    • Confirmatory tests:
    • 1- for aluminium or chromium
    • ppt + NaOH+ H2O2---dissolve--------add NH4Cl----boil----cool----- if white gel. ppt.---- Al
    • -----if yellow soln. ------Cr
    • 2- for iron as above (NH4SCN)
  • 20. Group IV: Zn, Co and Ni
    • Soln. + NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve------ add NH4OH------add excess H2S, warm---
    • white ppt. Black ppt.
    • Zn Co or Ni
    • Ppt + very dil. HCl ---- if Sol. -----Zn
    • if insol. ----- Co or Ni
  • 21. Confirmatory tests
    • For Zn: Soln+acetic acid+ pot. Ferrocyanide--------- greenish white ppt .
    • For Co and Ni : (note their salts are coloured) residue+ Aqua regia -----evaborate till dry + Cool + 5 ml H2o + Boil--- Solution----divide the soln into2 Parts
    • 1-test for Co : Solid+ 2 ml Amyl alc.+ 1 gm NH4SCN---Shake ----blue color in alc. Layer--- Co present
    • 2-test for Ni : soln + NH4Cl + NH4OH till Amm. odour appear + Dimethyl glyoxime----Rose red colour
  • 22. Group V: Ca, Ba and Sr
    • Conc. soln.( boil filterate to expell H2S and concentrate solution) + NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve-------- add NH4OH--------add solid (NH4)2CO3-----------white ppt.
    • Dissolve ppt. in dil. Acetic acid and divide into 3 parts and tests must be done in the following sequence:
  • 23.
    • test for Ba: soln.(ppt + dil. HAC)+ K2CrO4----------yellow ppt---------Ba
    • test for Sr: soln. + CaSO4 OR (NH4)2SO4--------------white ppt.------ Sr
    • test for Ca: soln. + ammonium oxalate---------white ppt.------Ca
  • 24. Group VI: NH4, Mg, Na, K
    • If gp V present add amm. Oxalate and amm. Sulfate ----boil---filter---then test on filterate for gp VI (not done in case of gp V absence)
    • Tests must be done in the following sequence
    • test for Mg : soln+ NH4Cl (solid)--------dissolve-------- add NH4OH+Na2HPO4 (disosium hydrogen phosphate) ---------scratching-------white ppt.
    • test for Na : soln + potassium pyroantimonate ----------white ppt
    • test for K: soln. + dil HAC+ sodium cobalt nitrite --------yellow ppt

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