Problems and particularities of the German school system <ul><li>Basic structure of the school system in Germany - federalism </li></ul>
Basic Structure- Feteralism I n Germany one national structure or educational system doesn't exist! It is part of the constitutional sovereignty of each federal state (Kulturhohheit der Länder). Every federal state has its own system. There are 16 states, so there are 16 different school systems as well. But some essentials are mostly the same in many states and could characterise the German school system...
For many German kids Education starts in the Kindergarden. This is as a pre-school establishment for children aged between three and six as part of child and youth welfare. Its not obligatory; and strictly speaking not part of the school system. Kindergarden may be either publicly or privately maintained. In Saxony daily nursery is organized by the local municipality as well. <ul>Day nursery (Tageskrippe) and Kindergarden </ul>
Primary School- Grundschule Primary school is compulsary for all children and starts with the age of six years. In most states it lasts 4 years, in Berlin and Brandenburg it covers 6 years. Contents are reading, writing, calculating, sport activities, arts, music and some basic biological, historical and social facts.
Secundary level of education I and II The compulsory school attandance amounts 9 years, in some states 10 years. After primary school parents can choose - based on the ability of their children - different tracks:
The lower secondary level (I) starts mostly in class 5 and ends with class 10. -> Hauptschule (lower vocational track; till grade 9 (15 years)) -> Realschule (higher vocational track; till grade 10 (16 years) -> In Saxony (Sachsen): Middle School (combining Hauptschule and Realschule; till grade 10) -> Regelschule and Sekundarschule (in Thüringen und Sachsen-Anhalt) -> Comprehensive School ( combining Gymnasium, Hauptschule and Realschule) in an Kurssystem -> Gymnasium (academic track; till grade 9/10) -> By the way in some states, after the Grundschule there are 2 years of orientation phase before deciding for one of the tracks above.
Federalism and what it means... <ul>Federalism means 16 more or less independent federal states with their own: <ul><ul><ul><li>- school systems (z.B. middele school in Saxony) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul> - curricula etc. - final examinations but same school leaving certificates: <ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hauptschulabschluss” (qualification for vocational education in non academic jobs; usually after grade 9)
“ Mittlerer Abschluss” (qualification for vocational education in more non academic jobs; usually after grade 10)
“ Abitur” (qualification for university and vocational education in academic jobs; usually after grade 12/13) </li></ul></ul></ul>
Run for university or „Hochschule“ <ul><li>Abitur is the name for our higher education entrance qualification (Hochschulreife), which entitles pupils to run for universities or high schools in every of the federal states.
For some overcrowded fields like medicine and psychology traditionally a quota system known as Numerus Clausus is astablished.
For music, photografy, arts, theater,... special test are common. </li></ul>
The national curriculum <ul><li>All the students here, will be teachers in Gymnasium. They need to teach secondary school level I and II.
Repeating: </li></ul>Secondary education level I in Saxony starts in grade 5 and lasts to grade 10; level II from 11 to 12.
<ul>Problems and propabilities <li>Much higher spread of education between pupils than in other countries
To switch to different education systems is difficult
Problems of the educational system have high publicity, but the structure of tripartite seems unchangeable.
This leads to a hype of alternative or private schools like Waldorf, Montessori, christian schools, Jenaplan, ... </li></ul>