Educational system of EstoniaPresentation Transcript
The National Curriculum for Basic and Secondary Schools
Welcome to Estonia Capital(and largest city)Tallinn Official language: Estonian Ethnicgroups: 68.7 % Estonian 25.6 % Russian 5.7 % others Area -Total45,228 km2 -Water (%) 4.45% Population - 2009 estimate1,340,415 - 2000 census 1,370,052 - Density29/km2 GovernmenttypeParliamentary republic - PresidentToomasHendrikIlves - Prime Minister Andrus Ansip (RE) - Parliament speaker EneErgma (IRL) - Current coalition (RE, IRL) Location of Estonia (green) – on the European continent (light green & grey) – in the European Union (light green)
History The first schools in Estonia were established in the 13th-14th centuries. These schools taught prayer, Latin, sacred music (singing) and writing. 1632 University of Tartu From 1656 on Estonia’s national school became an educational institution where students learned to read, write, do arithmetics and sing. The development of Estonia’s national music culture is mostly limited to the last 141 years, initiated by the national choral song festival tradition in 1869. Many have characterized estonians as a singing nation. Our singing led us bloodlessly to establishing independence in 1991 with the happening called the singing revolution
The Educational System in Estonia Compulsory general education has three stages
Pre-primary education The framework curriculum is a basis for municipal and private childcare institutions for the preparation of their own curriculum. It supports parents upon educating and developing their CHILDREN at home. A nursery school may be connected to a primary school (a nursery-primary school with the same management). Nursery schools are divided into municipal and private childcare institutions.
Basic EducationPrimary and Basic School Basic education is the minimum education that is obligatory for everybody. After graduating the basic school, most of the CHILDREN go to secondary school. The alternative way is vocational training schools. Each school prepares its curriculum on the basis of the national curriculum. Tuition is free of charge for studying in state schools of general education.
Secondary Education Secondary education is based on a basic education and it is divided into general secondary education and secondary vocational education. Acquisition of general secondary education gives the right to continue studies for aquisition of higher education. Secondary vocational education is direct way to the labour market. Admission to upper secondary schools is based on the results of finishing basic school. Final examinations are organized for finishing the upper secondary school. Final examinations include state and school examinations.
Music education has two branches 1. Music in general education. Music is an obligatory subject in the national curriculum. In addition to compulsory music lessons, many schools also offer children opportunity to study an instrument they wish. 2. Professional music education Afternoon music schools, music high schools, universities.
Afternoon music school Preparation years Main studies Addition years I grade Main instrument and solfeggio two times a week. III grade History of Music once a week - Piano as an additional instrument for those who do not play piano as a main instrument. It is being held half an academic hour per week. IV grade Ensemble/Orchestra once a week V grade An opportunity to take an addition instrument if possible VIII grade Harmony / Improvisation once a week. 2 years 7 years 1 – 2 years
Music is a compulsory subject Kindergartentwo lessons (per week) Primary school grades 1-3 two lessons (per week) Basic school grades 4 two lessons grades 5-9 one lesson Secondary school grades 10-12 one lesson The Ministry of Education declares the content of the national curriculum. Every TEACHER chooses his/her own TEACHINGstyle.
Music Instruction We have been regarding singing (including choral singing) as one of the main goals of music TEACHING to preserve and maintain our cultural heritage and traditions. Besides compulsory music lessons it is common in Estonia that every school has to have at least one or two choirs.
Music Instruction In Estonia music is mostly taught by professional music TEACHERS (there are a few exceptions in primary and basic level where music is taught by classroom TEACHERS). Estonian music education has been quite conservative and oriented on tradition. Instrumental music (playing an instrument in music lesson) has not been very developed because of the lack of instruments.
Methods General music TEACHING in basic and secondary schools is based on methos by:
Carl Orff (1895-1982)
Zoltȃn Kodȃly (1882-1967)
Riho Päts (1897-1977
Heino Kaljuste (1925-1989)
The curriculum also emphasizes integration between differen diciplines:
Primary School (age 7-9) THE GOALS OF MUSIC INSTRUCTIONS To awake intrest in music Performing
Singing (solo and choir)
Learning simple rythm patterns Learning (using) relative notation system Music listening with discussion
Basic School (age 10-15) THE GOALS OF MUSIC INSTRUCTIONS To maintain students intrest in music Performing
Singing (songs for 2 or more voices)
Musical improvisation and composition
Introduction to absolute notation system Music listening related to musical knowledge Musical knowledge
Music from different countries
Pop and jazz music
Genres in classical music
Types of orchestras and choirs
Secondary School (age 16-19) THE GOALS OF MUSIC INSTRUCTIONS Performing – singing, playing instruments Improvisation and composition Music listening according to particular styles Chronological review of Western music history Main features of different time-periods The most known composers Overview of the Estonian music
Basic activities in General Music Education PERFORMING – singing, playing instruments (classical, Orff, electronic, incl. body percussion) MUSIC LISTENING AND MUSIC HISTORY – experiencing and analyzing vocal and instrumental music of different styles and genres from different areas. COMPOSING – improvisations, rhythm and movement accompaniments, creative musical expressions using visual arts and media.
Supporting activities in Music Education The motivation to study and teach music in a comprehensive school is supported by different activities: choirs, brass orchestras, ensembles. Song festivals for youth choirs:orchestras and dance groups are organized with interval of fouryears since 1962. Contests, festivals and competitions are organized every year for different kinds of school choirs, orchestras and for vocal soloists. Every two years Musical Olympic Games (since 2002) are organized for the pupils from 7th and 11th grades. There are three parts in the MOG: singing, composing and musical knowledge and two tours – regional and the final tour.