Motivation & Learning By: Nicole Becker Suzanne Kross Mary Pennello How internal and external conditions cause differences...
The Locus of Control <ul><li>refers to an individual's perception about the underlying main causes of events in his/her li...
Internal Locus of Control (Incremental Theory) <ul><li>When people think that their actions are more dynamic, they underst...
<ul><li>Children base their success to their abilities and effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with this type of thinking t...
External Locus of Control (Entity Theory)  <ul><li>When people think their attributes are fixed-traits, they think their o...
<ul><li>Children base their success on outside factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that failure shows a lack of ability. </...
<ul><li>High self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>If they fail at something, they try harder next time. </li></ul><ul><li>Attribu...
Why the Locus of Control causes Learning Differences <ul><li>How someone  views  themselves effects how they learn. </li><...
Motivation “ Motivation to learn is a competence acquired &quot;through general experience but stimulated most directly th...
What can teachers do to help? <ul><li>Provide a comfortable and caring environment.  </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a trustin...
Locus of control External Motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic Learned Helplessness Mastery Orientation Educate children this way!
References <ul><li>Dweck, C. (1995). Implicit Theories and Their role in judgments and reactions. Lawrence Erlbaum Associa...
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Child development powerpoint 97 03

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Child development powerpoint 97 03

  1. 1. Motivation & Learning By: Nicole Becker Suzanne Kross Mary Pennello How internal and external conditions cause differences in learning
  2. 2. The Locus of Control <ul><li>refers to an individual's perception about the underlying main causes of events in his/her life. </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events good or bad that affect them. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 different types of locus of control: internal & external </li></ul>
  3. 3. Internal Locus of Control (Incremental Theory) <ul><li>When people think that their actions are more dynamic, they understand their outcomes as </li></ul><ul><li>specific behavior or psychological mediators. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “I failed the test because of my effort.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May become more intelligent through their efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute failure to lack of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to suggest better strategies for the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respond in a mastery-oriented way which focuses on strategy and efforts with persistent striving for new problem-solving strategies. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Children base their success to their abilities and effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with this type of thinking tend to have a higher self esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents who let their children work out their own problems tend to help develop their children’s mastery orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery oriented children tend to see failure as a challenge rather than a sign of inability. </li></ul><ul><li>They attribute grades to how much effort they put into their work and when they fail they do not blame themselves. </li></ul>Phrase: “I can do it!” Mastery Orientation
  5. 5. External Locus of Control (Entity Theory) <ul><li>When people think their attributes are fixed-traits, they think their outcomes are fixed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: “I failed the test because I am dumb.” </li></ul></ul>respond helplessly which involves a negative self-judgment, and a lack of persistence and performance. <ul><li>Are more likely to blame their intelligence for negative outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute failure to their intellectual ability </li></ul><ul><li>They think they are not only dumb but they are also bad. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Children base their success on outside factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that failure shows a lack of ability. </li></ul><ul><li>People learn to be helpless by feeling that they have a lack of control in a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory is associated with depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who show this type of out look have low self esteem, they may believe that they failed a test because they are stupid. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, when they do good they say that it was just luck and do not give themselves credit . </li></ul>Learned Helplessness Phrase: “I can’t do it!”
  7. 7. <ul><li>High self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>If they fail at something, they try harder next time. </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute success to themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to have a higher out look on life. </li></ul>High out look on life. Low out look on life. <ul><li>Low self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Feel that no matter what they do, nothing will get better. </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute success to outside sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute failure to their lack of ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed </li></ul>
  8. 8. Why the Locus of Control causes Learning Differences <ul><li>How someone views themselves effects how they learn. </li></ul><ul><li>If one is motivated to try again, there will be better learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Performance increases when a child accepts responsibility and can overcome failure </li></ul><ul><li>(internal locus) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Motivation “ Motivation to learn is a competence acquired &quot;through general experience but stimulated most directly through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others (especially parents and teachers). ” Jeer Brophy (1987) <ul><li>Student’s motivation is innate but their sources of motivation are different. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What can teachers do to help? <ul><li>Provide a comfortable and caring environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a trusting bond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Motivation is the feeling nurtured primarily by the teacher in the learning situation” (Ellis, 1994). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applying learned skills to the real world; help them realize it’s a long term effort </li></ul><ul><li>Stressing “learning, task mastery and effort” instead of competition (Maehr and Midgley) </li></ul><ul><li>Cater to the student’s learning level; don’t make it too easy or too hard </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize stress and anxiety on certain activities </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that every child is different and their sources of motivation are always different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic and Extrinsic </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Locus of control External Motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic Learned Helplessness Mastery Orientation Educate children this way!
  12. 12. References <ul><li>Dweck, C. (1995). Implicit Theories and Their role in judgments and reactions. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 6(4), 267-285. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from JStor database. </li></ul><ul><li>Florida GulfCoast University. (n.d.). Learning Principles [article]. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from http://ruby.fgcu.du/courses/50171/6215m11j.html </li></ul><ul><li>Lumden, L. (1994). Student Motivation to Learn [article]. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/learn.html </li></ul><ul><li>Moorman, E. (n.d.). The Role Of mothers control in childrens mastery orientation. Journal of Family Psychology, 1- 11. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from EBSCOhost database </li></ul><ul><li>Neil, J. (2006, December 6). What is Locus of Control? [article]. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from http://wilderdom.com/psychology/loc/LocusofControlwhatis.html </li></ul><ul><li>Watkins, D. (1987). Academic Locus of Control. Higher Education, 16(2), 221-229. Retrieved from Springer database. </li></ul>

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