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Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
Child development powerpoint 97 03
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Child development powerpoint 97 03


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  • 1. Motivation & Learning By: Nicole Becker Suzanne Kross Mary Pennello How internal and external conditions cause differences in learning
  • 2. The Locus of Control
    • refers to an individual's perception about the underlying main causes of events in his/her life.
    • It refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events good or bad that affect them.
    • There are 2 different types of locus of control: internal & external
  • 3. Internal Locus of Control (Incremental Theory)
    • When people think that their actions are more dynamic, they understand their outcomes as
    • specific behavior or psychological mediators.
      • Ex: “I failed the test because of my effort.”
      • May become more intelligent through their efforts
      • Attribute failure to lack of effort
      • Tend to suggest better strategies for the future
      • respond in a mastery-oriented way which focuses on strategy and efforts with persistent striving for new problem-solving strategies.
  • 4.
    • Children base their success to their abilities and effort.
    • Children with this type of thinking tend to have a higher self esteem.
    • Parents who let their children work out their own problems tend to help develop their children’s mastery orientation.
    • Mastery oriented children tend to see failure as a challenge rather than a sign of inability.
    • They attribute grades to how much effort they put into their work and when they fail they do not blame themselves.
    Phrase: “I can do it!” Mastery Orientation
  • 5. External Locus of Control (Entity Theory)
    • When people think their attributes are fixed-traits, they think their outcomes are fixed.
      • Ex: “I failed the test because I am dumb.”
    respond helplessly which involves a negative self-judgment, and a lack of persistence and performance.
    • Are more likely to blame their intelligence for negative outcomes
    • Attribute failure to their intellectual ability
    • They think they are not only dumb but they are also bad.
  • 6.
    • Children base their success on outside factors.
    • Believe that failure shows a lack of ability.
    • People learn to be helpless by feeling that they have a lack of control in a situation.
    • This theory is associated with depression.
    • Children who show this type of out look have low self esteem, they may believe that they failed a test because they are stupid.
    • On the other hand, when they do good they say that it was just luck and do not give themselves credit .
    Learned Helplessness Phrase: “I can’t do it!”
  • 7.
    • High self esteem
    • If they fail at something, they try harder next time.
    • Attribute success to themselves
    • Tend to have a higher out look on life.
    High out look on life. Low out look on life.
    • Low self esteem
    • Feel that no matter what they do, nothing will get better.
    • Attribute success to outside sources.
    • Attribute failure to their lack of ability.
    • Depressed
  • 8. Why the Locus of Control causes Learning Differences
    • How someone views themselves effects how they learn.
    • If one is motivated to try again, there will be better learning outcomes
    • Performance increases when a child accepts responsibility and can overcome failure
    • (internal locus)
  • 9. Motivation “ Motivation to learn is a competence acquired "through general experience but stimulated most directly through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others (especially parents and teachers). ” Jeer Brophy (1987)
    • Student’s motivation is innate but their sources of motivation are different.
        • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
  • 10. What can teachers do to help?
    • Provide a comfortable and caring environment.
    • Establish a trusting bond
      • "Motivation is the feeling nurtured primarily by the teacher in the learning situation” (Ellis, 1994).
    • Applying learned skills to the real world; help them realize it’s a long term effort
    • Stressing “learning, task mastery and effort” instead of competition (Maehr and Midgley)
    • Cater to the student’s learning level; don’t make it too easy or too hard
    • Minimize stress and anxiety on certain activities
    • Realize that every child is different and their sources of motivation are always different
      • Intrinsic and Extrinsic
  • 11. Locus of control External Motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic Learned Helplessness Mastery Orientation Educate children this way!
  • 12. References
    • Dweck, C. (1995). Implicit Theories and Their role in judgments and reactions. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 6(4), 267-285. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from JStor database.
    • Florida GulfCoast University. (n.d.). Learning Principles [article]. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from http://ruby.fgcu.du/courses/50171/6215m11j.html
    • Lumden, L. (1994). Student Motivation to Learn [article]. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from
    • Moorman, E. (n.d.). The Role Of mothers control in childrens mastery orientation. Journal of Family Psychology, 1- 11. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from EBSCOhost database
    • Neil, J. (2006, December 6). What is Locus of Control? [article]. Retrieved March 4, 2009, from
    • Watkins, D. (1987). Academic Locus of Control. Higher Education, 16(2), 221-229. Retrieved from Springer database.