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Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
Disabilities And Special Needs
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Disabilities And Special Needs

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  • Knowing that they are a person first and the disability is something they have, not who they are
  • TypesSpasticity refers to the muscle tissues being very stiff, and people with spastic cerebral palsy often have difficulty walking or movingAthetoid – type of movement disorder that results in uncontrolled movements and ticsAtaxic – tend to be off balance and have difficulty sensing depth
  • Predominantly hyperactive – impulsive: running around and can’t sit in one place (fidgets a lot)Predominantly inattentive – hard to follow instructions and tends to avoid tasks that involve mental effort, very forgetfulCombined – both types combined, most common among childrenA person with ADD or ADHD has a brain which is slightly different when it comes to the section that controls attention and because they are wired differently, they find it hard to focus on anything for any length of time. Very often, this tends to correct itself as the child grows older but in some cases, it continues through to adulthood and this could result in the person feeling out of synch with the rest of the world.
  • Be aware that it is not the child’s fault, it is a brain defectBe patient with the childMedications for ADD/ ADHD can help alleviate the symptoms of distractibility, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. However, medication doesn’t cure ADD/ADHD. It can relieve symptoms while its being taken, but once medication stops, those symptoms come back. Also, ADD/ADHD medication works better for some than for others. Some people experience dramatic improvement while others experience only moderate gains.
  • Trisomy 21 - 95% of people with Down Syndrome), extra 21st chromosome in each cellTranslocation - during cell division, a part of the number 21 chromosome breaks off and attaches itself to another chromosome, usually the number 14 chromosomeMosaicism - faulty cell division occurs in one of the early cell divisions after conception, resulting in some cells having 46 chromosomes and some having 47Newborns with Down Syndrome look like newborns that do not have Down Syndrome
  • Milder form known as Asperger syndromeThe rare condition called Rett syndromeChildren with ASD may fail to respond to their names and often avoid eye contact with other people  They have difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling because they can’t understand social cues, such as tone of voice or facial expressions, and don’t watch other people’s faces for clues about appropriate behaviour  They lack empathy,Repetitive movements such as rocking and twirling, or in self-abusive behaviour such as biting or head-bangingThey also tend to start speaking later than other children and may refer to themselves by name instead of “I” or “me.”  Children with ASD don’t know how to play interactively with other children. 
  • Children with ASD may fail to respond to their names and often avoid eye contact with other people  They have difficulty interpreting what others are thinking or feeling because they can’t understand social cues, such as tone of voice or facial expressions, and don’t watch other people’s faces for clues about appropriate behaviourRepetitive movements such as rocking and twirling, or in self-abusive behaviour such as biting or head-bangingThey also tend to start speaking later than other children and may refer to themselves by name instead of “I” or “me.”  Children with ASD don’t know how to play interactively with other children. 
  • behavioural interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement.  The ideal treatment plan coordinates therapies and interventions that meet the specific needs of individual children.  Most health care professionals agree that the earlier the intervention, the better
  • Transcript

    • 1. Disabilities , Impairments and special needs
      A teachers guide to
    • 2. Definitions
      Disability – the interaction between impairment and externally imposed restrictions (World Health Organization)
      Impairment – exists “when a person has physical, sensory, or intellectual conditions that potentially limits full participation in social and/or physical environments” (Coakley & Donnelly, Sport In Society, p.44)
    • 3. Definitions
      Impairment becomes a disability when “accommodation in social or physical contexts are not or cannot be made to allow the full participation of people with functional limitations.” (Coakley & Donnelly, Sport in Society, p. 44)
    • 4. Definitions
      Handicapped – when others define a person as inferior and “unable” due to perceived impairments
      Ableism – “exclusionary practices that fail to take disability into account, particularly the failure to make sport and recreation programs and facilities fully accessible.” (Lenskyj, Canadian Sport Sociology, 101)
    • 5. Person First Terminology
      Person before disability
      “The boy with down syndrome” as opposed to
      “The down syndrome boy”
    • 6. Physical Disabilities
    • 7. Cerebral Palsy
      “Characterized by an inability to fully control motor function, particularly muscle control and coordination”
      ‘Cerebral’ – brain
      ‘Palsy’ – problems with movement and posture, or motor control impairment
      Cerebral Palsy Source
    • 8. Cerebral Palsy
      Characteristics
      Muscle tightness or spasticity, involuntary movement, disturbance in gait or mobility, difficulty swallowing and problems with speech
      3 types: Spastic, Athetoid, and Ataxic
      Preventable
      Tests & prenatal care
      Cerebral Palsy Source
    • 9. Cerebral Palsy
      70 % of cases in children are congenital, or present at birth
      No cure
      Treatments
      Physical therapy
      Speech and language therapy
      Occupational therapy
      Drug therapy
      Surgical procedures
      Cerebral Palsy Source
    • 10. Team Hoyt
    • 11. Learning Disabilities
    • 12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
      “a condition where the person suffering from it is below the accepted norm when it comes to being able to sit still, pay attention and focus on the task at hand”
      3 sub-types
      Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
      Predominantly inattentive
      Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
      500Health.com
    • 13. ADHD
      10 % of children are affected
      Boys are more prone to ADHD than girls
      Treatment options:
      Behaviour therapy
      Medication
      Support groups
      Social skills training
      Educational support
      Professional coaching
      HELPGUIDE.org
    • 14. Down Syndrome
      Each normal cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes
      In a person with Down Syndrome, there are 3 chromosomes on the 21st pair (instead of 2)
      Canadian Down Syndrome Society
    • 15. Down Syndrome
      Persons with Down Syndrome may be predisposed to certain illnesses and medical conditions
      Down syndrome commonly results in an effect on learning style, although the differences are highly variable and individualistic
      People with Down Syndrome usually have mild to moderate intellectual delay
      Canadian Down Syndrome Society
    • 16. Down Syndrome
      Types of chromosomal patterns that result in Down Syndrome
      Trisomy 21(95%)
      Translocation (2-3%)
      Mosaicism (2%)
      Physical characteristics (babies)
      Chubby cheeks, large, round eyes, larger tongue, smaller limbs, and smaller body frame
      Canadian Down Syndrome Society
    • 17. Down Syndrome
      Health Concerns
      Congenital malformations of the heart (more than 40%)
      Hypothyroidism
      Hearing loss (as a result of frequent ear infections)
      Vision problems
      Canadian Down Syndrome Society
    • 18. Intellectual Disabilities
    • 19. Autism
      “Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of complex neurodevelopment disorders, characterized by social impairments, communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour”
      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
    • 20. Autism
      Males are more likely than females to have ASD
      Estimated that 3 of 6 children of every 1,000 will have ASD
      ASD varies significantly in character and severity
      Other forms of Autism:
      Asperger Syndrome
      Rett Syndrome
      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
    • 21. Autism
      Impaired social interaction
      Unresponsive
      Exclusion of others for long periods of time
      Withdraw and become indifferent to social engagement
      Lacks empathy
      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
    • 22. Autism
      ~20 – 30% of children with ASD develop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood
      (For most children) Symptoms improve with age
      There is no cure for ASD
      National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
    • 23. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
      “Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE) are conditions associated with drinking alcohol during pregnancy. FAS causes a variety of mental, physical, and developmental disabilities in the baby.”
      FAE is a milder form of FAS
      Body and Health Canada
    • 24. FAS
      Alcohol damages the developing cells of the fetus
      The brain and nervous system are particularly sensitive to alcohol and can suffer permanent damage
      There is no safe amount of alcohol consumption during pregnancy
      There is no way to reverse the damage of prenatal alcohol exposure
      Body and Health Canada
    • 25. FAS
      Signs of central nervous system abnormalities:
      Delayed development, behavioural patterns, learning disabilities, intellectual impairment
      Typical facial malformations features:
      Short eye slits or dropping eyes, a thin upper lip, flattened cheekbones, absence of a distinct groove between the upper lip and nose
      Children with FAS are often naive, have poor decision-making skills and judgement
      E.g. substance abuse and other difficulties later in life
      Body and Health Canada
    • 26. Sensory Impairments
    • 27. Hearing Impaired
      “Hearing impairment occurs when there’s a problem with or damage to one or more parts of the ear”
      KidsHealth.org
    • 28. Hearing Impaired
      Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL)- too much exposure to loud noise
      Types of hearing loss
      Conductive hearing loss- problem with outer or middle ear (including the eardrum or ossicles)
      Sensorineural hearing loss- damage to the inner ear(cochlea) or the auditory nerve
      Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder- transmission of sound from the inner ear to the brain is then disorganized
      KidsHealth.org
    • 29. Hearing Impaired
      Congenital hearing loss- when hearing loss is present at birth
      Acquired hearing loss- when hearing loss occurs later in life
      ~28 million Americans are deaf or hearing impaired (which equals out to ~1 of 10 people)
      Hearing loss is most common at birth
      KidsHealth.org
    • 30. Vision Impaired
      Vision loss can be caused by eye problems present from birth, by conditions that appear later in life, or by infections or environmental factors
      Blind – persons with no usable sight
      Visual Impaired – refers to persons who have partial sight
      Canadian National Institute for the Blind
    • 31. Vision Impaired
      Guidelines for Interacting with a person who is blind
      Introduce yourself immediately
      Shake hands to accompany a greeting in place of a smile that usually accompanies a greeting
      Speak directly to the person who is blind. Don’t look away. Use explicit verbal instructions.
      Offer your arm when walking with a person who is blind. Do not “push” them around
      When you leave a person who is blind, it is important to let them know
      When others enter or leave the room, use their names so that the person who is blind can keep track of who is in the room
      Provide an orientation of the environment describing the location of landmarks
      The most important things to remember are to be genuinely kind and respectful. This will facilitate a successful relationship
      Mini U Instructors Manual 2008
    • 32. Vision Impaired
      Eye injuries in sport
      Research shows that 90% of all eye injuries in sports are preventable
      The most common eye injuries associated with sports are:
      Corneal abrasions (scrapes and cuts)
      Injuries from a blunt object (such as the impact of ball or puck)
      Penetrating objects (such as from a plastic or wood splinter)
      Children under the age of 12 are especially at high risk because they are still developing their visual perception, making it easy for a child to misjudge the speed or distance of a ball or puck
      Canadian National Institute for the Blind
    • 33. Vision Impaired
      High Risk Sports:
      Shooting sports that involve an air rifle or BB gun, baseball, basketball, boxing, cricket, fencing, hockey, lacrosse, full-contact martial arts, paintball, racquetball, softball, squash, badminton
      Moderate Risk Sports:
      Fishing, football, golf, soccer, tennis, volleyball
      Low Risk Sports:
      Bicycling, diving, non-contact martial arts, skiing (snow and water), swimming, wrestling, track & field, gymnastics
      Canadian National Institute for the Blind
    • 34. Goalball
      Paralympic Sport played exclusively by athletes who are blind or visually impaired.
      All players wear eyeshades so everyone is on an even playing field, and cannot see anything regardless of their degree of visual impairment.
      All of the lines of the court are applied by taping cords to the floor.  This creates tactile markings which the players can feel with their hands and feet to orient themselves on the court
      Canadian Blind Sports Association
    • 35. Goalball
      The game is played by “throwing” a ball back and forth (bowling motion.) 
      Has bells inside the ball
      The players track the ball by listening for the sound of the bells and work together to block the net. 
      The object of the game is to get the ball past the other team to score in their net.
      Canadian Blind Sports Association
    • 36. Class Activity
      Cat and Mouse
      Form a circle on the floor with the group (everyone sitting down)
      2 volunteers, 1 cat and 1 mouse(both blindfolded)
      Objective: the cat is trying to tag the mouse (in the middle of the circle). Because both individuals are blindfolded, they must listen and respond to auditory cues from the group
      Cues: when the cat is near the mouse, the group claps fast and loud. If the cat or mouse is far away from the other, the group claps slowly and softly
      Safety: the cat and mouse must crawl at all times. If the cat or the mouse are headed outside the circle, group members must gently direct them back inside
    • 37. “Invisible” Disabilities
    • 38. Cystic Fibrosis
      Genetic disorder
      Occurs when a child inherits two defective copies of the gene responsible for CF (one from each parent)
      1 in 25 Canadians is a CF carrier
      1 in 3600 children born in Canada has CF
      No known cure
      Predicted life span ~ 37 years old
      Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation
    • 39. Cystic Fibrosis
      Signs and Symptoms
      Difficulty breathing
      Constant cough which brings up thick mucus
      Excessive appetite, with weight loss
      Bowel disturbances, such as intestinal obstruction or frequent, oily stools
      Skin which tastes salty
      Repeated or prolonged bouts of pneumonia
      Failure to thrive
      Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation
    • 40. Cystic Fibrosis
      Class activity
      Breathing exercise
    • 41. Including students with special needs
      Get to know the student
      Be knowledgeable about their disability
      Know the students’ physical, mental, social, and emotional limitations
      Choose activities that can be altered or changed to accommodate all students
      Accessibility
      Educate all students to be respectful and have a basic understanding of students with special needs
    • 42. References
      Dr. Sarah Teetzel, PERS 3460 Sociology of Physical Activity and Leisure , class notes, November 16, 2009
      http://www.cerebralpalsysource.com/
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flRvsO8m_KI
      http://www.500health.com/all-about-add-and-adhd/?gclid=CJqT_oj_sJ4CFQjyDAod5x66nQ
      http://helpguide.org/mental/adhd_add_treatments_coping.htm
      http://www.cdss.ca/
      http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/detail_autism.htm#140113082
      http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=0&relation_id=0&disease_id=307&page_no=2
      http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/sight/hearing_impairment.html
      http://www.cnib.ca
      Mini U Instructors Manual 2008
      http://www.canadianblindsports.ca
      http://www.cysticfibrosis.ca/
       

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