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  1. 1. Human Resource Planning
  2. 2. Business Strategy INTERNAL FIT HR Philosophy HR Policy HR System HR Practices Company Values Competitive Challenges Environ- ment EXTERNAL FIT Achieving Strategic Fit
  3. 3. Ensuring the Fit between HR and Organisation Strategy <ul><li>External Fit (or External Alignment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the connection between the business objectives and the major initiatives in HR. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Fit (or Internal Alignment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning HR practices with one another to establish a configuration that is mutually reinforcing. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Strategic Flexibility <ul><li>Organizational Capability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity of the organization to act and change in pursuit of sustainable competitive advantage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to rapidly reallocate resources to new or changing needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having human resources who can do many different things in different ways. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Human Resource Planning (HRP) <ul><li>Is the first component of HRM strategy </li></ul><ul><li>All other functional HR activities are derived from and flow out of the HRP process. </li></ul><ul><li>Has its basis in considerations of future HR requirements in light of present HR capabilities and capacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Is proactive in anticipating and preparing flexible responses to changing HR requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Has both an internal and external focus. </li></ul>
  6. 6. HRP and Strategic Planning <ul><li>Strategic Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What human resources are needed and what are available? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic Formulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is required and necessary in support of human resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will the human resources be allocated? </li></ul></ul>Human Resource Planning Strategic Planning
  7. 7. HR Planning Issues <ul><li>Staffing Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How do we manage staffing in times of recession or expansion? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact does technology change, mergers or relocation have on staffing issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we always have the right people in the right jobs at the right time? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get our human resources: buy them or make them or both? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Major Objectives of HRP <ul><li>Preventing understaffing and overstaffing </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the organisation has the right employees with the right skills at the right place at the right time </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the organisation is responsive to changes in its environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direction and coherence to all HR activities and systems </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Planning <ul><li>Aggregate Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipating the needs for groups of employees in specific, usually lower level jobs and the general skills employees will need to ensure sustained high performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Succession Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on ensuring that key individual management positions in the organization remain filled with individuals who provide the best fit for these critical positions. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. HRP and Environmental Scanning <ul><li>Environmental Scanning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The systematic monitoring of the major external forces influencing the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technological changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political and legislative issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social concerns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic trends </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Scanning the Internal Environment <ul><li>Cultural Audits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audits of the culture and quality of work life in an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do employees spend their time? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do they interact with each other? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are employees empowered? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the predominant leadership style of managers? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of comparing the organization’s processes and practices with those of other companies. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Human Resource Planning Model FORECASTING DEMAND <ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Financial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational growth </li></ul><ul><li>Mgmt. philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Trend analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi technique </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>HR inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Markov analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Skill inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement charts </li></ul><ul><li>Succession Planning </li></ul><ul><li>External Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Wkforce changes </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Govt policies </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul>FORECASTING SUPPLY BALANCING SUPPLY AND DEMAND (Shortage) Recruitment Full-time / Part-time <ul><li>(Surplus) Reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Layoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Terminations </li></ul><ul><li>Demotions </li></ul><ul><li>Retirements </li></ul>
  13. 13. Forecasting Demand for Employees Forecasting Demand Quantitative Methods Qualitative Methods
  14. 14. Quantitative Approach: Trend Analysis <ul><li>Forecasting labor demand based on an organizational index: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a business factor, e.g. sales, that best predicts human resources needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot the business factor in relation to the number of employees to determine average labor productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compute labor productivity for the past five years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project human resources demand out to the target year(s). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Example of Trend Analysis of HR Demand 1999 Rs. 2,935 8.34 352 2000 Rs. 3,306 10.02 330 2001 Rs. 3,613 11.12 325 2002 Rs. 3,748 11.12 337 2003 Rs. 3,880 12.52 310 2004 Rs. 4,095 12.52 327 2005* Rs. 4,283 12.52 342 2006* Rs. 4,446 12.52 355 BUSINESS LABOR HR FACTOR PROD TY DEMAND YEAR (SALES IN ‘000) (SALES/EMPLOYEE) (NO. OF EMPLOYEES ) *Projected figures ÷ =
  16. 16. Qualitative Approaches to Demand Forecasting <ul><li>Management Forecasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The opinions (judgments) of supervisors, department managers, experts, or others knowledgeable about the organization’s future employment needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delphi Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt to decrease the subjectivity of forecasts by soliciting and summarizing the judgments of a preselected group of individuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The final forecast represents a composite group judgment. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Forecasting Supply of Employees: Internal Labor Supply <ul><li>Staffing Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Markov Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Succession Planning </li></ul>
  18. 18. Forecasting Internal Labor Supply <ul><li>Staffing Tables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic representations of all organizational jobs, along with the numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs and future (monthly or yearly) employment requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Markov Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A method for tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Hypothetical Markov Analysis for a Retail Company
  20. 20. Internal Supply Forecasting Tools <ul><li>Skill Inventories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Files of personnel education, experience, interests, skills, etc., that allow managers to quickly match job openings with employee backgrounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replacement Charts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listings of current jobholders and persons who are potential replacements if an opening occurs. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. An Executive Replacement Chart
  22. 22. Forecasting Supply of Employees: External Labor Supply <ul><li>Factors Influencing the External Labor Supply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic changes in the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National and regional economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education level of the workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for specific employee skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental policies </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Sources of Information About External Labor Markets <ul><li>Department of Labor publications </li></ul><ul><li>State and local planning and development agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers of Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Industry and trade group publications </li></ul><ul><li>State and local employment agencies </li></ul>
  24. 24. HRP Considerations <ul><li>Balancing supply and demand </li></ul>
  25. 25. Elements of The HR Plan <ul><li>Acquisition of personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Utilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>redeployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>methods improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>training to prevent obsolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development and Improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>broad-based training and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proper remuneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term career planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>healthy employee relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good working environment </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Requisites for Successful HRP <ul><li>HRP must be seen as equally vital as business planning </li></ul><ul><li>Top-management support </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic review and revision of the forecasting techniques and the forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Without long range planning concentration becomes focussed on short-term needs resulting in “crisis management” reactions </li></ul><ul><li>An excellent and up-to-date HRIS </li></ul><ul><li>Active involvement of line managers and co-ordination between line mgrs and HR function </li></ul>