Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Presentation
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Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and Kodiak Island May 12, 2008 Louise Bassette, Andrea Johnson, Christine Coonradt, John McCabe
  • 2. Background
    • March 24 th , 1989
    • Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef
    • Spilled 11 million gallons of oil into the Prince William Sound, Alaska
  • 3. Probable Causes of the Grounding
    • Improper maneuvering of the vessel
    • Improper navigation (alcohol impairment?)
    • Fatigue
    • Ineffective vessel traffic system, U.S. Coast Guard
    • Ineffective pilot and escort services
  • 4. Behavior of the Oil
  • 5. Control and Cleanup
    • Controlled burns
    • Mechanical
      • Booms
      • Skimmers
      • Permanent storage containers
    • Chemical
      • dispersants
    • Sensitive environments were identified, defined according to degree of cleanup, and then ranked for their priority for cleanup
  • 6. Shoreline Treatment
    • Hoses spraying seawater flushed oil from shorelines
    • Heated seawater
    • Manual cleanup
      • Raking
      • Tilling
      • Oily debris pickup
      • Bioremediation
      • Spot washing
  • 7. Remaining Oil
    • Cleanup efforts were greatly reduced by the Spring of 1991
    • 2001 NOAA study surveyed 96 sites along 8,000 miles of coastline
      • Surface oil not good indicator of subsurface oil
      • Oil saturated subsurface regions
      • Areas with the most subsurface oil were found low in the intertidal zones
  • 8. Economic Impacts
    • Recreational sport fishing losses
    • Tourism losses
    • Existence value
    • Replacement costs
    • of birds and animals
  • 9. Ecological Impacts
    • 250,000 Birds
    • 250 Bald Eagles
    • 2,800 Sea Otters
    • 300 Harbor Seals
    • Thousands of fish, herring eggs, and crabs
    • At least 22 Killer Whales
    • Intertidal plants and animals
  • 10. Litigation
    • In 1994, class action jury trial held a federal court in Anchorage, Alaska
    • Plaintiffs: 32,000 fishermen, natives, and landowners affected by the oil
    • Exxon was to pay $5 billion in punitive damages
    • Exxon has repeatedly appealed the damages award
  • 11. Lessons Learned from the Oil Spill
    • Chemical and physical cleanup efforts can result in strong biological reactions with the environment
    • Oil that has seeped into soil can resurface over time
    • Type of environment influences oil degradation rates
    • Oil penetrates deep and weathers slowly on rocky, rubble shores
    • Extensive damage to animals from long-term interactions with their environment
    • Exposure to weathered oil effects fish growth and behavior
  • 12. Improvements in Oil Spill Prevention and Response Planning
    • Monitoring full tankers via satellite
    • Two escort vessels accompanying tankers while they pass through the entire sound
    • Specially trained marine pilots
    • Double-hulled tankers
    • Yearly drills held for spill scenarios
    • New and improved skimming technologies
    • More storage space for spilled oil
    • More containment booms available
    • Oil Pollution Act of 1990
  • 13. The Exxon Valdez