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Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Presentation
 

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Presentation

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    Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Presentation Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and Kodiak Island May 12, 2008 Louise Bassette, Andrea Johnson, Christine Coonradt, John McCabe
    • Background
      • March 24 th , 1989
      • Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef
      • Spilled 11 million gallons of oil into the Prince William Sound, Alaska
    • Probable Causes of the Grounding
      • Improper maneuvering of the vessel
      • Improper navigation (alcohol impairment?)
      • Fatigue
      • Ineffective vessel traffic system, U.S. Coast Guard
      • Ineffective pilot and escort services
    • Behavior of the Oil
    • Control and Cleanup
      • Controlled burns
      • Mechanical
        • Booms
        • Skimmers
        • Permanent storage containers
      • Chemical
        • dispersants
      • Sensitive environments were identified, defined according to degree of cleanup, and then ranked for their priority for cleanup
    • Shoreline Treatment
      • Hoses spraying seawater flushed oil from shorelines
      • Heated seawater
      • Manual cleanup
        • Raking
        • Tilling
        • Oily debris pickup
        • Bioremediation
        • Spot washing
    • Remaining Oil
      • Cleanup efforts were greatly reduced by the Spring of 1991
      • 2001 NOAA study surveyed 96 sites along 8,000 miles of coastline
        • Surface oil not good indicator of subsurface oil
        • Oil saturated subsurface regions
        • Areas with the most subsurface oil were found low in the intertidal zones
    • Economic Impacts
      • Recreational sport fishing losses
      • Tourism losses
      • Existence value
      • Replacement costs
      • of birds and animals
    • Ecological Impacts
      • 250,000 Birds
      • 250 Bald Eagles
      • 2,800 Sea Otters
      • 300 Harbor Seals
      • Thousands of fish, herring eggs, and crabs
      • At least 22 Killer Whales
      • Intertidal plants and animals
    • Litigation
      • In 1994, class action jury trial held a federal court in Anchorage, Alaska
      • Plaintiffs: 32,000 fishermen, natives, and landowners affected by the oil
      • Exxon was to pay $5 billion in punitive damages
      • Exxon has repeatedly appealed the damages award
    • Lessons Learned from the Oil Spill
      • Chemical and physical cleanup efforts can result in strong biological reactions with the environment
      • Oil that has seeped into soil can resurface over time
      • Type of environment influences oil degradation rates
      • Oil penetrates deep and weathers slowly on rocky, rubble shores
      • Extensive damage to animals from long-term interactions with their environment
      • Exposure to weathered oil effects fish growth and behavior
    • Improvements in Oil Spill Prevention and Response Planning
      • Monitoring full tankers via satellite
      • Two escort vessels accompanying tankers while they pass through the entire sound
      • Specially trained marine pilots
      • Double-hulled tankers
      • Yearly drills held for spill scenarios
      • New and improved skimming technologies
      • More storage space for spilled oil
      • More containment booms available
      • Oil Pollution Act of 1990
    • The Exxon Valdez