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Taxonomy Taxonomy Presentation Transcript

  • Classification of Organisms Section 1: Categories of Biological Classification Section 2: How Biologists Classify Organisms
  • Categories of Biological Classification Objectives:
    • Describe Linnaeus's role in developing the modern system of naming organisms.
    • Summarize the scientific system for naming a species.
    • List the seven levels of biological classification.
  • Categories of Biological Classification Taxonomy
    • A Simpler System Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature, the two-word system of naming organisms.
    • Scientific Names Scientific names are written in Latin and give biologists a common way of communicating, regardless of the language they speak. The scientific name of an organism consists of its genus name followed by a second name, which identifies its species.
  • Scientific Names
    • Common Name
    • Human
    • Dog
    • Cat
    • Tiger
    • Jaguar
    • Leopard
    • Crayfish
    • Genus, Species
    • Homo sapiens
    • Canis familiaris
    • Felis catus
    • Felis pardina
    • Panthara tigrus
    • Panthara pardus
    • Cambarus zophonaetes
  • Scientific Names
    • Common Name
    • Human
    • Dog
    • Cat
    • Tiger
    • Jaguar
    • Leopard
    • Crayfish
    • Genus, Species
    • Homo sapiens
    • Canis familiaris
    • Felis catus
    • Felis pardina
    • Panthara tigrus
    • Panthara pardus
    • Cambarus zophonaetes
    • Scientific Name Rules:
    • Genus name capitalized 3. Underlined (or italic)
    • 2 nd name lower case
    • Each group will be given a list of 6 related organisms.
    • Using the internet, determine the scientific name of each organism and write in your paper
    • Find a detailed picture of each organism. Type their common and scientific name after the picture
    • Print off one copy for each group member.
  • Sample Dichotomous Key
    • 1a.Bean round Garbanzo bean
    • 1b.Bean elliptical or oblong Go to 2   
    • 2a.Bean white White northern
    • 2b.Bean has dark pigments Go to 3   
    • 3a.Bean evenly pigmented Go to 4
    • 3b.Bean pigments mottled Pinto bean    
    • 4a.Bean black Black bean
    • 4b.Bean reddish-brown Kidney bean
  • Dichotomous Key Rules of Thumb
    • Start with the most general characteristics and progress to increasingly more specific characteristics.
    • Indent each couplet or leave a space between each couplet to make the key easier to read.
    • Use measurements when possible, avoiding descriptors like large or small if possible.
    • Use characteristics that are found year-round, not seasonal if at all possible (sometimes the point of a key is identifying organisms based on seasonal characteristics, such as flowers). If your key is seasonal, indicate it in the title of the key. 
    • Start the choices in the pair with the same word , if possible.
  • Dichotomous Key Assignment
    • Find high quality pictures of your organisms online (Google-images) and cut and paste them into a word document. Place the organisms scientific name and common name underneath
    • Design a dichotomous key that corresponds to the organisms.
  • Dichotomous Classification Key
    • Has a key which presents the user with two opposite categories about a trait.
    • This leads the user to further pairs of statements.
    • By going from one set of statements to another its classification group is determined.
  • Categories of Biological Classification Classifying Organisms
    • Categories of Classification The modern system of classification includes the following eight groups: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
  • Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification
    • Classification of the Honeybee Each category of classification is based on characteristics that are shared by all the organisms in the category. The European honeybee is classified as: Eukarya, Animalia, Arthropoda, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis , and mellifera .
  • How Biologists Classify Organisms Objectives:
    • List the characteristics that biologists use to classify organisms.
    • Summarize the biological species concept.
    • Relate analagous structures to convergent evolution.
    • Describe how biologists use cladograms to determine evolutionary histories.
  • How Biologists Classify Organisms What is a Species?
    • Species Species were traditionally defined according to their appearance and structure.
    • Biological Species The biological species concept defines species according to their sexual reproductive potential.
  • How Biologists Classify Organisms What is a Species? continued
    • Evaluating the Biological Species Concept The biological species concept cannot be used to classify asexually reproducing species.
    • Number of Species The number of the species in the world is much greater than the number described.
  • How Biologists Classify Organisms History
    • Cladistics Cladistics focuses on sets of unique or derived characteristics found in a particular group of organisms to reconstruct an evolutionary history.