Genetics Vocabulary Self-Pollination- When ______________ from a plant ______________________ an egg from the same plant (this is how pea plants normally reproduce.)
Genetics Vocabulary Cross-pollination- produces _______________ that are the offspring of two different plants . Pollen from one plant is dusted onto the ____________ of another. This allow scientists to manipulate which plants reproduce together.
Genetics Vocabulary True-breeding- if allowed to self- pollination ______________ peas would produce offspring ______________ to themselves. Tall pea plants only reproduce with tall for many generations
Genetics Vocabulary Traits – _______________
Genetics Vocabulary Hybrids – organisms produced by __________________ parents with different _____________________ Example- crossing a tall pea plant with a short pea plant.
Genetics Vocabulary Genes – The factors that ____________________ traits. Today we know these genes are located on specific sections of DNA.
Puggles Labradoodles Jackapoos Chiweenies
Genetics Vocabulary Alleles- Different forms of a _______________________
2 different alleles for a gene in a pea plant
Tall or short
Yellow or green
Genetics Vocabulary Dominant – the alleles that are “________________” than others In Pea Plants Tall is Dominant to short.
Genetics Vocabulary Recessive – the ________________ form of a gene In Pea Plants Only shows up if two are present. Short + short = short.
Genetics Vocabulary Punnett Square – a diagram used to determine the ____________________ of offspring from a particular cross. T = Tall t = short
Genetics Vocabulary Phenotype – the physical characteristics of an organism TALL YELLOW BLUE EYES RED HAIR PINK PETALS
Genetics Vocabulary Genotype – what an organism genetic makeup looks like TT GG Tt gg YY
Genetics Vocabulary Homozygous – has two of the same alleles. TT GG tt gg YY
Genetics Vocabulary Heterozygous – 2 different genes Tt Gg Yy
Gregor Mendel, a monk in the Czech Republic, is considered the "Father of Genetics", based upon experiments he conducted using garden peas. He helped lay down the principles of modern genetics.
Mendel was given a garden of pure bred pea plants.
He studied various traits in pea plants
The First Generation Cross (f 1 ) Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Step one = Define the Parents Genotype and Phenotype X Tall Short Phenotype = Genotype = TT X tt
The First Generation Cross (f 1 ) Step two = Set up the punnett square T T t t Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Phenotype = Genotype = Short X Tall Phenotype Genotype TT X tt
The Second Generation Cross (f 2 ) Mendel Crossed a two heterozygous Tall pea plants Step one = Define the Parents Genotype and Phenotype X Tall Tall Phenotype = Genotype = Tt X Tt
The Second Generation Cross (f 2 ) Step two = Set up the punnett square T t T t Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Phenotype = Genotype = Tall X Tall Phenotype Genotype Tt X Tt
Review Mendel’s Conclusions
The factors that control heredity are individual units known as genes. In organisms that reproduce _________________, genes are inherited from each parent.
In cases in which two or more forms of the gene for a single ___________ exist, some forms of the gene may be dominant and the other may be recessive.
The two form of each gene are segregated during the formation of reproductive cells.
Two genes for different traits may ___________ _____________________ of one another.
Sample Problem #1 A yellow pod plant is crossed with a heterozygous pod plant. What is the genotype and phenotype of the offspring?
Sample Problem #2 A white flower pea plant is crossed with a homozygous recessive flower plant. What are the genotype and phenotypes of the offspring?
Sample Problem #3 A heterozygous tall plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant. What is the genotype and phenotypes of the offspring.
Sample Problem #4 A color point cat is crossed with a heterozygous normal cat. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?
Sample Problem #5 A homozygous tabby cat is crossed with a stripeless cat. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?
Sample Problem #6 A heterozygous short haired cat is crossed with another heterozyogous cat cat. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?
Trait Number of Students Demonstrat- ing Dominant Phenotype Number of Students Demonstrat- ing Recessive Phenotype Percentage Demonstrat- ing Dominant Phenotype Percentage Demonstrat- ing Recessive Phenotype Dominant Recessive Tongue Roller ( R ) Nonroller ( r ) Taster ( T ) Non-Taster ( t ) Free Earlobes ( E ) Attached Earlobes ( e ) Dimples ( D ) No Dimples ( d ) No 2 nd joint finger hair ( F ) 2 nd joint finger Hair ( f )
Two Trait Cross Mendel determined that alleles assort independently from each other, even when multiple traits are studied. Phenotype= 9:3:3:1 Genotype = 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1
The British Royal Family Human traits are difficult to study for several reasons. Unlike some organisms, which produce slowly and only a few offspring at one time. Thus human traits must be studied through population sampling and pedigree analysis. A pedigree is a diagram that shows the phenotype of different generations. Royal family tree