Geneticsstudent2007

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Geneticsstudent2007

  1. 1. Genetics Vocabulary Genetics- The branch of biology that studies biological _______________________.
  2. 2. Genetics Vocabulary Gametes = _______________ cells SPERM EGGS
  3. 3. Genetics Vocabulary Self-Pollination- When ______________ from a plant ______________________ an egg from the same plant (this is how pea plants normally reproduce.)
  4. 4. Genetics Vocabulary Cross-pollination- produces _______________ that are the offspring of two different plants . Pollen from one plant is dusted onto the ____________ of another. This allow scientists to manipulate which plants reproduce together.
  5. 5. Genetics Vocabulary True-breeding- if allowed to self- pollination ______________ peas would produce offspring ______________ to themselves. Tall pea plants only reproduce with tall for many generations
  6. 6. Genetics Vocabulary Traits – _______________
  7. 7. Genetics Vocabulary Hybrids – organisms produced by __________________ parents with different _____________________ Example- crossing a tall pea plant with a short pea plant.
  8. 8. Genetics Vocabulary Genes – The factors that ____________________ traits. Today we know these genes are located on specific sections of DNA.
  9. 9. Puggles Labradoodles Jackapoos Chiweenies
  10. 10. Genetics Vocabulary Alleles- Different forms of a _______________________ <ul><li>2 different alleles for a gene in a pea plant </li></ul><ul><li>Tall or short </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow or green </li></ul>
  11. 11. Genetics Vocabulary Dominant – the alleles that are “________________” than others In Pea Plants Tall is Dominant to short.
  12. 12. Genetics Vocabulary Recessive – the ________________ form of a gene In Pea Plants Only shows up if two are present. Short + short = short.
  13. 13. Genetics Vocabulary Punnett Square – a diagram used to determine the ____________________ of offspring from a particular cross. T = Tall t = short
  14. 14. Genetics Vocabulary Phenotype – the physical characteristics of an organism TALL YELLOW BLUE EYES RED HAIR PINK PETALS
  15. 15. Genetics Vocabulary Genotype – what an organism genetic makeup looks like TT GG Tt gg YY
  16. 16. Genetics Vocabulary Homozygous – has two of the same alleles. TT GG tt gg YY
  17. 17. Genetics Vocabulary Heterozygous – 2 different genes Tt Gg Yy
  18. 18. Gregor Mendel <ul><li>Gregor Mendel, a monk in the Czech Republic, is considered the &quot;Father of Genetics&quot;, based upon experiments he conducted using garden peas. He helped lay down the principles of modern genetics. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mendel’s Experiments <ul><li>Mendel was given a garden of pure bred pea plants. </li></ul><ul><li>He studied various traits in pea plants </li></ul>
  20. 20. The First Generation Cross (f 1 ) Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Step one = Define the Parents Genotype and Phenotype X Tall Short Phenotype = Genotype = TT X tt
  21. 21. The First Generation Cross (f 1 ) Step two = Set up the punnett square T T t t Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Phenotype = Genotype = Short X Tall Phenotype Genotype TT X tt
  22. 22. The Second Generation Cross (f 2 ) Mendel Crossed a two heterozygous Tall pea plants Step one = Define the Parents Genotype and Phenotype X Tall Tall Phenotype = Genotype = Tt X Tt
  23. 23. The Second Generation Cross (f 2 ) Step two = Set up the punnett square T t T t Mendel Crossed a purebred tall with a purebred short plant and got all tall plants! Phenotype = Genotype = Tall X Tall Phenotype Genotype Tt X Tt
  24. 24. Review Mendel’s Conclusions <ul><li>The factors that control heredity are individual units known as genes. In organisms that reproduce _________________, genes are inherited from each parent. </li></ul><ul><li>In cases in which two or more forms of the gene for a single ___________ exist, some forms of the gene may be dominant and the other may be recessive. </li></ul><ul><li>The two form of each gene are segregated during the formation of reproductive cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Two genes for different traits may ___________ _____________________ of one another. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Sample Problem #1 A yellow pod plant is crossed with a heterozygous pod plant. What is the genotype and phenotype of the offspring?
  26. 28. Sample Problem #2 A white flower pea plant is crossed with a homozygous recessive flower plant. What are the genotype and phenotypes of the offspring?
  27. 30. Sample Problem #3 A heterozygous tall plant is crossed with a homozygous tall plant. What is the genotype and phenotypes of the offspring.
  28. 32. Sample Problem #4 A color point cat is crossed with a heterozygous normal cat. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?
  29. 34. Sample Problem #5 A homozygous tabby cat is crossed with a stripeless cat. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?
  30. 36. Sample Problem #6 A heterozygous short haired cat is crossed with another heterozyogous cat cat. What are the expected genotypes and phenotypes of their offspring?
  31. 38. Trait Number of Students Demonstrat- ing Dominant Phenotype Number of Students Demonstrat- ing Recessive Phenotype Percentage Demonstrat- ing Dominant Phenotype Percentage Demonstrat- ing Recessive Phenotype Dominant Recessive Tongue Roller ( R ) Nonroller ( r ) Taster ( T ) Non-Taster ( t ) Free Earlobes ( E ) Attached Earlobes ( e ) Dimples ( D ) No Dimples ( d ) No 2 nd joint finger hair ( F ) 2 nd joint finger Hair ( f )
  32. 39. Two Trait Cross Mendel determined that alleles assort independently from each other, even when multiple traits are studied. Phenotype= 9:3:3:1 Genotype = 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1
  33. 40. The British Royal Family Human traits are difficult to study for several reasons. Unlike some organisms, which produce slowly and only a few offspring at one time. Thus human traits must be studied through population sampling and pedigree analysis. A pedigree is a diagram that shows the phenotype of different generations. Royal family tree
  34. 44. Pedigree for ColorBlindness – a sex linked trait

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