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  • 1. DNA
    • Objectives:
    • What scientists contributed to the discovery of DNA?
    • What is the structure and function of DNA and RNA?
    • How does DNA replicate?
    • What is transcription and translation?
  • 2. History
    • Rosalind Franklin, and her colleague Maurice Wilkins, in 1950 X-Rayed DNA to determine the basic structure.
    • In 1953 Scientists Watson and Crick used evidence from other scientists to determine the structure of DNA.
    X-ray photograph taken by Roseland Franklin
  • 3. Structure of DNA
    • Monomers = nucleotides
    • Each nucleotide contains 3 basic parts:
    Millions of these bases combine to form DNA!
      • a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
      • a phosphate group
      • and one of four nitrogen bases
    base sugar P
  • 4. DNA structure – nitrogen bases
    • The 4 different bases are
    • Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.
    • They pair to form the ladder-like structure that is DNA
    A sugar P T sugar P
      • A pairs with T
    C sugar P G sugar P
      • C pairs with G
  • 5. What Does DNA Stand For? D = Deoxyribose sugar NA = Nucleic Acid Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • 6. DNA structure – nitrogen bases Millions Base pairs long! Twists to double helix shape
  • 7. The double helix looks like a double twisted ladder This is further twisted and packed into chromosomes in the nucleus.
  • 8. Draw your own DNA strand
    • Use the format on the left
    • Strand should be 8 base pairs long
    • Include a key telling what A, G, C, T, S, and P stand for
    • A, G, C, and T can be in any order, but must be paired correctly!
    A s P T s P C s P G s P
  • 9. DNA Replication                                                                                             DNA before replication The 2 strands unzip, exposing the nucleotides The free “floating” nucleotides pair with the exposed nucleotides, forming 2 identical chains.
  • 10. Replicate your own DNA strand
    • Use scissors to cut your DNA in half (normally enzymes do this job)
    • Tape or glue your 2 new strands.
    • Draw in the missing Nucleic Acids to complete your two strands.
    A s P C s P T s P G s P
  • 11.  
  • 12.