Dna

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Dna

  1. 1. DNA <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>What scientists contributed to the discovery of DNA? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the structure and function of DNA and RNA? </li></ul><ul><li>How does DNA replicate? </li></ul><ul><li>What is transcription and translation? </li></ul>jj
  2. 2. History <ul><li>Rosalind Franklin, and her colleague Maurice Wilkins, in 1950 X-Rayed DNA to determine the basic structure. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1953 Scientists Watson and Crick used evidence from other scientists to determine the structure of DNA. </li></ul>X-ray photograph taken by Roseland Franklin
  3. 3. Structure of DNA <ul><li>Monomers = nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Each nucleotide contains 3 basic parts: </li></ul>Millions of these bases combine to form DNA! <ul><ul><li>a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a phosphate group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and one of four nitrogen bases </li></ul></ul>base sugar P
  4. 4. DNA structure – nitrogen bases <ul><li>The 4 different bases are </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine. </li></ul><ul><li>They pair to form the ladder-like structure that is DNA </li></ul>A sugar P T sugar P <ul><ul><li>A pairs with T </li></ul></ul>C sugar P G sugar P <ul><ul><li>C pairs with G </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What Does DNA Stand For? D = Deoxyribose sugar NA = Nucleic Acid Deoxyribonucleic acid
  6. 6. DNA structure – nitrogen bases Millions Base pairs long! Twists to double helix shape
  7. 7. The double helix looks like a double twisted ladder This is further twisted and packed into chromosomes in the nucleus.
  8. 8. Draw your own DNA strand <ul><li>Use the format on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Strand should be 8 base pairs long </li></ul><ul><li>Include a key telling what A, G, C, T, S, and P stand for </li></ul><ul><li>A, G, C, and T can be in any order, but must be paired correctly! </li></ul>A s P T s P C s P G s P
  9. 9. DNA Replication                                                                                             DNA before replication The 2 strands unzip, exposing the nucleotides The free “floating” nucleotides pair with the exposed nucleotides, forming 2 identical chains.
  10. 10. Replicate your own DNA strand <ul><li>Use scissors to cut your DNA in half (normally enzymes do this job) </li></ul><ul><li>Tape or glue your 2 new strands. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw in the missing Nucleic Acids to complete your two strands. </li></ul>A s P C s P T s P G s P

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