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Cells2008 2009
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  • 1. Cells Leech photoreceptor cells
  • 2. Cells
    • Objectives:
    • To describe the cell theory and the discoveries that led up to it.
    • To describe the structure and function of various cell organelles
    • To compare and contrast plant and animal cells.
    • To describe the various forms of transport that occur in cells.
    Leech photoreceptor cells
  • 3.  
  • 4. Hooke
  • 5.
    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
      • Developed the 1 st microscope
      • Observed pond water and made detailed observations
  • 6.
    • Robert Hooke
      • Observed cork cells.
    • Thought cells looked like small rooms in a monastery .
    • Was NOT looking at living cells.
  • 7.
    • Robert Brown
      • Observed a round structure near the center of cells.
    • Now called the nucleus
  • 8.
    • Mattias Schleiden
    • German botanist
    • Stated, “ All Plants are made of cells”
    Theodor Schwann Stated, “ All animals are made of cells ”
  • 9.
    • Rudolf Virchow
      • German Physician
    • Said, “ All cells come from preexisting cells.”
  • 10.
    • The Cell Theory States
    • All living things are composed of cells.
    • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
    • All cells come from preexisting cells.
  • 11. The yolk from bird eggs is one cell.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Prokaryotic verses Eukaryotic cells
    • Simple cells
    • Includes bacteria
    • No nucleus
    • Circular DNA
    • Typical cells
    • Includes all plants, animals, fungi, and protists (1 celled organisms)
    • Have a nucleus
  • 14. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up view of the cell membrane Structure The Cell Membrane Description “ The Gatekeeper” Function Controls what gets in and out of the cell
  • 15. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of cytoplasm Structure Cytoplasm Description “ The Storehouse” Function Holds the organelles/gives the cell shape
  • 16. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of cytoskeleton Structure Cytoskeleton Description Support Function System microtubules that hold organelles
  • 17. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions cytoplasm Structure Cilia Description Hair-like structures Function Movement/feeding
  • 18. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions cytoplasm Structure Flagellum Description Whip-like tail made of microtubules Function “ movement”
  • 19. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of E.R. with ribosomes cytoplasm Structure Ribosomes Description “ protein factories” Function Make proteins/ some attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • 20. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of Mitochondria cytoplasm Structure Mitochondria Description “ powerhouse” Function Change the chemical energy into compounds the cell can use.
  • 21. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nucleus Description “ The Brain” Function Contains heredity information
  • 22. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nucleolus Description RNA Function Makes RNA
  • 23. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus Structure Nuclear Membrane (envelope) Description “ Nuclear Gatekeeper” Function Controls what enters and leaves nucleus through pores
  • 24. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of nucleus squiggles cytoplasm Structure DNA Description Chromatin normally, thicken into chromosomes during reproduction Function Contains the DNA/information the defines an individual
  • 25. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of rough E.R. with ribosomes cytoplasm Structure Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Description “ transports” Function Transports the proteins made by the ribosomes; pinches them off into vacoules
  • 26. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of smooth E.R. cytoplasm Structure Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Description “ stores” Function Makes fats and breaks down toxins
  • 27. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of golgi cytoplasm Structure Golgi Bodies Description Stacks of sacs/shippers Function Modifies and Packages up proteins made at on the ER.
  • 28. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions Close up of lysosome with digested matter. cytoplasm Structure Lysosomes Description “ cleanup crews” Function Digests foreign materials and breaks down worn out organelles.
  • 29. Eukaryotic Structures and Functions vacuole cytoplasm Structure Vacoules Description Membrane bound sacs Function Membrane forms around food or water particles that are brought into the cell.
  • 30. Cell Organization
    • Cell specialization – cells are uniquely suited to perform particular functions within the organism (I.e. react to environment, to move, to make energy…)
  • 31. Cell Organization- levels of organization
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
  • 32. Cell Organization- levels of organization
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    The Cell is the basic unit of structure and function
  • 33.
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Cell Organization- levels of organization Tissues- groups of similar cells with similar functions.
  • 34.
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Cell Organization- levels of organization Example #1 Blood is a connective tissue that is responsible for transport in many organisms. Blood from a toad
  • 35. Cell Organization- levels of organization
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Example #2 Cartilage is a specialized connective tissue. Human Cartilage
  • 36. Cell Organization- levels of organization
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Most animals contain 4 tissue types Muscle Smooth muscle of the small intestine
  • 37. Cell Organization- levels of organization
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Most animals contain 4 tissue types Nervous A neuron from the spinal cord.
  • 38. Cell Organization- levels of organization
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Most animals contain 4 tissue types Epithelial (covers organs and membranes) Epithelial tissue covers the small intestine
  • 39.
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Cell Organization- levels of organization . Organs- a group of tissures that work together to perform a particular function
  • 40.
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Cell Organization- levels of organization . Examples Human Heart
  • 41.
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Cell Organization- levels of organization . Examples lungs
  • 42.
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Cell Organization- levels of organization . A group of organs working together to perform a particular function.
  • 43.
    • Cell
    • Tissues
    • Organs
    • Organ systems
    Cell Organization- levels of organization . Examples These organs make up part of the human digestive system.